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Chapter Introduction Section 1: History and Religion Section 2: Cultures and Lifestyles Visual Summary
Place The region of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia is the birthplace of three world religions— Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Since their beginnings thousands of years ago, these religions have spread throughout the world. They also have had a great impact on the history of the region. How does religion affect the lives of people today?
Section 1: History and Religion The characteristics and movement of people affect physical and human systems. The people of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia built civilizations in fertile river valleys. They made many advances that spread to neighboring areas. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam have greatly influenced culture and politics over the centuries. In recent times, political unrest and conflict have troubled the region.
Section 2: Cultures and Lifestyles Culture groups shape human systems. Throughout North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia, religious beliefs and traditions have influenced the language, arts, and daily lives of people.
The characteristics and movement of people affect physical and human systems.
Content Vocabulary • irrigation • hieroglyphics • city-state • monotheism • polytheism • covenant • theocracy • prophet • cuneiform • caliph • pharaoh • terrorism Academic Vocabulary • legal • rely
This giant rock tells a story. The words and pictures that are carved into the stone describe a great famine on the Egyptian island of Sehel. Stone markers, called stelae, were often used in ancient Egypt to honor the dead or to remember special events. Egypt is one of the world’s earliest civilizations and is known for its achievements in language, arts, and trade. To learn more about Egypt’s history, read Section 1.
Do you believe the United States should have invaded Iraq because leaders believed Iraq was hiding deadly chemical and biological weapons? A. Yes B. No A. A B. B
A tomb of dentists has been discovered in an ancient cemetery in Egypt. Their occupation was recognized through a hieroglyphic of a tusk under an eye. The location of their tomb, near the pyramid of a pharaoh, indicates they attended the royal family. Can you believe that dentists practiced more than 4, 200 years ago?
Early Civilizations The early civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt had a great impact on later civilizations.
Early Civilizations (cont. ) • Two of the world’s oldest civilizations— Mesopotamia and Egypt—arose in Southwest Asia and North Africa about 5, 000 years ago. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt
Early Civilizations (cont. ) • Mesopotamia—present-day Iraq—began in the Fertile Crescent, a strip of land that curves from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. • Beginning about 4000 B. C. , people settled along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers where they farmed, watering their crops by irrigation, or bringing water to the fields.
Early Civilizations (cont. ) • By 3000 B. C. , many cities had developed in southern Mesopotamia in a region known as Sumer. • Each city and the land around it, called a city-state, formed its own government.
Early Civilizations (cont. ) • Mesopotamia’s religion was based on polytheism, or the worship of many gods and goddesses, and initially was a theocracy, a government controlled by religious leaders.
Early Civilizations (cont. ) • The Sumerians created one of the first calendars, were the first to use the wheel and the plow, and developed cuneiform, an early form of writing.
Early Civilizations (cont. ) • About 1790 B. C. , King Hammurabi invaded Mesopotamia. He created the Code of Hammurabi, one of the first written legal codes.
Early Civilizations (cont. ) • Around 5000 B. C. , farm villages began to develop along the Nile River in northeastern Africa. • The ancient Egyptians relied on the Nile’s annual floods to bring water and enrich the soil. • Egypt unified under a single ruler around 3100 B. C.
Early Civilizations (cont. ) • Egypt was a theocracy, and the people worshipped many gods and goddesses. • The rulers, called pharaohs, were believed to be gods as well as rulers. • They owned the land ordered thousands of people to build temples, tombs, and pyramids, or a type of tomb.
Early Civilizations (cont. ) • The Egyptians also developed a system of writing called hieroglyphics, which used pictures for words or sounds.
Early Civilizations (cont. ) • Through trade and conquest, the achievements and ideas of Mesopotamia and Egypt spread to other lands. • The measurement of time developed by the Sumerians, for example, is still used today.
Early Civilizations (cont. ) • One of the greatest trading empires of the ancient world, stretching from the Mediterranean Sea as far as present-day Spain, developed in the land of Phoenicia —today’s Lebanon—around 1000 B. C.
