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Chapter 8 Operating Systems and Utility Programs Chapter 8 Operating Systems and Utility Programs

Chapter 8 Objectives Identify the types of system software Summarize the features of several Chapter 8 Objectives Identify the types of system software Summarize the features of several stand-alone operating systems Summarize the startup process on a personal computer Identify various network operating systems Describe the functions of an operating system Discuss ways that some operating systems help administrators control a network and administer security Explain the purpose of the utilities included with most operating systems Identify devices that use several embedded operating systems Explain the purpose of several stand-alone utility programs Next

System Software What is system software? Programs that maintain operation of computer Two types System Software What is system software? Programs that maintain operation of computer Two types are operating systems and utility programs Operating system (OS) (sometimes called the platform) coordinates all activities among computer hardware resources p. 398 Next

Operating Systems What are the functions of an operating system? start the computer provide Operating Systems What are the functions of an operating system? start the computer provide a user interface manage programs administer security manage memory control a network provide file management and other utilities p. 398 - 399 Fig. 8 -1 monitor performance establish an Internet connection schedule jobs and configure devices Next

Operating Systems What is a cross-platform application? Ø Runs identically on multiple operating systems Operating Systems What is a cross-platform application? Ø Runs identically on multiple operating systems § Operating system that computer uses is sometimes called the platform Application Operating System/ Platform A p. 399 Operating System/ Platform B Operating System/ Platform C Operating System/ Platform D Next

Operating System Functions What is booting? Ø Process of starting or restarting a computer Operating System Functions What is booting? Ø Process of starting or restarting a computer § § p. 400 Fig. 8 -2 Cold boot Turning on computer that has been powered off Warm boot Restarting computer that is powered on Next

Operating System Functions How does a personal computer boot up? Step 1. Power supply Operating System Functions How does a personal computer boot up? Step 1. Power supply Step 4. Results of POST are sends signal to components in system unit compared with data in CMOS chip Step 2. Processor floppy disk drive or CD/DVD drive, and then hard disk accesses BIOS to start computer Step 3. BIOS runs tests, called the POST, to check components such as mouse, keyboard, and adapter cards Step 5. BIOS looks for system files in Step 6. Kernel (core) of operating system loads into RAM Step 7. Operating system loads configuration information and displays desktop on screen Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 8, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click BIOS below Chapter 8 p. 400 - 401 Fig. 8 -3 Next

Operating System Functions What is a recovery disk? Ø Contains system files that will Operating System Functions What is a recovery disk? Ø Contains system files that will start computer when computer cannot boot § Also called boot disk Step 1. Click Start button on taskbar, point to All Programs on Start menu, point to Accessories on All Programs submenu, point to Systems Tools on Accessories submenu, and then point to Backup. p. 402 Step 2. Click Backup on Systems Tools submenu to open the Backup Utility window. (If Backup or Restore Wizard displays, click Advanced Mode link. ) Point to Automated System Recovery Wizard button. Step 3. Click Automated System Recovery Wizard button to create recovery disk. Follow the on-screen instructions and insert a diskette when prompted. Next

Operating System Functions What is a user interface? Ø Controls how you enter data Operating System Functions What is a user interface? Ø Controls how you enter data and instructions and how information displays on screen command-line interface p. 402 Fig. 8 -4 menu-driven interface Next

Operating System Functions What is a graphical user interface (GUI)? Ø User interacts with Operating System Functions What is a graphical user interface (GUI)? Ø User interacts with menus and visual images such as icons and buttons p. 402 Fig. 8 -4 Next

Operating System Functions What is single user/ multitasking? Ø Working on two or more Operating System Functions What is single user/ multitasking? Ø Working on two or more programs that reside in memory at same time § § Foreground contains program you are using Background contains programs that are running but are not in use p. 403 - 404 Fig. 8 -5 Next

Operating System Functions What are other program management features of operating systems? multiprocessing Can Operating System Functions What are other program management features of operating systems? multiprocessing Can support two or more processors running programs at same time p. 405 Continues to operate when one of its components fails Enables two or more users to run programs simultaneously multiuser fault-tolerant computer Has duplicate components such as processors, memory, and disk drives Next

