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Chapter 9 Section 1 The Rise of Industry
Industrialization • Industrial Revolution begins in early 1800 s but rapidly expands after Civil War • Gross National Product (GNP) – the total value of all goods and services produced by a country. • The GNP was 8 times greater than it had been when the Civil War ended.
Natural Resources • Natural resources contribute to U. S. ’s industrial success – Water, timber, coal, iron and copper • Having these resources meant the US did not have to buy them from other countries. • Resources located in West • The American oil industry was built on the demand for Kerosene. • Edwin Drake – drilled the first oil well in 1859 near Titusville, PA.
A Large Workforce • Population triples between 1860 -1910, adding to workforce • 20 million people immigrate to U. S. between 1860 and 1900 • Migration into cities
Question 1 • How did the oil production affect the American Economy?
Free Enterprise • Laissez-faire embraced by Americans – A French phrase meaning “let people do as they choose. ” • Profit motivates entrepreneurs – Entrepreneurs – people who risk their capital in organizing and running a business.
Government’s Role in Industrialization • Laissez-faire economics practiced – hands off approach to business • Struggle between Northeastern and Southern states • US raised tariffs against foreign goods – Hurts farmers the most
Question 2 • Do you think government policies at this time helped or hurt industrialization? Why?
New Inventions • 1865: no electric lighting, ice was expensive, mail took weeks to get from east to west • Between 1860 -1890 Patent and Trademark Office issued 500, 000 patents for inventions • 1900: inventions such as sewing machine, typewriter, phonograph
Advances in Communications • Telegraph: perfected by Samuel F. B. Morse; Morse code – short impulses to represent letters of the alphabet • Telephone: 1871 Alexander Graham Bell, by 1900 1. 5 million telephones in use
Electric Power • Thomas A. Edison – “Wizard of Menlo Park” inventor of phonograph, electric lighting, power station • Created new jobs, reduced food spoilage, made refrigeration possible • Allowed for construction of new buildings
Electric Power • Bessemer Process – made it easier and cheaper to remove impurities from iron to make steel • Thaddeus Lowe invented the ice machine – the basis of the refrigerator. • This lead to the development of a refrigerated railroad car in 1877.
Question 3 • How did the use of electric power affect the economic development of the United States?
Textile industry • Automatic Loom – allowed cloth to be made at an even faster rate. • Bobbins – were now changed automatically without stopping the loom. • Standard sizes • Ready – made clothes
Shoe Production • Large factories could mass-produce shoes more cheaply and efficiently than local cobblers. • Made shoes cheaper
Question 4 - Homework • Imagine you are a young person living in this country in the late 1800 s. Choose one of the inventions discussed in the section, and write a journal entry describing its impact on your life. Use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure and punctuation (must be at least 5 sentences)