Which social group did farmers belong to in ancient Egyptian? A. Top B. Middle C. Bottom D. None of the above A. B. C. D. A B C D
Three World Religions Three major world religions began in Southwest Asia.
Three World Religions (cont. ) • Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are major world faiths. All three are examples of monotheism, or the belief in one God.
Three World Religions (cont. ) • Judaism is the oldest of the three religions. • First practiced by a small group of people in Southwest Asia called the Israelites, Judaism’s followers today are known as Jews. • Their holy book is the Tanakh, or the Hebrew Bible.
Three World Religions (cont. ) • In the Tanakh, God made a covenant, or agreement, with Abraham, the father of Judaism, about 1800 B. C. , promising to bless Abraham and his descendants if they would move from Mesopotamia to Canaan.
Three World Religions (cont. ) • Jews believe that God revealed the Ten Commandments and other laws to Moses, a prophet, or messenger of God. • About 1000 B. C. the Israelites under King David created a kingdom in the area of present-day Israel, which had Jerusalem as its capital.
Three World Religions (cont. ) • By 922 B. C. , the kingdom had split into two states—Israel and Judah, and the people of Judah were called Jews. • In later years, the Jews were forced to leave their homeland. • This scattering of Jews across the world is called the Diaspora.
Three World Religions (cont. ) • Christianity, another monotheistic religion, arose from Judaism. • About A. D. 30, a Jewish teacher named Jesus began preaching in what is today Israel and the West Bank.
Three World Religions (cont. ) • Jesus was greeted by some as a savior sent by God but by others as a traitor under Roman law, and he was crucified, or executed on a cross. • Soon afterward, Jesus’ followers declared that he had risen from the dead and was the Son of God, and they spread his message throughout the Mediterranean world.
Three World Religions (cont. ) • People who follow Jesus’ teachings are known as Christians, and Christianity is the world’s largest religion, with about 2. 1 billion followers. • The New Testament is part of the Christian Bible, or holy book.
Three World Religions (cont. ) • The third major monotheistic religion to develop in Southwest Asia was Islam. • Islam began in the A. D. 600 s in the Arabian Peninsula with the teachings of Muhammad.
Three World Religions (cont. ) • Muslims, or followers of Islam, believe that Muhammad was the last and greatest prophet of Islam, following Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. • The holy book of Islam is the Quran.
Three World Religions (cont. ) • After Muhammad died in A. D. 632, leaders known as caliphs ruled the Muslim community. • Over several centuries, Islam expanded into areas of Asia, North Africa, and parts of Europe. The Spread of Islam in the Ancient World
Three World Religions (cont. ) • From the A. D. 700 s to the 1400 s, Muslims were the leading merchants in many parts of Asia and Africa, including the cities of Baghdad, Cairo, and Damascus, which became centers of government and learning.
Three World Religions (cont. ) • Important developments from Muslim trading were the creation of coins, which made trade easier, and the creation of banking.
Which religion is responsible for the system used today for writing numbers and the concept of zero? A. Judaism B. Christianity C. Islam A. A B. B C. C
The Region in the Modern World In modern times, ethnic, cultural, and economic differences have led to conflict in the region.
The Region in the Modern World (cont. ) • Between the late A. D. 900 s and the late 1200 s, waves of Mongol invaders swept into the Muslim world from Central Asia, ending the Arab Empire. • The Muslim Ottoman Empire next arose and lasted until the end of World War I. History at a Glance
The Region in the Modern World (cont. ) • By the end of World War I, European powers had gained control of large areas of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia. • The region’s people resented European rule and cultural influences and turned to nationalism, or the belief that every ethnic group has a right to have its own independent nation.
The Region in the Modern World (cont. ) • Through wars and political struggles, most countries in Southwest Asia and North Africa won political freedom by the 1970 s, and several Muslim nations in Central Asia gained their independence after the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991.
The Region in the Modern World (cont. ) • Today, some groups in the region see themselves as stateless nations, or people with strong ethnic loyalties but no country of their own, such as the 25 million Kurds that live in several different lands.
