- Количество слайдов: 50
Chapter 6 – The Expansion of American Industry Section 1: 2: 3: 4: A Technological Revolution The Growth of Big Business Industrialization and Workers The Great Strikes
Section 1: A Technological Revolution TEKS – 8 A, 22 C, 23 A, 25 D
TEKS ¡ 8 A l ¡ 22 A l ¡ Analyze the impact of technological innovations on the nature of work, the American labor movement, and businesses. 23 A l ¡ Explain the effects of scientific discoveries and technological innovations such as electric power, the telegraph and telephone, petroleum-based products, medical vaccinations, and computers on the development of the United States. 22 C l ¡ Create thematic maps, graphs, charts, models, and databases representing various aspects of the United States. Analyze how scientific discoveries and technological innovations, including those in transportation and communication, have changed the standard of living in the United States. 25 D l Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.
Daily Life in 1865 ¡ Day determined by sun l ¡ At the Mercy of the Weather l ¡ No electricity No A/C or Heaters Communication Slow l No telegraphs or telephones
Technology Booms ¡ Patents l ¡ Licenses that give the inventor the exclusive right to make, use, or sell an invention for a set period of time U. S. Productivity Explodes l Productivity – the amount of goods and services created in a given period of time
Oil ¡ One New Process l Edwin Drake sent to PA to drill for oil ¡ ¡ Cheaper and more efficient if it worked Previously, oil taken from two processes: l l l Melting the fat from a whale Digging large pits and waiting for oil to seep above ground Both time-consuming and expensive
Thomas Edison ¡ Experimented with electricity l Created the first light bulb ¡ l Day no longer determined by the sun Developed the idea of a central power station
The Telegraph and Telephone ¡ Samuel F. B. Morse perfected the telegraph (sending messages over wires) l ¡ Used Morse code Alexander Graham Bell experimented with an electric current to transmit sounds l Central switchboards with operators could link an entire city
Railroads ¡ Transcontinental railroad l l ¡ A railway extending from coast to coast (Atlantic Ocean to Pacific Ocean) To strengthen the countries economic infrastructure May 10, 1869 l At Promontory Summit, Utah, the final golden spike was driven into position
Time Zones ¡ Towns set their clocks according to solar time l ¡ Time differences created confusion Railroad adopted a national system of time zones
Railroads and Industry 1. A faster and more practical means of transporting goods l 2. Lower costs of production l 3. Allowed businesses to sell products nationwide A model for big business l 5. Cheaper way to transport goods Creation of national markets l 4. Less limited by geographic factors Huge numbers of workers to control Stimulation of other industries l Encouraged innovation in other industries
Bessemer Process ¡ Steel had been produced by melting iron, adding carbon, and removing impurities l l The Bessemer process made it much easier to remove the impurities Made mass production of steel possible
The Brooklyn Bridge New York City is bustling ¡ Only way to reach Manhattan from Brooklyn was a ferry ¡ l ¡ Shut down in winter John Roebling designed a suspension bridge with thick steel cables suspended from high towers to hold up the main span
Section 2: The Growth of Big Business TEKS – 12 C, 19 B, 24 G
TEKS ¡ 12 C l ¡ 19 B l ¡ Describe the impact of the Sherman Antitrust Act on businesses. Evaluate the contributions of significant political and social leaders in the United States such as Andrew Carnegie, Shirley Chisholm, and Franklin D. Roosevelt. 24 G l Support a point of view on a social studies issue or event.
“Robber Barons” or “Captains of Industry” ¡ “Robber Barons” – business leaders who built their fortune by stealing from the public l l ¡ Drained the country Drove their competitors to ruin “Captains of Industry” – business leaders who increased the supply of goods by building factories, raising productivity, and expanding markets.
John D. Rockefeller ¡ ¡ “Robber Baron” – methods used to gain control of the oil industry called into question “Captain of Industry” – gave over $500 million to establish or improve charities
Andrew Carnegie ¡ ¡ “Robber Baron” – questioned his labor practice’s and motives behind his good deeds. “Captain of Industry” – gave over $350 million to charities
Social Darwinism ¡ ¡ ¡ Wealthy the most valuable group n society Darwin – all animal life had evolved by a process of “natural selection, ” a process in which only the fittest survive to reproduce Social Darwinism – a society should do as little as possible to interfere with people’s pursuit of success.
Big Business ¡ Characteristics of Big Business: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Larger Pools of Capital ¡ Money to pay for big businesses. Wider Geographic Span ¡ Telephone and railroads aided the geographic expansion of businesses. Broader Range of Operations ¡ Big businesses combined multiple operations. Revised Role of Ownership ¡ Less manager to worker relationships. New Methods of Management ¡ New rules and accounting policies.
Small Companies Fail ¡ ¡ ¡ Small companies pushed out because of the high start up costs Oligopoly – a market structure which is dominated by only a few large, profitable firms. Monopoly – complete control of a product or service. l ¡ A business would buy out its competitors or drive them out of business. Cartel – A loose association of businesses that make the same product. l Agreed to limit the supply of their product and thus keep the prices high.
