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Chapter 7 Attitudes By Michael R. Solomon Consumer Behavior Buying, Having, and Being Sixth Chapter 7 Attitudes By Michael R. Solomon Consumer Behavior Buying, Having, and Being Sixth Edition 7 -1

The Power of Attitudes • Attitude: – A lasting, general evaluation of people (including The Power of Attitudes • Attitude: – A lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects, advertisements, or issues – Anything toward which one has an attitude is called an object (Ao). – Attitudes are lasting because they tend to endure over time. 7 -2

The Functions of Attitudes • Functional Theory of Attitudes: – Attitudes exist because they The Functions of Attitudes • Functional Theory of Attitudes: – Attitudes exist because they serve some function for the person (i. e. , they are determined by a person’s motives) (expect to deal with situation again = form att) • Katz’s Attitude Functions – – Utilitarian function (Pleasure + /Pain -) Value-expressive function (we form att>prod what it says) Ego-defensive function (1950 Housewives and instant coffee) Knowledge function (need for order, structure, new product) • Marketers emphasize the function a product serves for consumers 7 -3

Addressing Smoking Attitudes • This Norwegian ad addresses young people’s smoking attitudes by arousing Addressing Smoking Attitudes • This Norwegian ad addresses young people’s smoking attitudes by arousing strong negative feelings. The ad reads (left panel) “Smokers are more sociable than others. ” (Right panel): “While it lasts. ” 7 -4

The ABC Model of Attitudes • Three interrelated attitude components – Affect: • The The ABC Model of Attitudes • Three interrelated attitude components – Affect: • The way a consumer feels about an attitude object – Behavior: • Involves the person’s intentions to do something with regard to an attitude object – Cognition: • The beliefs a consumer has about an attitude object • Hierarchy of Effects: – Relative impact/importance of attitude components depends on consumer’s motivation toward attitude object – A fixed sequence of steps that occur en route to an attitude 7 -5

Three Hierarchies of Effects Figure 7. 1 7 -6 Three Hierarchies of Effects Figure 7. 1 7 -6

Attitude Hierarchies • The Standard Learning Hierarchy: – Consumer approaches a product decision as Attitude Hierarchies • The Standard Learning Hierarchy: – Consumer approaches a product decision as a problem-solving process • The Low-Involvement Hierarchy: – – Consumer does not have strong initial preference Consumer acts on limited knowledge Consumer forms an evaluation only after product trial Involvement paradox: the less important products to consumers, the more important the marketing stimuli (package) • The Experiential Hierarchy: – Consumers act on the basis of their emotional reactions (Consumers’ hedonic motivations and moods) 7 -7

Experiential Hierarchy • Emotional Contagion: – Emotions expressed by the communicator of a marketing Experiential Hierarchy • Emotional Contagion: – Emotions expressed by the communicator of a marketing message affect the attitude toward the product • Cognitive-Affective Model: – Argues that an affective judgment is the last step in a series of cognitive processes • Independence Hypothesis: – Takes the position that affect and cognition involve two separate, independent systems 7 -8

Smith and Wollensky • This ad for New York’s famous Smith & Wollensky restaurant Smith and Wollensky • This ad for New York’s famous Smith & Wollensky restaurant emphasizes that marketers and others associated with a product or service are often more involved with it than are their consumers. 7 -9

Discussion • Contrast the hierarchies of effects outlined in this chapter – How should Discussion • Contrast the hierarchies of effects outlined in this chapter – How should marketers’ strategic decisions related to the marketing mix change depending upon which hierarchy is operative among target consumers? • Contextual Marketing 7 - 10

Product Attitudes Don’t Tell the Whole Story • Attitude Toward the Advertisement (Aad): – Product Attitudes Don’t Tell the Whole Story • Attitude Toward the Advertisement (Aad): – A predisposition to respond in a favorable or unfavorable manner to a particular advertising stimulus during a particular exposure occasion – Aad: attitude toward advertiser + evaluations of ad execution + ad evoked mood + ad arousal effects on consumer + viewing context Ads Have Feelings Too: – Three emotional dimensions: • Pleasure, arousal, and intimidation – Specific types of feelings that can be generated by an ad • Upbeat feelings: Amused, delighted, playful • Warm feelings: Affectionate, contemplative/thoughtful, hopeful • Negative feelings: Critical, defiant/challenging, offended 7 - 11

Forming Attitudes • Classical conditioning • Instrumental conditioning • Cognitive learning/modeling 7 - 12 Forming Attitudes • Classical conditioning • Instrumental conditioning • Cognitive learning/modeling 7 - 12

