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Chapter Eight Motivation and Emotion Chapter Eight Motivation and Emotion

Did You Know That… • The founding father of American psychology believed there is Did You Know That… • The founding father of American psychology believed there is a human instinct for cleanliness? • The adult weight of people who were adopted as babies is closer to the weight of their biological parents than to the weight of the parents who raised them Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 2

Did You Know That… (Cont’d) • Obese people typically have more fat cells than Did You Know That… (Cont’d) • Obese people typically have more fat cells than people of normal weight have? • Only women have a sex organ whose sole known function is to produce sexual pleasure? • The male sex hormone testosterone energizes sexual drives in women as well as men? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3

Did You Know That… (Cont’d) • Practicing smiling can lift your mood? • Money Did You Know That… (Cont’d) • Practicing smiling can lift your mood? • Money doesn’t buy happiness? • There is no emotion center in the brain? • Responding without thinking can be a lifesaver in some situations? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4

Module 8. 1 Motivation: The “Whys” of Behavior Module 8. 1 Motivation: The “Whys” of Behavior

Module 8. 1 Preview Questions • • What is motivation? What is instinct theory? Module 8. 1 Preview Questions • • What is motivation? What is instinct theory? What is drive theory? How does arousal theory account for differences in motivational states? • How does incentive theory differ from drive theory? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 6

Module 8. 1 Preview Questions (Cont’d) • What are psychosocial needs? • What is Module 8. 1 Preview Questions (Cont’d) • What are psychosocial needs? • What is Maslow’s hierarchy of needs? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 7

What Is Motivation? • Factors that activate, direct, and sustain goal-directed behaviors • Motives What Is Motivation? • Factors that activate, direct, and sustain goal-directed behaviors • Motives are needs or wants that drive goal -directed behavior. • “Whys” of behavior • Cannot be observed, must be inferred Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 8

Biological Sources of Motivation: Instinct Theory • All behavior is motivated by instinct. • Biological Sources of Motivation: Instinct Theory • All behavior is motivated by instinct. • Fixed, inborn patterns of response that are specific to members of a particular species • Problems with instinct theory: • List of instincts grew too long to be useful. • Instincts label, but don’t explain. • Human behavior is too variable and flexible. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 9

Biological Sources of Motivation: Drive Theory • We have biological needs that demand satisfaction. Biological Sources of Motivation: Drive Theory • We have biological needs that demand satisfaction. • Need: State of deprivation or deficiency • Drive: State of bodily tension • Drive reduction motivates behavior • Based on homeostasis • Posits an important role for learning Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 10

Biological Sources of Motivation: Drive Theory (Cont’d) • Types of drives: • Primary Drives: Biological Sources of Motivation: Drive Theory (Cont’d) • Types of drives: • Primary Drives: Arise from basic biological needs • Secondary Drives: Learned or acquired through experience Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11

Biological Sources of Motivation: Arousal Theory • Stimulus Motives: Biologically based needs for exploration Biological Sources of Motivation: Arousal Theory • Stimulus Motives: Biologically based needs for exploration and activity • Arousal Theory: Organism seeks way to maintain optimal level of arousal • Optimal level of arousal varies from person to person. • Sensation-seekers have a high need for arousal. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 12

Psychological Sources of Motivation: Incentive Theory • Our attraction to particular goals or objects Psychological Sources of Motivation: Incentive Theory • Our attraction to particular goals or objects motivates much of our behavior. • Incentives: Rewards or other stimuli that motivate us to act • Incentive Value: Strength of “pull” exerted by a goal or reward. • Influenced by many factors Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13

Psychological Sources of Motivation: Psychosocial Needs • We are social creatures motivated to satisfy Psychological Sources of Motivation: Psychosocial Needs • We are social creatures motivated to satisfy psychosocial needs. • Need for achievement • The need to excel at what we do • Driven by extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation, or both • In achievement situations, can be driven by two kinds of motivations • Achievement vs. avoidance Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 14

Figure 8. 1: Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Figure 8. 1: Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 15

