Скачать презентацию Chapter 7 Attitudes By Michael R Solomon Consumer Скачать презентацию Chapter 7 Attitudes By Michael R Solomon Consumer

962593f111f4abdc39583339735b3aa2.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 37

Chapter 7 Attitudes By Michael R. Solomon Consumer Behavior Buying, Having, and Being Sixth Chapter 7 Attitudes By Michael R. Solomon Consumer Behavior Buying, Having, and Being Sixth Edition 7 -1

Opening Vignette: Soccer • How do Jan and Terri differ in their attitudes toward Opening Vignette: Soccer • How do Jan and Terri differ in their attitudes toward soccer? • Jan and Nancy are both soccer fans. How are they different? • Which one of the three is the most likely target for ads promoting soccer? • Is Nancy likely to convert to become a soccer fan? 7 -2

WUSA Soccer 7 -3 WUSA Soccer 7 -3

The Power of Attitudes • Attitude: – A lasting, general evaluation of people (including The Power of Attitudes • Attitude: – A lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects, advertisements, or issues – Anything toward which one has an attitude is called an object (Ao). – Attitudes are lasting because they tend to endure over time. 7 -4

The Functions of Attitudes • Functional Theory of Attitudes: – Attitudes exist because they The Functions of Attitudes • Functional Theory of Attitudes: – Attitudes exist because they serve some function for the person (i. e. , they are determined by a person’s motives) • Katz’s Attitude Functions – Utilitarian function – Value-expressive function – Ego-defensive function – Knowledge function 7 -5

Addressing Smoking Attitudes • This Norwegian ad addresses young people’s smoking attitudes by arousing Addressing Smoking Attitudes • This Norwegian ad addresses young people’s smoking attitudes by arousing strong negative feelings. The ad reads (left panel) “Smokers are more sociable than others. ” (Right panel): “While it lasts. ” 7 -6

The ABC Model of Attitudes • Affect: – The way a consumer feels about The ABC Model of Attitudes • Affect: – The way a consumer feels about an attitude object • Behavior: – Involves the person’s intentions to do something with regard to an attitude object • Cognition: – The beliefs a consumer has about an attitude object • Hierarchy of Effects: – A fixed sequence of steps that occur en route to an attitude 7 -7

Three Hierarchies of Effects Figure 7. 1 7 -8 Three Hierarchies of Effects Figure 7. 1 7 -8

Attitude Hierarchies • The Standard Learning Hierarchy: – Consumer approaches a product decision as Attitude Hierarchies • The Standard Learning Hierarchy: – Consumer approaches a product decision as a problem -solving process • The Low-Involvement Hierarchy: – Consumer does not have strong initial preference – Consumer acts on limited knowledge – Consumer forms an evaluation only after product trial • The Experiential Hierarchy: – Consumers act on the basis of their emotional reactions 7 -9

Experiential Hierarchy • Emotional Contagion: – Emotions expressed by the communicator of a marketing Experiential Hierarchy • Emotional Contagion: – Emotions expressed by the communicator of a marketing message affect the attitude toward the product • Cognitive-Affective Model: – Argues that an affective judgment is the last step in a series of cognitive processes • Independence Hypothesis: – Takes the position that affect and cognition involve two separate, independent systems 7 - 10

Smith and Wollensky • This ad for New York’s famous Smith & Wollensky restaurant Smith and Wollensky • This ad for New York’s famous Smith & Wollensky restaurant emphasizes that marketers and others associated with a product or service are often more involved with it than are their consumers. 7 - 11

Product Attitudes Don’t Tell the Whole Story • Attitude Toward the Advertisement (Aad): – Product Attitudes Don’t Tell the Whole Story • Attitude Toward the Advertisement (Aad): – A predisposition to respond in a favorable or unfavorable manner to a particular advertising stimulus during a particular exposure occasion • Ads Have Feelings Too: – Three emotional dimensions: • Pleasure, arousal, and intimidation – Specific types of feelings that can be generated by an ad • Upbeat feelings: Amused, delighted, playful • Warm feelings: Affectionate, contemplative, hopeful • Negative feelings: Critical, defiant, offended 7 - 12

Discussion Question • Sexually suggestive scenes like the one depicted in this ad for Discussion Question • Sexually suggestive scenes like the one depicted in this ad for Union Bay clothing can generate feelings that affect brand attitudes. • What specific types of feelings or responses can this type of advertisement elicit? How will this scene affect the attitude toward the ad? 7 - 13