Forming Attitudes • Not All Attitudes are Created Equal: – Levels of Commitment to Forming Attitudes • Not All Attitudes are Created Equal: – Levels of Commitment to an Attitude: The degree of commitment is related to the level of involvement with an attitude object • Compliance (superficial) • Identification (social consequences) • Internalization (part of value system) 7 - 13

Levels of Attitudinal Commitment • By describing Cadillac as “my company, ” the woman Levels of Attitudinal Commitment • By describing Cadillac as “my company, ” the woman in this ad exhibits a high level of attitudinal commitment to her employer. 7 - 14

Forming Attitudes – The Consistency Principle: • Principle of Cognitive Consistency: Consumers value harmony Forming Attitudes – The Consistency Principle: • Principle of Cognitive Consistency: Consumers value harmony among their thoughts, feelings or behaviors to be consistent with other experiences • We will change components to make them consistent 7 - 15

Forming Attitudes (cont. ) • Conflict of attitudes and behavior motivates us to reduce Forming Attitudes (cont. ) • Conflict of attitudes and behavior motivates us to reduce dissonance – We make them fit by eliminating, adding, or changing elements – Explains why evaluations of products increase after purchase • Horse race experiment • Marketers: post-purchase reinforcement 7 - 16

Self-Perception Theory • We use observations of our own behavior to determine what our Self-Perception Theory • We use observations of our own behavior to determine what our attitudes are – We must have a positive attitude toward a product if we freely purchase it, right? – Low-involvement hierarchy – Foot-in-the-door technique – Low-ball technique – Door-in-the-face technique • Foot-in-the-door technique: – Sales strategy based on the observation that consumers will comply with a request if they have first agreed to comply with a smaller request 7 - 17

Social Judgment Theory • Social Judgment Theory: – People assimilate new information about Ao’s Social Judgment Theory • Social Judgment Theory: – People assimilate new information about Ao’s based on what they already know or feel. – Initial attitude = frame of reference – Latitudes of acceptance and rejection : People differ in the information they find acceptable or unacceptable. • Assimilation effect: Messages that fall within the latitude of acceptance tend to be seen as more consistent with one’s position than they actually are • Contrast effect: Messages falling within the latitude of rejection tend to be seen as being farther from one’s position than they actually are – “Choosy mothers choose Jif peanut butter” 7 - 18

Balance Theory • Triad attitude structures – Person – Perception of attitude object – Balance Theory • Triad attitude structures – Person – Perception of attitude object – Perception of other person/object • Perception can be positive or negative • Balanced/harmonious triad elements – Unit relation: • An element is seen as belonging to or being part of the other – Sentiment relation: • Two elements are linked because one has expressed a preference for the other – Marketing Applications of Balance Theory • Celebrity endorsements 7 - 19

Alternative Routes to Restoring Balance in a Triad 7 - 20 Alternative Routes to Restoring Balance in a Triad 7 - 20

Discussion Question • Consumer researchers understand that consumers like to “bask in the reflected Discussion Question • Consumer researchers understand that consumers like to “bask in the reflected glory” of successful college athletic programs by wearing merchandise adorned with logos like the ones on the right. • How do the different attitude theories explain this consumer phenomenon? 7 - 21

Attitude Models • Attitude Models: – Specify the different elements that might work together Attitude Models • Attitude Models: – Specify the different elements that might work together to influence people’s evaluations of Ao’s • Multiattribute Models: – Model that assumes a consumer’s Ao will depend on the beliefs he or she has about several attributes toward the object • Multiattribute Models Specify 3 Elements: – Attributes (Scholarly reputation) – Beliefs (GJU is strong academically) – Importance Weights (Stressing research opportunities over athletics) 7 - 22

The Fishbein Model • Most influential multi-attribute model • Measures 3 components of attitude: The Fishbein Model • Most influential multi-attribute model • Measures 3 components of attitude: – (1) Salient Beliefs – (2) Object-attribute linkages – (3) Evaluation • Assumptions of the Fishbein Model: – Ability to specify all relevant choice attributes – Identification, weight, and summing of attributes • Affect referral: – A process by which a consumer’s overall attitude is formed by an overall affective response 7 - 23