Evaluating Maslow’s Model • Has an intuitive appeal • Criticisms • Are needs ordered Evaluating Maslow’s Model • Has an intuitive appeal • Criticisms • Are needs ordered in a fixed manner? • Same behavior may reflect multiple needs • Led to recognition that human behavior is motivated by higher pursuits as well as basic needs Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16

Module 8. 2 Hunger and Eating Module 8. 2 Hunger and Eating

Module 8. 2 Preview Questions • • • How are hunger and appetite regulated? Module 8. 2 Preview Questions • • • How are hunger and appetite regulated? What causes obesity? What is anorexia nervosa? What is bulimia nervosa? What are the causes of eating disorders? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 18

What Makes Us Hungry? • Empty stomach pangs may be cue for hunger, but What Makes Us Hungry? • Empty stomach pangs may be cue for hunger, but not the most important cues. • Brain triggers hunger in response to biochemical changes in the body. • Drop in blood sugar levels leads to fat being released from fat cells. • Hypothalamus detects changes, creating events that leads to feelings of hunger. • Eating restores internally balanced state. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 19

The Brain and Hunger • Role of the Hypothalamus • Lateral hypothalamus: Involved in The Brain and Hunger • Role of the Hypothalamus • Lateral hypothalamus: Involved in initiating eating • Ventromedial hypothalamus: Signals when to stop eating • Role of neurotransmitters and hormones • Neuropeptide Y stimulates appetite and eating. • Other brain chemicals curb appetite and eating. Continue Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 20

Figure 8. 2: Parts of the Hypothalamus Involved in Hunger and Eating Return Copyright Figure 8. 2: Parts of the Hypothalamus Involved in Hunger and Eating Return Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 21

Obesity • A state of excess body fat • Common and increasing in frequency Obesity • A state of excess body fat • Common and increasing in frequency • About 2 of 3 U. S. adults are either overweight or obese. • Prevalence of overweight U. S. children has doubled in past 25 years. • Poses a major health risk Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 22

Causes of Obesity • Behavioral patterns • Consuming too many calories • Insufficient exercise Causes of Obesity • Behavioral patterns • Consuming too many calories • Insufficient exercise • Role of genetics • Basal metabolic rate • Set Point Theory • Number of fat cells in one’s body • Environmental factors • Emotional states Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 23

Suggestions for Maintaining a Healthy Weight • • • Limit fat intake. Control portion Suggestions for Maintaining a Healthy Weight • • • Limit fat intake. Control portion size. Slow down the pace of eating. Beware of hidden calories. Make physical activity a part of your lifestyle. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 24

Table 8. 1: Suggestions for Maintaining a Healthy Weight From Health in the Millenium Table 8. 1: Suggestions for Maintaining a Healthy Weight From Health in the Millenium by J. S. Nevid et al, 1988. Reprinted with permission of W. H. Freeman & Company/Worth Publishers. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 25

Eating Disorders • Anorexia nervosa • Self starvation, dangerously low body weight • Dangerous Eating Disorders • Anorexia nervosa • Self starvation, dangerously low body weight • Dangerous medical condition • Typically young women • Bulimia nervosa • Binge eating followed by purging • Typically maintains normal body weight • Medical complications Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 26

Causes of Eating Disorders • Cultural factors: • Societal preoccupation with thinness • Dieting Causes of Eating Disorders • Cultural factors: • Societal preoccupation with thinness • Dieting as a normative eating pattern • Social pressure to achieve and maintain a slender figure. • Other factors: • Desire for perfection and control • History of childhood sexual or physical abuse • Possible biological factors Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 27

Module 8. 3 Sexual Motivation Module 8. 3 Sexual Motivation

Module 8. 3 Preview Questions • What are the phases of the sexual response Module 8. 3 Preview Questions • What are the phases of the sexual response cycle? • How do researchers conceptualize sexual orientation? • What are the causes of sexual dysfunctions and how are they treated? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 29

Sexuality and Personality • Gender Identity: Sense of maleness or femaleness • Sexual Orientation: Sexuality and Personality • Gender Identity: Sense of maleness or femaleness • Sexual Orientation: Direction of erotic attraction • Gender Roles: Behaviors and roles society deems appropriate for men and women to perform Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 30