The Region in the Modern World (cont. ) • Since 1948, when the United Nations divided Palestine into separate Jewish and Arab countries, Israel and its Arab neighbors have fought several major wars. • In one conflict, Israel won control of neighboring Arab areas, such as the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, leaving many Palestinian Arabs homeless and demanding their own country.
The Region in the Modern World (cont. ) • Arab-Israeli conflicts have had an impact on the rest of the world. • America’s support for Israel has stirred anger among many people in the region.
The Region in the Modern World (cont. ) • Israel signed peace treaties with Egypt in 1979 and Jordan in 1994. • A 1993 agreement between Israel and Palestinian Arab leaders fell apart by 2000, resulting in continued violence and distrust.
The Region in the Modern World (cont. ) • Political movements based on Islam have arisen in response to regional problems. • Some Muslims believe that American and European involvement in the region has kept their nations poor and weak and that they must return to Islamic culture and values in order to prosper.
The Region in the Modern World (cont. ) • In 1979, an Islamic revolution in Iran overthrew that country’s shah, or king, and made Iran an Islamic republic enforcing the strict laws of a traditional Islamic society. • Then, from 1980 to 1988, Iran clashed with the dictator of Iraq, Saddam Hussein, costing a million lives.
The Region in the Modern World (cont. ) • Since the 1990 s, both Southwest Asia and other areas of the world have seen the dramatic growth of terrorism, or the use of violence against civilians to achieve a political goal.
The Region in the Modern World (cont. ) • A Muslim terrorist group called al-Qaeda was formed by a Saudi Arabian named Osama bin Laden whose goal is to remove American and European influences from the Muslim world. • Al-Qaeda trained its fighters in the country of Afghanistan, where it was helped by a militant Muslim government called the Taliban.
The Region in the Modern World (cont. ) • On September 11, 2001, members of al-Qaeda attacked the United States by seizing four American passenger planes and flying them into the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon outside Washington, D. C. • The fourth plane crashed in a field in Pennsylvania.
The Region in the Modern World (cont. ) • The United States declared a war on terrorism and, along with other countries, sent troops to attack Afghanistan, where they defeated the Taliban and helped set up a democratic Afghan government.
The Region in the Modern World (cont. ) • In 2003, a group of countries led by the United States invaded Iraq, believing that Iraq’s leader, Saddam Hussein, was hiding deadly chemical and biological weapons. • The Iraqi army was quickly defeated, and Saddam Hussein was later captured.
The Region in the Modern World (cont. ) • For the United States and its partners, rebuilding Iraq was more difficult than overthrowing Hussein because many Iraqis continue to battle American forces. • Also, the Sunni and Shia Muslim groups compete for power and fight each other. • These conflicts have made it difficult for Iraq to create a democracy and rebuild its society.
Which country fought a war with Iraq during the 1980 s? A. United States B. Israel C. Iran D. Kuwait A. B. C. D. A B C D
Culture groups shape human systems.
Content Vocabulary • hajj • mosque • saint • calligraphy • dietary law • bazaar • epic Academic Vocabulary • distinctive • revenue
This solid pillar of sandstone was transformed into a tomb by stoneworkers more than 2, 000 years ago. The tomb was part of the ancient city of Madain Salah in northwest Saudi Arabia. This oncebustling city was an important stop on the incense trade route to Syria and Egypt. Today, oil, not incense, drives the Saudi Arabian economy. Read this section to learn more about the culture and lifestyles of the people of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia.
Do you believe museums should return the ancient artifacts they own to the countries where the items were found? A. Yes B. No A. A B. B
Reflecting a growing societal and religious trend, several popular Egyptian television actresses have begun wearing a veil in their shows. With 70 to 80 percent of the country’s women preferring veils, these actresses hope to draw an audience by portraying women who can be both modern and devout.
Population Changes Rapid population growth has created challenges for the region.
Population Changes (cont. ) • Because water is scarce in North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia, people live along seacoasts and rivers, near oases, or in rainy highland areas. • Nomads stay near oases where there is enough vegetation to feed their herds.
Population Changes (cont. ) • The vast deserts covering much of the region remain largely empty of people, except where oil is plentiful.
Population Changes (cont. ) • The region’s population is growing rapidly because improved health care reduces the number of infant deaths and increases the life span of adults.