Forming Attitudes • Not All Attitudes are Created Equal: – Levels of Commitment to Forming Attitudes • Not All Attitudes are Created Equal: – Levels of Commitment to an Attitude: The degree of commitment is related to the level of involvement with an attitude object • Compliance • Identification • Internalization – The Consistency Principle: • Principle of Cognitive Consistency: Consumers value harmony among their thoughts, feelings or behaviors to be consistent with other experiences 7 - 14

Levels of Attitudinal Commitment • By describing Cadillac as “my company, ” the woman Levels of Attitudinal Commitment • By describing Cadillac as “my company, ” the woman in this ad exhibits a high level of attitudinal commitment to her employer. 7 - 15

Forming Attitudes (cont. ) • Cognitive Dissonance and Harmony among Attitudes: – Theory of Forming Attitudes (cont. ) • Cognitive Dissonance and Harmony among Attitudes: – Theory of Cognitive Dissonance: When a person is confronted with inconsistencies among attitudes or behaviors, he or she will take action to reduce the dissonance by changing an attitude or modifying a behavior. • Self-Perception Theory: – People maintain consistency by inferring that they must maintain a positive attitude toward a product they have bought or consumed • Foot-in-the-door technique: – Sales strategy based on the observation that consumers will comply with a request if they have first agreed to comply with a smaller request 7 - 16

Attitudinal Commitment • This ad for a magazine illustrates that consumers often distort information Attitudinal Commitment • This ad for a magazine illustrates that consumers often distort information so that it fits with what they already believe or think they know. 7 - 17

Social Judgment Theory • Social Judgment Theory: – People assimilate new information about Ao’s Social Judgment Theory • Social Judgment Theory: – People assimilate new information about Ao’s based on what they already know or feel. – Attitudes of Acceptance and Rejection: People differ in the information they find acceptable or unacceptable. • Assimilation effect: Messages that fall within the latitude of acceptance tend to be seen as more consistent with one’s position than they actually are • Contrast effect: Messages falling within the latitude of rejection tend to be seen as being farther from one’s position than they actually are 7 - 18

Balance Theory • Triad: – An attitude structure consisting of three elements • (1) Balance Theory • Triad: – An attitude structure consisting of three elements • (1) A person and his/her perceptions of • (2) an attitude object, and • (3) some other person or object • Unit relation: – An element is seen as belonging to or being part of the other • Sentiment relation: – Two elements are linked because one has expressed a preference for the other • Marketing Applications of Balance Theory – Celebrity endorsements 7 - 19

Alternative Routes to Restoring Balance in a Triad Figure 7. 2 7 - 20 Alternative Routes to Restoring Balance in a Triad Figure 7. 2 7 - 20

Discussion Question • Consumer researchers understand that consumers like to “bask in the reflected Discussion Question • Consumer researchers understand that consumers like to “bask in the reflected glory” of successful college athletic programs by wearing merchandise adorned with logos like the ones on the right. • How do the different attitude theories explain this consumer phenomenon? 7 - 21

Attitude Models • Attitude Models: – Specify the different elements that might work together Attitude Models • Attitude Models: – Specify the different elements that might work together to influence people’s evaluations of Ao’s • Multiattribute Models: – Model that assumes a consumer’s Ao will depend on the beliefs he or she has about several attributes toward the object • Multiattribute Models Specify 3 Elements: – Attributes – Beliefs – Importance Weights 7 - 22

Attitude Models • Choosing products: – We often choose products because of their association Attitude Models • Choosing products: – We often choose products because of their association with a certain lifestyle. • Goal of Lifestyle Marketing: – To allow consumers to pursue their chosen ways to enjoy life and express their social identities. • Adopting Lifestyle Marketing: – Implies that we must look at patterns of behavior to understand consumers 7 - 23

The Fishbein Model • Measures 3 components of attitude: – (1) Salient Beliefs – The Fishbein Model • Measures 3 components of attitude: – (1) Salient Beliefs – (2) Object-attribute linkages – (3) Evaluation • Assumptions of the Fishbein Model: – Ability to specify all relevant choice attributes – Identification, weight, and summing of attributes • Affect referral: – A process by which a consumer’s overall attitude is formed by an overall affective response 7 - 24