National Survey on Human Sexual Expression • 27% men vs. 7. 6% of women National Survey on Human Sexual Expression • 27% men vs. 7. 6% of women report masturbating at least once a week. • Among married couples, 80% of men and 71% of women report performing oral sex on partner. • 80% of men and 74% of women report receiving oral sex. • 26% of men and 20% of women reported engaging in anal intercourse at some point in life. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 31

Figure 8. 3: Frequency of Marital Sexual Relations During the Past Year Copyright © Figure 8. 3: Frequency of Marital Sexual Relations During the Past Year Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 32

Figure 8. 4: The Sexual Response Cycle Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights Figure 8. 4: The Sexual Response Cycle Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 33

Sexual Orientation • The direction of one’s erotic attraction and romantic interests • Conceptualized Sexual Orientation • The direction of one’s erotic attraction and romantic interests • Conceptualized as a continuum • Surveys in US and Europe have found: • 1 -3% of men and 1 -2% of women identify self as exclusively gay. • About 20 -25% of men and about 17% of women have had some same-sex contact. • About 1 -4% of population classified as bisexual • 600, 000 U. S. households headed by same-sex partners Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 34

Origins of Sexual Orientation • People do not choose their sexual orientation. • Freud: Origins of Sexual Orientation • People do not choose their sexual orientation. • Freud: • Heterosexuality develops from “normal” identification with the same-sex parent. • Homosexuality develops from “overidentification” with the opposite-sex parent. • Genetic contributions • Hormonal influence? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 35

Sexual Dysfunctions • Biological causes • Neurological and circulatory conditions • Medications, hormones • Sexual Dysfunctions • Biological causes • Neurological and circulatory conditions • Medications, hormones • Psychosocial causes • Childhood influences • Relationship problems • Performance anxiety Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 36

Sex Therapy • Sensate-focus exercises • Directed masturbation • Stop-start method for premature ejaculation Sex Therapy • Sensate-focus exercises • Directed masturbation • Stop-start method for premature ejaculation • Biological therapies Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 37

Module 8. 4 Emotions Module 8. 4 Emotions

Module 8. 3 Preview Questions • • • What are three components of emotions? Module 8. 3 Preview Questions • • • What are three components of emotions? Are facial expressions of emotion universal? What role do brain structures play in emotions? What are the major theories of emotion? What are three components of love in Sternberg’s model of love? • What is the polygraph? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 39

Basic Components of Emotions • Bodily arousal • Cognition • Expressed behavior Copyright © Basic Components of Emotions • Bodily arousal • Cognition • Expressed behavior Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 40

Figure 8. 5: Cross-Species Similarity in Facial Expression Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All Figure 8. 5: Cross-Species Similarity in Facial Expression Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 41

Six Basic Emotional Expressions • • • Anger Fear Disgust Sadness Happiness Surprise Copyright Six Basic Emotional Expressions • • • Anger Fear Disgust Sadness Happiness Surprise Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 42

Cultural Differences in Emotions • Cultural variation in how emotions are experienced and displayed Cultural Differences in Emotions • Cultural variation in how emotions are experienced and displayed • Display Rules: Cultural customs and norms that regulate the display of emotion • Cultural differences in gestures and bodily movements • Rules for how men and women are to express emotion Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 43

Positive Psychology • To learn about human behavior, one should focus should on: • Positive Psychology • To learn about human behavior, one should focus should on: • Strengths and virtues, not weaknesses • Abilities, not deficits • Focus on promoting human happiness and building human strengths and assets • Not just on repairing negative emotions Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 44

Happiness • Appears to be a matter of one’s general disposition • We seem Happiness • Appears to be a matter of one’s general disposition • We seem to have a particular “set point” of happiness: • Genetics may play an important role in determining this set point. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 45

Martin Seligman (2003) • Three kinds of human happiness: • Pleasure of doing things Martin Seligman (2003) • Three kinds of human happiness: • Pleasure of doing things • Gratification • Meaning • Suggestions for increasing happiness: • • Gratitude visit Three blessings One door closes, another opens Savorings Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 46

Facial-Feedback Hypothesis • Belief that mimicking facial movements will induce an emotion • Limitation: Facial-Feedback Hypothesis • Belief that mimicking facial movements will induce an emotion • Limitation: “Put-on” smile is not equivalent of a real one. • Duchenne Smile: A genuine smile that involves contraction of a particular set of facial muscles Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 47

