- Количество слайдов: 69
Long term causes of Revolution • • • VA company of London Charter Mayflower Compact H of B Fundamental Orders of Ct. Dominion of New England GB had a long history of ignoring the colonies and letting them “do their thing”…. .
Mercantile Theory • Places restriction on economic activity • The Navigation Laws (1650) Stated: • American goods could only be shipped on British ships (no matter if it was the more expensive shipper) • Goods heading from Europe to America had to stop in England first to pay duties. (makes americans pay more) • Enumerated goods (ones that could only be shipped to GB instead of highest bidder).
Slackness of GB • Made lots of laws, like Navigation Acts, but never enforced them. • Salutary Neglect!!
Trouble Brews…. • In 1763 GB had largest debt in the world. Half was result of wars in America • Needs funds and decides to begin enforcing acts they had ignored for a while which will cause problems…
Tax time! • GB Parliament passed the Sugar Act (1764), . • This was the first tax on Americans for raising revenue. • Americans protested, the tax was lowered, and things calmed. • The Quartering Act (1765) colonists must house and pay for food of troops • Americans hate it
Stamp Act, 1765 • Requires a stamp as proof of paid tax • Must be put on virtually everything made of paper (legal documents, newspapers, playing cards, etc) • The act's stated purpose was to raise money to support a new military force to protect the colonies. • Grenville considered the tax fair—Americans would be paying for their own protection. • Brits were paying twice as much for a similar tax
It is the Principle • Colonists mostly mad a principle of tax rather than tax itself • Leads to debate of power to tax and representation….
Stamp Act Congress • 9 out of 13 colonies met, slowly colonies are uniting • 2 types of colonial protests, informal and formal • Informal: boycott, Sons and Daughters of Liberty • Formal: Non-importation agreements, Declaration of Rights and Grievances • Americans never paid one cent of the Stamp Act because there were no tax collectors
Repeal of Stamp Act and More! • Repealed in 1766 • Declaratory Act (1766): England still in control! • Townshend Acts (1767): taxed paper, lead, paint, and tea. • Indirect taxes vs direct taxes (like Stamp Act) • Colonists still protest
Boston Massacre • 1767, suspension of NY legislature • March 5, 1770: Boston Massacre. • Crispus Attucks
Boston Mass. • The 5 colonists killed at the Boston Massacre would become martyrs for the colonial cause • British soldiers were tried in court and 2 were found guilty of manslaughter. • Colonists write songs & poems for the colonists that died. • The event would be used as propaganda to convince people that the relationship between
Seditious Committee of Correspondence (C of C) • Townshend Acts not produced revenue only problems • King George III not too upset about it • Repeals Townshend Acts, except for tax on tea • This makes colonists made, especially Samuel Adams
C of C…. • Sam creates Committees of Correspondence (letter writing network) • Starts in Boston, spreads to all colonies • Made of colonial leaders
Boston Tea Party • British East India Company in financial trouble, given monopoly to sale tea in colonies by England (actually would have lowered price) • Colonists do not like, feel like it is a trick by the British
Tea Act • Made it illegal for the colonies to buy non-British tea and forced the colonies to pay the tea tax of 3 cents/pound. • The Colonists had to buy tea from the East India Tea Company----gave them a monopoly • Colonists claimed it was “taxation without representation” • Sons of Liberty protested against the Tea Act in Dec. 1773 by dumping 342
Boston Tea Party • December 16, 1773, led by Sam Adams • Mixed reaction from colonies
• To the British, the Boston Tea Party represented a crucial change in the relationship with the Colonies, an act of defiance. • The Colonists refusal to buy tea from the British and dumping it overboard was a “gesture” to the British that the Colonists were saying, “we do not want your tea because we are forced to buy it”. Boston Tea Party
Intolerable Acts • Repressive Acts (aka Intolerable Acts) passed in 1774 made to punish Boston • Boston Port Act- shuts down Boston harbor • Various Acts limit colonists right to rule themselves • British citizens accused of crimes in the colonies tried in England by English courts (applies only to certain crimes)