Population Changes (cont. ) • Rural areas where farming is difficult cannot support the growing population, so many villagers are moving to cities such as Istanbul, Turkey; Cairo, Egypt; Tehran, Iran; and Baghdad, Iraq.
What is a challenge cities face as a result of rapid population growth? A. Lack of jobs B. Poor housing C. Inadequate transportation D. All of the above A. B. C. D. A B C D
Religion, Language, and Arts Religion, especially Islam, remains extremely important throughout the region.
Religion, Language, and Arts (cont. ) • Islam, divided into the Sunni and Shia groups, is the major faith in the region. • Both groups follow the Quran and share many beliefs, but they disagree on how the Muslim faithful should be governed.
Religion, Language, and Arts (cont. ) • Most Muslims in the region and throughout the world are Sunni, but in Iran, Iraq, Azerbaijan, and parts of Lebanon and Syria, most are Shia. • All Muslims must undertake a holy journey to Makkah, or a hajj, once in a lifetime.
Religion, Language, and Arts (cont. ) • Most Jews in the area live in Israel. • Christians are dominant in Armenia and Georgia, with large groups also in Israel, Lebanon, Syria, and Iran.
Religion, Language, and Arts (cont. ) • Islam, Judaism, and Christianity all believe in that one God holds all power and created the universe; that God determines right and wrong; and that people are expected to love God, obey God’s will, and show kindness to others.
Religion, Language, and Arts (cont. ) • Christians celebrate Easter as their major holy day, but they also set aside special days to honor saints, or Christian holy people. • Armenians and Georgians are Orthodox Christian, but in Egypt, Christians belong to the Coptic Orthodox Church.
Religion, Language, and Arts (cont. ) • In Israel, where three-quarters of the population is Jewish, people follow the traditional practice of marking the Sabbath from sundown on Friday to sundown on Saturday. • The holiest of Jewish holy days is Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, when Jews fast, attend services, and ask God’s forgiveness for their sins.
Religion, Language, and Arts (cont. ) • Both Jews and Muslims have dietary laws that state which foods they can and cannot eat and how food should be prepared and handled.
Religion, Language, and Arts (cont. ) • As Islam spread though Africa and Asia, so did the Arabic language. • Non-Arab Muslims learned Arabic in order to read the Quran. • As more people became Muslim, Arabic became the major language in much of the region.
Religion, Language, and Arts (cont. ) • Other major languages include Hebrew in Israel, Turkish in Turkey, and Farsi in Iran. • Armenians, Georgians, and Central Asians have their own languages.
Religion, Language, and Arts (cont. ) • A number of great works of literature have been written in the languages of the region. • Many of these works are exciting epics— tales or poems about heroes and heroines.
Religion, Language, and Arts (cont. ) • For many hundreds of years, the region’s three religions provided inspiration for artists and architects. • Today, the region’s arts also reflect European and American secular, or nonreligious, influences.
Religion, Language, and Arts (cont. ) • Over the centuries, Muslims have developed a distinctive style of architecture that includes large interiors, highly decorated surfaces, and brilliant colors. • Islamic houses of worship, called mosques, can be seen throughout the Muslim world.
Religion, Language, and Arts (cont. ) • Believing the showing of human figures in art might lead to idol worship, Muslim artists feature geometric patterns and floral designs in their works. • They also use calligraphy, or the art of beautiful writing, for decoration.
Religion, Language, and Arts (cont. ) • Other art forms in the region include stone churches with domed roofs and religious music in the Christian countries of Georgia and Armenia and carpet making in Iran, Turkey, Afghanistan, and the Central Asian countries.
How many pillars of Islam do Muslims strive to fulfill? A. Three B. Four C. Five D. Eight A. B. C. D. A B C D
Daily Life Living standards vary widely in the region, as do the effects of European and American culture.
Daily Life (cont. ) • In North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia, some people struggle to earn a living from nomadic herding and smallscale farming, while others live in great luxury. • Some people have adopted modern culture, but others have maintained traditional ways.
