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Chapter 5 Skillfully Communicating Accurate Empathy CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 1 Chapter 5 Skillfully Communicating Accurate Empathy CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 1

NOTICE TO STUDENTS • The material contained herein is for your personal use only NOTICE TO STUDENTS • The material contained herein is for your personal use only and is not to be disseminated to anyone not enrolled in this class. – This Power. Point is not for public posting on any professional or nonprofessional websites. – Copyright laws apply to this material. – Use of this material is strictly limited to this class only. – In short, this material is for your eyes only. The Security & Loss Prevention Profession - Chapter 3 2

Objectives • Understand the skill and types of empathy • Understand the basic model Objectives • Understand the skill and types of empathy • Understand the basic model of empathy • Understand intensity of words describing emotions and how to diagnose conservatively • Demonstrate the use of skill of empathy at minimal level of competency CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 3

INTRODUCTIO N • Empathy refers to a person’s ability to understand the emotions of INTRODUCTIO N • Empathy refers to a person’s ability to understand the emotions of others and share in their feelings. – Researchers in many fields have shown that empathy – or its absence – matters greatly in many aspects of social life. – For example, empathetic people are more likely to have strong ties to family members and others with whom they regularly work or interact. – And individuals capable of empathy have higher selfesteem and enjoy life more fully. – The flip side is also true: people who have trouble empathizing with others tend to suffer from poorer mental health and have less fulfilling social relationships. CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 4

Learning Domains • Cognitive domain – Includes knowledge, awareness, understanding, and insight of the Learning Domains • Cognitive domain – Includes knowledge, awareness, understanding, and insight of the concepts, theories, principles, practices, and techniques of interviewing • Affective domain – Includes awareness of feelings and emotions, emotional sensitivity, and emotional intelligence • Psychomotor domain – Focuses on the skills, competencies, decision making, and abilities of interviewing that can be demonstrated and assessed. CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 5

Empathy p. 147 • The first and most important skill in the interviewing training Empathy p. 147 • The first and most important skill in the interviewing training model is empathy. – The skillful use of empathy is an interview involves translating our understanding of the interviewee’s experiences, behaviors, and feelings into a response that verifies that we understand the interviewee’s point of view. – Basch (1983) identifies empathy as “coming to know” i. e. , experiencing the other person’s experience while at the same time maintaining our own integrity. ” CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 6

Empathy p. 148 • In criminal justice interviews, we strive to be empathic with Empathy p. 148 • In criminal justice interviews, we strive to be empathic with what the interviewee is trying to communicate to us, not with the person nor their conduct. CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 7

Empathy p. 148 • The empathizer must understand 1. another person’s situation and emotions Empathy p. 148 • The empathizer must understand 1. another person’s situation and emotions 2. the other persons is experiencing one or more emotions 3. The empathizer perceives a similarity between what the other persons is experiencing and something the empathizer has experienced previously 4. the empathizer takes actions associated with concern, such as giving time, paying attention, doing something for the other person, or being concerned for the other person. CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 8

Empathy p. 148 • Empathy is a measurable capacity – Having a high degree Empathy p. 148 • Empathy is a measurable capacity – Having a high degree of empathy would indicate an ability or skill to accurately understand feel what others are saying, feeling, and doing. – Have a low degree of empathy may indicate personal difficulty or skill deficits in understanding and communicating with others on an emotional level. – Empathy is the ability to put oneself in the place of another. – Empathy leads to knowledge CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 9

Empathy p. 149 – By understanding the other person’s thoughts and feelings, we can Empathy p. 149 – By understanding the other person’s thoughts and feelings, we can better predict what they are going to do or what we should do. – Without empathy we would be left with prediction from fantasy, pure logic, wishful thinking, or the interviewer’s point of view. – Anti-empathetic: when an interviewer deliberately disregards the existence of the interviewee. CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 10

Empathy p. 148 – Unempathetic: when the interviewer is negligent in understanding the interviewee Empathy p. 148 – Unempathetic: when the interviewer is negligent in understanding the interviewee because of cultural, ethnic, economic, or social background reasons. • This oversight wasn’t malicious or intentional but the outcome was still lack of understanding. – Empathic interviewing: means acting in relation to the interviewee. – Autistic interviewing: means acting, behaving, or predicting as if the other person does not exist. CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 11