Quebec Act (1774) • Goal was to benefit French. Canadians living in English colonies • Guaranteed French that Catholicism is OK • French trials without juries (as was their custom) • Allowed to stay in Ohio Valley
First Continental Congress- • Meets in Philadelphia Sept-Oct 1774 • 12 of 13 colonies there (no GA) • Did NOT DESIRE INDEPENDENCE!!!! • Drew up list of grievances • Declaration of Rights
CC continued…specifics… • Results of the Congress’ meeting: • 1) Formulated a set of parameters within which it considered Parliamentary interference in colonial affairs justified • 2) In all other spheres, the colonists stated that they should be left to themselves • 3) Towns set up committees of observation to enforce the boycott • In time, these committees became their towns’ de facto governments • Led acts of insubordination by collecting taxes, disrupting court sessions, organizing militias, & stockpiling weapons
George • King of England. • Instrumental in ending the French and Indian War in 1763. • Strong supporter of taxing the colonies to pay for the debt. • He opposed any compromise with the colonial government in America. “Once vigorous measures appear to be the only means left of bringing the Americans to a due submission to the mother country, the colonies will submit. ”
Lexington and Concord • April 1775, “shot heard round the world” • Lexington, first shot of war • British travel to Concord • Minutemen (colonial militia) • Killed ½ of the red coats
• British were searching for stolen weapons. • A small colonial militia, called minutemen (because they reputedly were ready to fight on a minute’s notice), attacked them. • They stopped at Lexington & encountered 56 minutemen.
• British Captain Pitcarin orders Minutemen off the green. • Response by the Minutemen: “This is our green” • Controversy over who fired the first shot • 8 Americans killed.
After their victory in Lexington, the British proceeded to Concord. • When they got there, a large contingent of minutemen awaited them & inflicted numerous casualties on the Redcoats • The fact that a group of colonial farmers could repel the army of the world’s largest empire was monumental.
• British find some weapons at Concord. • British return to Boston, 5, 000 Minutemen attack British troops. Americans • 90 dead wounded or captured British • 250 dead, wounded, or captured
Strengths of Britain • Population • Powerful Navy • Money, money • Hire Hessian soldiers • Colonial Loyalists
Weaknesses of Britain • International Troubles • (a) problems in Ireland required the attention of British troops • and (b) France was just waiting for a chance to get back at England • Lack of popular support • Officers not very good • the men were mistreated, the war was to be fought an ocean away, and supplies would often run low.
Advantages of Colonies • Leadership • Ex. George Washington as general and Ben Franklin as diplomat • French Aid • • • secretly at first and then openly. Support came in the form of money, guns, supplies, and then troops and a navy. Only had to hold land not conquer Knowledge of area Belief in the “cause” Geography
Weaknesses of Colonies • People are split into 3 groups (Patriots, Moderates, and Loyalists) • Sectional rivalries • Lack of Money • No Navy, Blockage by British • Not picked to win war, extreme underdogs
Struggles of the Colonial Army • • Supplies are scarce Training is not good Desertion common Apathy and Division among the colonists
Second Continental Congress • May 1775, Philadelphia. Still no vote for independence • Resent list of grievances • Raise money for army and navy • Appoint George Washington general of army • GW had never been given rank higher than colonel, but looked part and that boosted morale • GW had what was viewed as impeccable character • Did job for no pay, only an $100, 00 expense account
Bunker Hill • May 1775 Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold lead Green Mountain Boys (Vermont) to victory at Ft. Ticonderoga and Crown Point • June 1775, Bunker Hill in Boston (lost but proved we could fight British way and win which gives big morale boost) • Olive Branch Petition---ask for
• June 17, 1775 • The British suffered over 40% casualties. • 2, 250 men • 1, 054 injured • 226 killed • Americans: Moral victory • 800 men • 140 killed • 271 wounded • King George sends 10, 000 Hessian soldiers to help put down the rebellion.