Daily Life (cont. ) • More than 50 percent of the region’s people live in urban areas, sometimes in high-rise apartments, but sometimes in very old stone or mud-brick buildings that still lack running water or electricity.
Daily Life (cont. ) • People in the countryside often depend on their own farms or the village market for food. • City dwellers can shop at supermarkets or the bazaar, or the traditional marketplace of stalls.
Daily Life (cont. ) • Countries whose economies are based on manufacturing or oil production have relatively high standards of living, but developing countries have little wealth. • Israel has a strong economy with highly skilled workers and exports of hightechnology products.
Daily Life (cont. ) • Citizens of Saudi Arabia and Qatar have prospered from oil production, and those governments have used oil revenues, or income, to build schools, hospitals, roads, and airports.
Daily Life (cont. ) • Many people in these prosperous nations live in modern cities, work in manufacturing or service jobs, and receive free education and health care from their governments.
Daily Life (cont. ) • In the region’s developing countries, high population growth has greatly strained the economies. • Many North Africans have migrated to Europe to find work not available in their own countries.
Daily Life (cont. ) • In some places, such as Afghanistan and Tajikistan, farming and herding are the leading economic activities, and daily life has changed little over hundreds of years. • Women in the region are expected to dress modestly, and many Muslim women wear a head scarf or veil in public.
Daily Life (cont. ) • Primary education is free; many students now complete both primary and secondary school, and a small percentage attends university.
Daily Life (cont. ) • Women in rural areas have always done farm work alongside their husbands, and most urban women in the past stayed at home to manage households. • Today, however, many women in the cities have jobs in business, education, and government.
Daily Life (cont. ) • Saudi Arabian women may not vote, drive, or travel without a male relative. • They may attend universities but must go to separate classes from men, and they may work, but only in professions such as teaching and medicine in which they can avoid close contact with men.
Daily Life (cont. ) • In Turkey, women can vote and hold public office, and Turkey and Israel have both had women prime ministers.
Which country does not allow women to vote? A. Turkey B. Israel C. Qatar D. Saudi Arabia A. B. C. D. A B C D
Early History • Two of the world’s earliest civilizations developed in Mesopotamia and Egypt. • Three of the world’s major religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam—began in Southwest Asia. • The Arab Empire made contributions in mathematics, astronomy, medicine, and the arts.
Modern Times • By the end of World War I, European powers had gained control of much of the region. • Independent states arose during the 1900 s. • Oil reserves brought wealth to countries such as Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Iran. • Political unrest and conflict have troubled the region since World War II.
People • Because water is scarce, most people live along seacoasts and rivers or in oases or highland areas. • A high birthrate has led to rapid population growth.
Religion and Culture • Islam and the Arabic language are dominant in most of the region. • Muslim arts use decoration and calligraphy instead of showing the human form. • Israel is mainly Jewish, while Armenia and Georgia are largely Christian.
Daily Life • Some governments have used oil money to build schools, hospitals, roads, and airports. • Family life is important, and the status of women is changing.
Al Kharijah is located far from the Nile River, so it is not as large as cities located near water resources.
irrigation process of collecting water and distributing it to crops
city-state independent political unit that includes a city and the surrounding area
polytheism belief in more than one god
theocracy form of government in which the leader claims to rule on behalf of a god
cuneiform of writing from ancient Mesopotamia that consisted of wedge -shaped markings pressed into clay tablets
pharaoh name for powerful ruler in ancient Egypt
hieroglyphics system of writing that uses small pictures to represent sounds or words
monotheism belief in one god
prophet messenger of God
caliph successor to Muhammad
terrorism violence used against the people or government in the hopes of winning political goals
legal based on laws
rely to depend on
hajj pilgrimage to the Muslim holy city of Makkah, the completion of which at least once in a lifetime is one of the Five Pillars of Islam
saint Christian holy person
dietary law rules in certain religions that detail which foods people can and cannot eat and how food should be prepared and handled
epic tales or poems about heroes or heroines
mosque Islamic house of worship
calligraphy art of beautiful writing
bazaar local marketplace in North Africa and Southwest Asia
distinctive clearly different, unique
revenue incoming money
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