The Fishbein Equation • The Basic Formula: – Where: Aijk = Σβijk. Iik • The Fishbein Equation • The Basic Formula: – Where: Aijk = Σβijk. Iik • • • i = attribute j = brand k = consumer I = the importance weight given attribute I by consumer k β = consumer k’s belief regarding the extent to which brand j possesses attribute I • A = a particular consumer’s (k’s) attitude score for brand j • Overall Attitude Score = (consumer’s rating of each attribute for all brands) x (importance rating for that attribute) 7 - 24

The Basic Multiattribute Model 7 - 25 The Basic Multiattribute Model 7 - 25

Strategic Applications of the Multiattribute Model • Capitalize on Relative Advantage – Stress the Strategic Applications of the Multiattribute Model • Capitalize on Relative Advantage – Stress the importance of an attribute • Strengthen Perceived Product/Attribute Linkages – “New and improved” campaigns • Add a New Attribute – To distinguish oneself from competitors • Influence Competitors’ Ratings – “comparative advertising”, 7 - 26

Using Attitudes to Predict Behavior • In many cases, knowledge of a person’s attitude Using Attitudes to Predict Behavior • In many cases, knowledge of a person’s attitude is not a very good predictor of behavior • Questionable link between attitude and behavior – Consumers love a commercial, but don’t buy the product • The Extended Fishbein Model – Called the Theory of Reasoned Action – Contains several important additions to the original, which improve its ability to predict behavior 7 - 27

The Theory of Reasoned Action • Intentions Versus Behavior • Social Pressure: – Subjective The Theory of Reasoned Action • Intentions Versus Behavior • Social Pressure: – Subjective Norm (SN) • Normative Belief (NB): Belief that others believe an action should or should not be taken • Motivation to Comply (MC): Degree to which consumers take into account anticipated reactions • Attitude Toward Buying: – Attitude toward the act of buying (Aact): • How someone feels about buying due to the perceived consequences of a purchase 7 - 28

Obstacles to Predicting Behavior in the Theory of Reasoned Action • Many researchers do Obstacles to Predicting Behavior in the Theory of Reasoned Action • Many researchers do not use Fishbein Model appropriately • A few of the many obstacles (full list on pages 254 -255): – Actual behavior vs. outcomes of behavior – Outcomes beyond consumer’s control – Voluntary vs. nonvoluntary acts across cultures – Relative impact of SNs vary across cultures 7 - 29

Cultural Roadblocks to the Theory of Reasoned Action • Roadblocks that diminish the universality Cultural Roadblocks to the Theory of Reasoned Action • Roadblocks that diminish the universality of theory – Model was designed to predict voluntary acts – The relative impact of subject norms varies across cultures – The model assumes that consumers are actively thinking ahead and planning behaviors – A consumer that forms an intention claims that he or she is in control of his or her actions 7 - 30

Trying to Consume • Theory of Trying to Consume – States that the criterion Trying to Consume • Theory of Trying to Consume – States that the criterion of behavior in the reasoned action model should be replaced with trying to reach a goal • Sample issues that might be addressed: – – – – Past frequency Recency Beliefs Evaluations of consequences The process Expectations of success and failure Subjective norms toward trying 7 - 31

Theory of Trying (TT) Figure 7. 3 7 - 32 Theory of Trying (TT) Figure 7. 3 7 - 32

Tracking Attitudes over Time • Attitude-tracking program: – An single-attitude survey is a snapshot Tracking Attitudes over Time • Attitude-tracking program: – An single-attitude survey is a snapshot in time – A program allows researchers to analyze attitude trends during an extended period of time • Ongoing Tracking Studies – Attitude tracking involves administration of a survey at regular intervals (e. g. Gallup Poll, Yankelovich Monitor) – This activity is valuable for making strategic decisions 7 - 33

Attitude Changes over Time • Changes to Look for over Time: – Changes in Attitude Changes over Time • Changes to Look for over Time: – Changes in different age groups: • Attitudes change with age • Historical effects – Scenarios about the future: • Consumers tracked in terms of future plans, confidence in economy, and so on – Identification of change agents: • Social phenomena can alter people’s attitudes 7 - 34

Changing Attitudes Percentage of 16 - to 24 -year-olds who agree “We must take Changing Attitudes Percentage of 16 - to 24 -year-olds who agree “We must take radical action to cut down on how we use our cars. ” Figure 7. 4 7 - 35

Homework! • Construct a multi-attribute model for a set of – local restaurants – Homework! • Construct a multi-attribute model for a set of – local restaurants – Universities – Banks • Based on your findings, suggest how managers can improve an establishment’s image via the strategies described in this chapter 7 - 36