US leaders George Washington John Adams Horatio Gates Ben Franklin Nathan Hale Thomas Jefferson Marquis de Lafayette Baron von Steuben Count Casimir Pulaski John Paul Jones
GB leaders King George III General Charles Cornwallis General John Burgoyne Benedict Arnold General William Howe
• Second Continental Congress passed the Olive Branch Petition • The decision was to negotiate with King George III and send him a declaration of their willingness to remain British. • BUT, they have grievances (problems) which they want the King and Parliament to address. • AND, they instructed the local militias in each town to begin preparing for war with the MINUTEMEN!
Response of King George • Officially declared colonies in rebellion • Hiring thousands of German soldiers (Hessians) to fight war
Common Sense • Pamphlet by Thomas Paine, urges American Independence • Presents idea of a Republic
• Written by Thomas Paine in Jan. 1776…. . • Came to America in 1774 from England got caught up in the Revolutionary Spirit • Wrote a 50 page pamphlet that would convince many Americans that King George was a tyrant and declaring independence from Great Britain was our only choice.
• Paine not only called for independence, but for a new kind of political society: a democratic republic. • Power should be derived from popular consent. • Colonists’ experience in self-government prepared them for creation of republic. • Also, absence of hereditary aristocracy and equality among land-owning farmers contributed to idea of republic. • Believed civic virtue vital to republican form: if no king, then individuals must sacrifice for public good. • Some wanted “natural (talent) aristocracy” instead to keep power from “lower orders. ”
2 nd Continental Congress • Decides on Independence • Richard Henry Lee makes motion on June 7, 1776, passes on July 2, 1776 • Declaration of Independence, written by Thomas Jefferson
DOI-2 • Would stay together throughout the war and became our first government of the United States. • Wrote Declaration of Independence: Thomas Jefferson, Ben Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman and Robert Livingston • 56 signers sacrificed their lives, fortunes and honor when they signed the DOI • King George charged these men with “treason”.
Social contract §Plantation owner from Virginia §Renaissance man §Owned slaves §Representative to the 2 nd Continental Congress from Virginia §Considered the father of the Declaration of Independence.
John Locke Authority of Government Natural Rights Purpose of Government Limited Government Equality A government’s power comes from the consent of the people. All people are born free and equal with natural rights to life, To preserve liberty and property himself, his liberty and property Government of laws not man Men being by nature Declaration of Independence The people have the right to abolish an oppressive government and establish a new one. All men are endowed with certain unalienable rights among which are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. To secure these rights History of the present King of England is repeated injuries
Social contract §John Locke was an English philosopher during the late 1680 s. §He wrote several books on how people should be governed. §His ideas influenced Thomas Jefferson. §The power of government comes from the people…. We give the government certain powers to force people to do things for the common good of the community……. . If the government does not reflect the will of the people, than the people can change it…….
America United? . . • Patriots also called Whigs • Go America • Loyalists aka Tories • Go GB • about 16% of population • Moderates • Yay! For both • starts off as largest group but reduction due to continued GB abuse • Profiteers • I don’t care, I just want $$$
Loyalist Characteristics • From Conservative Family • Richer and from Aristocratic families • Strong in areas where Anglican church was strong (the south)
Patriot Characteristics • Younger generation • Strong where Anglican Church (church of England) was weak. Mostly Congregational, Presbyterian, Baptist, Methodist • Inland away from coast
Who was who in the Revolution? • Loyalists: Those who remained loyal to the crown. • • • Government officials, devout Anglicans, merchants dependent on trade with England, many religious & ethnic minorities who feared persecution at the hands of the rebels Patriots: Those who wanted to revolt against the British crown • White, Protestant property holders and gentry • Urban artisans Native Americans: Their fears of American expansion led many of them to join the side of the British Slaves: 5, 000 believed that their chances for liberty were better with the British than with the colonists • When the Royal Governor of Virginia offered to free those slaves who escaped and joined the British army • There was an increase in slave insurrections Everyone else: Hoped the whole thing would blow over • Quakers of Pennsylvania were pacifists and wanted to avoid war
Washington as General • GB set up shop in NY • GW very outnumbered, lots of losses in summer of 1776 • Turn around in Dec 26, 1776 (crossing the Delaware) • Victory at Princeton
British plan to beat colonies • Col Barry St Leger—Lake Erie to Mohawk River • Gen. Burgoyne—south from Montreal to Lake Champlain • Gen Howe—North from New York to Albany River • All meet in Albany—doesn’t happen!