Carnegie Steel ¡ ¡ Age 30, Carnegie made $50, 000 ($622, 474) Established Carnegie Steel Company in 1889 Vertical consolidation – gaining control of many different businesses that make up all phases of a product’s development. Economies of scale – as production increases, the cost of each item produced is lower
Standard Oil Trust ¡ ¡ Rockefeller got rich off of grain and meat during the Civil War Formed the Standard Oil Company in 1870 Horizontal consolidation – involves the bringing together of many firms in the same business. Trust – a board of trustees that managed the companies as a single unit
Standard Oil in 1899
Government Responds American Telephone and Telegraph, Swift and Armour, General Electric, Westinghouse, and Du. Pont ¡ Sherman Antitrust Act ¡ l l Passed in 1890 in an attempt to limit the amount of control a business could have over an industry. Outlawed any combination of companies that restrained interstate trade or commerce
Section 3: Industrialization and Workers TEKS – 2 C, 8 B, 10 B, 22 C, 23 A, 24 H
TEKS ¡ 2 C l ¡ 8 B l ¡ 10 B l ¡ 22 C l ¡ 23 A l ¡ 24 H l Analyze social issues such as the treatment of minorities, child labor, growth of cities, and problems of immigrants. Pose and answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns shown on maps, graphs, charts, models, and databases. Analyze the effects of changing demographic patterns resulting from immigration to the United States. Analyze the impact of technological innovations on the nature of work, the American labor movement, and businesses. Analyze how scientific discoveries and technological innovations, including those in transportation and communication, have changed the standard of living in the United States. Use appropriate mathematical skills to interpret social studies information such as maps and graphs.
Growing Work Force 14 million people immigrated to the U. S. between 1860 and 1900 ¡ 1860 ¡ l Laborers worked 12 hour days, 6 day weeks, and production goals
Pay and Work ¡ ¡ Piecework – workers received a fixed amount of money for each piece they produced Performed in sweatshops l A shop where employees worked long hours at low wages and under poor working conditions
Increasing Worker Productivity ¡ ¡ Division of labor – way of producing in which different tasks are performed by different persons “I regard my people as I regard my machinery. So long as they can do my work for what I choose to pay them, I keep them, getting out of them all I can. ”
Work Day 1. 2. Worked by the clock Very strict l 3. 4. Fined or fired for talking, being late, or refusing to do a task Workplaces not safe Children would work in factories l Left school at the age of 12 or 13 to work
Section 4: The Great Strikes TEKS – 2 C, 22 C
TEKS ¡ 2 C l ¡ Analyze social issues such as the treatment of minorities, child labor, growth of cities, and problems of immigrants. 22 C l Analyze the impact of technological innovations on the nature of work, the American labor movement, and businesses.
Big Business ¡ ¡ 9% of Americans held 75% of the national wealth Socialism l l An economic and political philosophy that favors public instead of private control of the means of production People should cooperate, not compete, in producing goods
Knights of Labor ¡ ¡ ¡ Formed in Philadelphia in 1869 To organize all working men and women, skilled and unskilled, into a single union Pursued l l l ¡ Equal pay Eight-hour workday End to child labor By 1890 s, the K of L had largely disappeared
American Federation of Labor ¡ ¡ ¡ Formed in 1886 under the leadership of Samuel Gompers A craft union l Sought to organize only skilled workers in a network of smaller unions, each devoted to a specific craft Collective bargaining l A process in which workers negotiate as a group with employers
Stopping Unions ¡ Employers Measures to Stop Unions: 1. 2. 3. Forbidding union meetings Firing union organizers Signing of “yellow dog” contracts ¡ 4. 5. Workers promised never to join unions or participate in strikes Refusing to bargain collectively Refusing to recognize unions
Great Railroad Strike of 1877 Wage cut for Baltimore and Ohio railroads ¡ Workers went on strike and tried to prevent others from running the trains ¡ President Hayes sent in federal troops ¡ Mobs destroyed property worth $5 million ($62 million today) ¡
Great Railroad Strike of 1877
Eugene V. Debs ¡ Promoted industrial unions l Organized workers from all crafts in a given industry
Haymarket Riot, 1886 ¡ Arguing for eight-hour workdays l Fights between strikers and scabs ¡ ¡ ¡ Worker called in by an employer to replace striking laborers Group of anarchists (radical who oppose all government) joined strikers in Chicago’s Haymarket Square Bomb went off
Homestead Strike, 1892 ¡ ¡ Union at Carnegie plant in Homestead, PA Called in Pinkertons l A private police force known for their ability to break strikes l Shooting broke out
Pullman Strike, 1894 Pullman (railroad businessman) cut wages by 25% ¡ Union turned to Eugene V. Debs and the American Railway Union ¡ 260, 000 railway workers joined the strike ¡ l ¡ Disrupted delivery of the mail Federal troops sent in
End of Chapter 6 – The Expansion of American Industry Prepare for a QUIZ!