Operating System Functions What is memory management? Ø Ø Optimizing use of random access Operating System Functions What is memory management? Ø Ø Optimizing use of random access memory (RAM) With virtual memory (VM), portion of hard disk is allocated to function as RAM Step 1. The operating system transfers the least recently used data and program instructions to disk because memory is needed for other functions. p. 405 - 406 Fig. 8 -7 Step 2. The operating system transfers data and program instructions from disk to memory when they are needed. Next

Operating System Functions How does an operating system schedule jobs? Adjusts schedule based on Operating System Functions How does an operating system schedule jobs? Adjusts schedule based on job’s priority A job is operation the processor manages p. 406 - 407 Receiving data from input device Sending information to output device Processing instructions Transferring items between storage and memory Next

Operating System Functions What is spooling? Ø Ø Sending print jobs to buffer instead Operating System Functions What is spooling? Ø Ø Sending print jobs to buffer instead of directly to printer Print jobs line up in queue p. 407 Fig. 8 -8 Next

Operating System Functions What is a device driver? Program that tells operating system how Operating System Functions What is a device driver? Program that tells operating system how to communicate with device Also called driver Device Driver With Plug and Play, operating system automatically configures new devices as you install them Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 8, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Plug and Play below Chapter 8 p. 407 Next

Operating System Functions How do you install a device driver? Step 3. Click Add Operating System Functions How do you install a device driver? Step 3. Click Add a Step 1. Open Control Panel window. Point to Printers and Other Hardware link. Step 2. Click Printers and Other Hardware link. Point to Add a printer link. Follow on -screen instructions. Step 4. Add Printer Wizard searches for Plug and Play printers on your computer. If it finds any such printers, it installs them. Step 5. If Add Printer Wizard cannot find any Plug and Play printers, you can select type of printer you want to install. An on-screen prompt may ask you to insert floppy disk, CD-ROM or DVD-ROM that contains necessary driver files to complete the installation of printer. p. 408 Fig. 8 -9 Next

Operating System Functions How do you establish an Internet connection? Ø Windows XP includes Operating System Functions How do you establish an Internet connection? Ø Windows XP includes New Connection Wizard § p. 409 Fig. 8 -10 Guides user through setting up connection between computer and Internet Next

Operating System Functions How does an operating system monitor performance? Ø Provides program, called Operating System Functions How does an operating system monitor performance? Ø Provides program, called performance monitor, that assesses and reports information about system resources and devices p. 409 Fig. 8 -11 Next

Operating System Functions What is a network operating system? Ø Ø Allows users to Operating System Functions What is a network operating system? Ø Ø Allows users to share printer, Internet access, files, and programs on a network Administers security by establishing user name and password for each user p. 410 Fig. 8 -12 Next

Operating System Utility Programs What is a utility program? Ø System software that performs Operating System Utility Programs What is a utility program? Ø System software that performs maintenance-type tasks § p. 411 Fig. 8 -13 Also called utility Next

Operating System Utility Programs What is a file manager? Ø Ø Performs functions such Operating System Utility Programs What is a file manager? Ø Ø Performs functions such as copying, renaming, deleting, and moving files Image viewer displays contents of graphics file when you double click on it p. 412 Figs. 8 -14– 8 -15 Next

Operating System Utility Programs What is a personal firewall? Ø Ø Detects and protects Operating System Utility Programs What is a personal firewall? Ø Ø Detects and protects a personal computer from unauthorized intrusions The latest update to Windows XP automatically enables the builtin personal firewall upon installation Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 8, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Personal Firewalls below Chapter 8 p. 413 Figs. 8 -16 Next

Operating System Utility Programs What is an uninstaller? Removes a program and all associated Operating System Utility Programs What is an uninstaller? Removes a program and all associated files p. 413 In Windows XP, uninstaller is in Add/Remove Programs in Control Panel Next

Operating System Utility Programs What is a disk scanner? Ø Ø Detects and corrects Operating System Utility Programs What is a disk scanner? Ø Ø Detects and corrects problems on hard disk or floppy disk Searches for and removes unnecessary files p. 414 Fig. 8 -17 Next