The Fishbein Equation • The Basic Formula: – Where: Aijk = Σβijk. Iik • The Fishbein Equation • The Basic Formula: – Where: Aijk = Σβijk. Iik • • • i = attribute j = brand k = consumer I = the importance weight given attribute I by consumer k β = consumer k’s belief regarding the extent to which brand j possesses attribute I • A = a particular consumer’s (k’s) attitude score for brand j 7 - 25

The Basic Multiattribute Model 7 - 26 The Basic Multiattribute Model 7 - 26

Strategic Applications of the Multiattribute Model • Capitalize on Relative Advantage • Strengthen Perceived Strategic Applications of the Multiattribute Model • Capitalize on Relative Advantage • Strengthen Perceived Product/Attribute Linkages • Add a New Attribute • Influence Competitors’ Ratings 7 - 27

Using Attitudes to Predict Behavior • In many cases, knowledge of a person’s attitude Using Attitudes to Predict Behavior • In many cases, knowledge of a person’s attitude is not a very good predictor of behavior • Questionable link between attitude and behavior – Consumers love a commercial, but don’t buy the product • The Extended Fishbein Model – Called the Theory of Reasoned Action – Contains several important additions to the original, which improve its ability to predict behavior 7 - 28

The Theory of Reasoned Action • Intentions Versus Behavior • Social Pressure: – Subjective The Theory of Reasoned Action • Intentions Versus Behavior • Social Pressure: – Subjective Norm (SN) • Normative Belief (NB): Belief that others believe an action should or should not be taken • Motivation to Comply (MC): Degree to which consumers take into account anticipated reactions • Attitude Toward Buying: – Attitude toward the act of buying (Aact): • How someone feels about buying due to the perceived consequences of a purchase 7 - 29

Obstacles to Predicting Behavior in the Theory of Reasoned Action • Model is misapplied Obstacles to Predicting Behavior in the Theory of Reasoned Action • Model is misapplied • Other obstacles: – Model deals with actual behavior, not outcomes – Some outcomes are beyond the consumer’s control – The assumption of behavior as intentional may be invalid in some cases – Attitude measures don’t correspond to the behavior they are supposed to predict – Too large a time frame between attitude measure and behavior measure – Attitude accessibility perspective: • Behavior is a function of the person’s immediate perceptions of the Ao 7 - 30

Cultural Roadblocks to the Theory of Reasoned Action • Roadblocks that diminish the universality Cultural Roadblocks to the Theory of Reasoned Action • Roadblocks that diminish the universality of theory – Model was designed to predict voluntary acts – The relative impact of subject norms varies across cultures – The model assumes that consumers are actively thinking ahead and planning behaviors – A consumer that forms an intention claims that he or she is in control of his or her actions 7 - 31

Trying to Consume • Theory of Trying to Consume – States that the criterion Trying to Consume • Theory of Trying to Consume – States that the criterion of behavior in the reasoned action model should be replaced with trying to reach a goal • Sample issues that might be addressed: – – – – Past frequency Recency Beliefs Evaluations of consequences The process Expectations of success and failure Subjective norms toward trying 7 - 32

Theory of Trying (TT) Figure 7. 3 7 - 33 Theory of Trying (TT) Figure 7. 3 7 - 33

Tracking Attitudes over Time • Attitude-tracking program: – An single-attitude survey is a snapshot Tracking Attitudes over Time • Attitude-tracking program: – An single-attitude survey is a snapshot in time – A program allows researchers to analyze attitude trends during an extended period of time • Ongoing Tracking Studies – Attitude tracking involves administration of a survey at regular intervals (e. g. Gallup Poll, Yankelovich Monitor) – This activity is valuable for making strategic decisions 7 - 34

Gallup Poll 7 - 35 Gallup Poll 7 - 35

Attitude Changes over Time • Changes to Look for over Time: – Changes in Attitude Changes over Time • Changes to Look for over Time: – Changes in different age groups: • Attitudes change with age • Historical effects – Scenarios about the future: • Consumers tracked in terms of future plans, confidence in economy, and so on – Identification of change agents: • Social phenomena can alter people’s attitudes 7 - 36

Changing Attitudes Percentage of 16 - to 24 -year-olds who agree “We must take Changing Attitudes Percentage of 16 - to 24 -year-olds who agree “We must take radical action to cut down on how we use our cars. ” Figure 7. 4 7 - 37