Where Do Emotions Reside? • Autonomic nervous system • Limbic system • Amygdala: Evaluates Where Do Emotions Reside? • Autonomic nervous system • Limbic system • Amygdala: Evaluates whether stimuli is a threat • Hypothalamus: Triggers release of hormones • Hippocampus: Processes information about context emotional response occurred • Cerebral cortex • Possible hemispheric differences in processing of emotions Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 48

Theories of Emotion: James-Lange Theory • Emotions follow bodily reactions • Example: feel afraid Theories of Emotion: James-Lange Theory • Emotions follow bodily reactions • Example: feel afraid because of trembling, pounding heart, rapid breathing • James: Distinct bodily changes are associated with each emotion. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 49

Theories of Emotion: Cannon-Bard Theory • Subjective experience and bodily reactions occur virtually simultaneously. Theories of Emotion: Cannon-Bard Theory • Subjective experience and bodily reactions occur virtually simultaneously. • Example: experience fear and trembling, pounding heart at the same time Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 50

Theories of Emotion: Two-Factor Model • Emotions depend on: • State of general arousal Theories of Emotion: Two-Factor Model • Emotions depend on: • State of general arousal • Cognitive interpretation (labeling) of the causes of arousal. • Criticisms: • Fails to account for the distinctive physiological features associated with different emotions • Must arousal be labeled to experience an emotion? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 51

Theories of Emotion: Dual-Pathway Model of Fear • Brain uses two pathways to process Theories of Emotion: Dual-Pathway Model of Fear • Brain uses two pathways to process fear messages • Thalamus to cerebral cortex pathway • Careful processing of information • Pathway direct to amygdala • Allows faster response to danger cues Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 52

Figure 8. 8: Le. Doux’s Dual-Pathway Model of Fear Source: Adapted from Le. Doux, Figure 8. 8: Le. Doux’s Dual-Pathway Model of Fear Source: Adapted from Le. Doux, 1996 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 53

Sternberg’s Types of Loving Relationships • • Nonlove: Absence of all three love components Sternberg’s Types of Loving Relationships • • Nonlove: Absence of all three love components Liking: Intimacy only Infatuation: Passion only Empty love: Commitment only Fatuous (foolish) love: Passion + commitment Romantic love: Intimacy + passion Companionate love: Intimacy + commitment Consummate Love: Intimacy + passion + commitment Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 54

Characteristics of Emotional Intelligence • • • Knowing your emotions Managing your emotions Motivating Characteristics of Emotional Intelligence • • • Knowing your emotions Managing your emotions Motivating yourself Recognizing emotions in others Handling relationships Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 55

The Polygraph • Device used to detect whether people are lying • Measures physiological The Polygraph • Device used to detect whether people are lying • Measures physiological arousal thought to correspond to lying • Criticisms: • Lying does not produce any distinctive physiological pattern. • One can lie without any telltale physiological reaction. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 56

Application: Module 8. 5 Managing Anger Application: Module 8. 5 Managing Anger

Module 8. 5 Preview Question • What can you do to control your anger? Module 8. 5 Preview Question • What can you do to control your anger? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 58

Cognitive Theory on Managing Anger • Anger is caused by a person’s reaction to Cognitive Theory on Managing Anger • Anger is caused by a person’s reaction to frustrating or provocative situations. • Angry thoughts • Anger-inducing self-statements • How can control anger? • Identify and correct thoughts and statements Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 59

Suggestions for Anger Management • Become aware of your emotional reactions in anger-provoking situations. Suggestions for Anger Management • Become aware of your emotional reactions in anger-provoking situations. • Review the evidence. • Practice more adaptive thinking. • Engage in competing responses. • Don’t get steamed. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 60

Suggestions for Anger Management (Cont’d) • Oppose anger with empathy. • Congratulate yourself for Suggestions for Anger Management (Cont’d) • Oppose anger with empathy. • Congratulate yourself for responding assertively rather than aggressively. • Scale back your expectations of others. • Modulate verbal responses. • Learn to express positive feelings. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 61