Operating System Utility Programs What is a disk defragmenter? Ø Reorganizes files and unused Operating System Utility Programs What is a disk defragmenter? Ø Reorganizes files and unused space on hard disk so programs run faster fragmented disk file before defragmenting file after defragmenting p. 414 Fig. 8 -18 Next

Operating System Utility Programs What is a diagnostic utility? Ø Ø Compiles technical information Operating System Utility Programs What is a diagnostic utility? Ø Ø Compiles technical information about hardware and some software Prepares report outlining problems p. 414 Fig. 8 -19 Next

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Operating System Utility Programs What is a backup utility? Ø Copies selected files or Operating System Utility Programs What is a backup utility? Ø Copies selected files or entire hard disk onto another disk or tape Ø Most compress files during backup to require less storage space p. 415 Fig. 8 -20 Next

Operating System Utility Programs What is a screen saver? Ø Causes monitor’s screen to Operating System Utility Programs What is a screen saver? Ø Causes monitor’s screen to display moving image or blank screen if there is no activity for a specified time Ø To secure computer, user configures screen saver to require password to deactivate Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 8, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Screen Savers below Chapter 8 p. 415 Fig. 8 -21 Next

Types of Operating Systems What are some characteristics of operating systems? Devicedependent Runs only Types of Operating Systems What are some characteristics of operating systems? Devicedependent Runs only on specific type of computer Proprietary software Privately owned and limited to specific vendor or computer model Downward compatible Works with application software written for earlier version of operating system p. 415 - 416 Deviceindependent Runs on many manufacturers’ computers Upward compatible Runs on new versions of operating system Next

Types of Operating Systems What are three categories of operating systems? Embedded Network Stand-alone Types of Operating Systems What are three categories of operating systems? Embedded Network Stand-alone p. 416 Next

Stand-Alone Operating Systems What is DOS (Disk Operating System)? Developed in early 1980 s Stand-Alone Operating Systems What is DOS (Disk Operating System)? Developed in early 1980 s for personal computers Hardly used today because it does not offer GUI p. 417 D Used command-line interface when first O developed, later included menus S Next

Stand-Alone Operating Systems How do Windows versions compare? Windows Version Year Released Windows 3. Stand-Alone Operating Systems How do Windows versions compare? Windows Version Year Released Windows 3. x Windows NT 3. 1 1993 Windows 95 1995 Windows NT Workstation 4. 0 1996 Windows 98 1998 Windows Millennium Edition 2000 Windows 2000 Professional 2000 Windows XP 2001 Windows XP SP 2 p. 417 Fig. 8 -23 1990 2004 Next

Stand-Alone Operating Systems What is Windows XP? Ø Microsoft’s fastest, most reliable Windows operating Stand-Alone Operating Systems What is Windows XP? Ø Microsoft’s fastest, most reliable Windows operating system Ø Available in five editions: Home Edition, Professional Edition, Tablet PC Edition, Media Center Edition, and 64 -bit Edition Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 8, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Windows XP below Chapter 8 p. 417 Fig. 8 -24 Next

Stand-Alone Operating Systems What are some features of Windows XP? Windows XP Features Appearance Stand-Alone Operating Systems What are some features of Windows XP? Windows XP Features Appearance and Performance Administration Help and Support Communications and the Web Digital Media p. 418 Next

Stand-Alone Operating Systems What is Mac OS X? Ø Ø Available only for computers Stand-Alone Operating Systems What is Mac OS X? Ø Ø Available only for computers manufactured by Apple Macintosh operating system has been model for most GUIs Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 8, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Mac OS X below Chapter 8 p. 420 Fig. 8 -27 Next

Stand-Alone Operating Systems What is UNIX? Ø Ø Ø Used by power users because Stand-Alone Operating Systems What is UNIX? Ø Ø Ø Used by power users because of its flexibility and power Most versions offer GUI Both a stand-alone and a network operating system Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 8, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click UNIX below Chapter 8 p. 420 Fig. 8 -28 Next

Stand-Alone Operating Systems What is Linux? Ø Ø Ø Popular, free, multitasking UNIX-type operating Stand-Alone Operating Systems What is Linux? Ø Ø Ø Popular, free, multitasking UNIX-type operating system Open-source software — code is available to public Both a stand-alone and a network operating system e Red Hat provides a version of Linux called Red Hat Linux. p. 421 Fig. 8 -29 Next