Meanwhile back in PA…. . • Howe beats GW at Brandywine Creek and Germantown (1777) • GW’s winter at Valley Forge • Gen. Howe’s winter
Hardships of the War: Valley Forge • Washington sets up camp at Valley Forge, 20 miles to the west of the British. • He and his troops endure a winter of terrible suffering, lacking decent food,
Washington’s greatest challenge at Valley Forge was keeping the Continental Army together. • Most of the men lacked blankets, shoes, and shirts • Soldiers made moccasins out of scraps of cowhide • Many men deserted & some officers resigned • Volunteers - including Washington’s wife, Martha - made clothes for the troops and cared for the sick • In April 1778, Washington told his troops of the
Battle of Saratoga…Critical! • Burgoyne’s troops finally make it to the original rendezvous point (Saratoga) but the other two don’t make it. (whoops!) • Surrenders Oct 17, 1777
British was defeated and it stopped them from cutting off New England from the rest of the country and ending the war. British lacked knowledge of geography and failed at communications. Led to a military alliance with France providing soldiers, naval fleet and $$$$$ (Franco-American alliance, 1778) The Franco-American Alliance, negotiated by Ben Franklin in 1778, brought the French into the war on the side of the colonists.
Why is Saratoga a Turning Point? • 1. Major victory (in military terms) • 2. Gave a huge boast to colonial morale • 3. **Convinced France that America might actually have a chance to win…. France increases aid and comes totally out of the closet**
America and France = a love story • Both eager to act against Britain for their own reasons • Continental Congress sends reps to France with goal of setting up political connection • Wise ole’ Ben Franklin, plays on fear that GB and America might make up….
A Change of Heart? • After Saratoga, Britain offers to give in to all colonial demands except independence • Franco-American Treaty (1778) (3 parts) • Formal joining of colonists in war • Recognize American independence • Pledge military alliance
Changes in Battle Plans • France’s navy (YAY!) • Britain no longer rely on their blockade decide to leave Philly and go to NY • Battle of Monmouth • in New Jersey took place as the redcoats left Philly. • It was scorching-hot (sunstroke was common), an indecisive battle, and moved Gen. Washington's to New York as well.
Battles in the South • The Brits settled into Savannah, GA and Charleston, SC to prepare for the battles • Battles ran through the Carolinas. The redcoats won at Camden over Horatio Gates (the American hero at Saratoga) • Then the Americans won at King's Mountain • and at Cowpens • American Gen. Nathaneal Greene (the "Fighting Quaker") employed a strategy of delay where he stood, fought, retreated, and kept sucking Gen. Charles Cornwallis deeper into enemy territory. Greene eventually exhausted Cornwallis' troops
Yorktown and the End • America starting to struggle, issues with inflation and morale • Cornwallis moves toward Chesapeake Bay • GW and Rochambeau seize their chance • Cornwallis trapped at Yorktown and surrenders (final major battle) 10/19/1781 • Music at the end?
Battle of Yorktown • GW’s strategy included the use of the French navy, French troops and American troops. • French navy under the direction of Admiral de Grasse, placed a blockade around the Chesapeake Bay. • 15, 000 American and French troops surrounded 8, 000 British troops…… • General Cornwallis is trapped and is forced to his surrender his troops to Washington • Brings war to an end
Treaty of Paris, 1783 • Dates of war 1775 -1781 • Terms of Treaty • England recognize American Independence all the way to Mississippi River • America got some fishing rights in Newfoundland • Loyalists to be treated fairly, return land taken from them (never do this) • Spain given back Florida with no clear border (will cause issues later on)