Network Operating Systems What are examples of network operating systems? Net. Ware Designed for Network Operating Systems What are examples of network operating systems? Net. Ware Designed for client/server networks Windows Server 2003 UNIX / Linux Upgrade to Windows 2000 Server Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 8, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Net. Ware below Chapter 8 p. 423 Multi-purpose operating system Solaris § Version of UNIX developed by Sun Microsystems § Specifically for e-commerce applications Next

Embedded Operating Systems What is an embedded operating system? Ø Ø Found on most Embedded Operating Systems What is an embedded operating system? Ø Ø Found on most mobile computers, PDAs, and other small devices Windows CE is scaled-down version of Windows p. 416 Fig. 8 -30 Next

Embedded Operating Systems What are two operating systems for PDAs? Ø Ø Windows Mobile Embedded Operating Systems What are two operating systems for PDAs? Ø Ø Windows Mobile for Pocket PC Palm OS for Palm, Visor, and CLIE Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 8, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Windows Mobile below Chapter 8 Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 8, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Palm OS below Chapter 8 p. 423 - 424 Figs. 8 -31– 8 -32 Next

Embedded Operating Systems What is Symbian OS? Ø Ø Open-source, multitasking operating system designed Embedded Operating Systems What is Symbian OS? Ø Ø Open-source, multitasking operating system designed for smart phones Make telephone calls, save appointments, browse Web, send and receive e-mail and faxes, and more p. 425 Fig. 8 -34 Next

Stand-Alone Utility Programs What is a virus? Ø Ø Potentially damaging computer program Affects Stand-Alone Utility Programs What is a virus? Ø Ø Potentially damaging computer program Affects computer without user’s knowledge SIGNS OF VIRUS INFECTION p. 425 Fig. 8 -35 Next

Stand-Alone Utility Programs What is an antivirus program? Ø Ø Identifies and removes viruses Stand-Alone Utility Programs What is an antivirus program? Ø Ø Identifies and removes viruses in memory, storage media, and incoming files Must be updated frequently p. 426 Fig. 8 -36 Next

Stand-Alone Utility Programs What is spyware? Ø Ø Ø Program placed on a computer Stand-Alone Utility Programs What is spyware? Ø Ø Ø Program placed on a computer without the user’s knowledge that secretly collects information about the user Often enters a computer as a result of a user installing a new program A spyware remover is a program that detects and deletes spyware Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 8, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Spyware Removers below Chapter 8 p. 426 Next

Stand-Alone Utility Programs What are internet filters? Ø Programs that remove or block certain Stand-Alone Utility Programs What are internet filters? Ø Programs that remove or block certain items from being displayed Anti-Spam Programs Web Filters Pop-up Blockers p. 426 - 427 Next

Stand-Alone Utility Programs What is a file compression utility? Ø Ø Ø Shrinks size Stand-Alone Utility Programs What is a file compression utility? Ø Ø Ø Shrinks size of files to free up room and improve performance Compressed files are sometimes called zipped files Two popular utilities: PKZIP and Win. Zip p. 427 Fig. 8 -37 Next

Stand-Alone Utility Programs What is CD/DVD burning software? Ø Writes text, graphics, audio, and Stand-Alone Utility Programs What is CD/DVD burning software? Ø Writes text, graphics, audio, and video files to a recordable or rewriteable CD or DVD p. 428 Fig. 8 -38 Next

Stand-Alone Utility Programs What is a personal computer maintenance utility? Ø Ø Identifies and Stand-Alone Utility Programs What is a personal computer maintenance utility? Ø Ø Identifies and fixes operating system problems and disk problems Some continuously monitor computer to identify problems before they occur p. 428 Fig. 8 -39 Next

Summary of Operating Systems and Utility Programs Define an operating system Discuss a variety Summary of Operating Systems and Utility Programs Define an operating system Discuss a variety of stand-alone operating systems, network operating systems, and embedded operating systems Discuss the functions common to most operating systems Describe several stand-alone utility programs Introduce several utility programs commonly found in operating systems Chapter 8 Complete