Empathy p. 149 • Empathy is consistent with mental health or wellness and autism Empathy p. 149 • Empathy is consistent with mental health or wellness and autism is consistent with insanity or mental disturbance CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 12

Benefits of Empathy p. 149 • Advantages of Empathy – It can help establish Benefits of Empathy p. 149 • Advantages of Empathy – It can help establish rapport with interviewees. – Checking understanding is also aided by the use of empathy. • The interviewer may think they understand the interviewee but with empathy they may find they were wrong. – Empathy helps lubricate the communication process. CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 13

Benefits of Empathy p. 149 – Empathy keeps the interviewer from asking too many Benefits of Empathy p. 149 – Empathy keeps the interviewer from asking too many questions and giving premature and inept advice. • It tends to keep the focus on the interviewee – Empathy paves the way for stronger actions that may have to be taken by the interviewer later in the interview. – Empathy is the primary and most important interviewing skill. CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 14

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Intellectual versus Therapeutic Empathy p. 150 • Therapeutic Empathy – Involves feeling the client’s Intellectual versus Therapeutic Empathy p. 150 • Therapeutic Empathy – Involves feeling the client’s emotions. • This type of empathy would not be used in most interviews in criminal justice. Appropriate use is in community and institutional correctional counseling or treatment programs. • Intellectual Empathy – The understanding of the interviewee’s concerns without the depth of involvement in another person’s frame of reference that is required in therapeutic relationships. CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 16

Empathy versus Sympathy p. 150 • Sympathy – This has do with pity and Empathy versus Sympathy p. 150 • Sympathy – This has do with pity and agreement with the misery of a person’s condition. • Empathy – Empathy is a balanced curiosity leading to a deeper understanding of another human being; stated another way, empathy is the capacity to understand another person's experience from within that person's frame of reference. • Even more simply stated, empathy is the ability to "put oneself in another's shoes. " CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 17

Empathy versus Sympathy p. 150 • In interviewing – Empathy plays an important part Empathy versus Sympathy p. 150 • In interviewing – Empathy plays an important part in criminal justice, because, in most cases, the interviewer would need to maintain objectivity and refrain from talking sides with the interviewee. – The interviewer’s task is to gain information in an objective manner that eliminates bias and contamination of the data. CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 18

Empathy, Experience, and Talent p. 151 – Empathy is a translation of the German Empathy, Experience, and Talent p. 151 – Empathy is a translation of the German term Einfühlung, meaning to feel as one with. It implies sharing the load, or “walking a mile in someone else’s shoes, ” in order to appropriately understand that person’s perspective. • Natural or Learned – Very rare to be natural, but the need to learn it is very high. CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 19

Cautions on the Use of Empathy p. 151 • Several Points of Caution – Cautions on the Use of Empathy p. 151 • Several Points of Caution – Empathy will not be effective with all people in all situations. • Panacea – The use of empathy in all interview situations is questionable. – Sociopaths and psychopaths are so manipulative, emotionally callused, and irresponsible that empathy has little effect on them. CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 20

Cautions on the Use of Empathy p. 152 • Parroting – Empathy is not Cautions on the Use of Empathy p. 152 • Parroting – Empathy is not simply restating what the interviewee has said. – Empathy means responding to expressed and unexpressed feelings. • Green Apples Phenomenon – Responding to your first feeling presented in an interview which leads the interviewer responding to a shallow feeling not attached to much energy. Schurz (1973) notes that this lead to bullshit-which is talk that is unconnected to feelings. CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 21

Cautions on the Use of Empathy p. 152 • Response Burst – This happens Cautions on the Use of Empathy p. 152 • Response Burst – This happens when a question is asked and would appear that the interviewer has “made” the interviewee angry. • This usually occurs when the interviewer has minimized their empathic response. • In short, the interviewer has failed to respond to the full intensity of the interviewee’s emotions. CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 22

p. 153 Cautions on the Use of Empathy • Emotional Repression – Using empathy p. 153 Cautions on the Use of Empathy • Emotional Repression – Using empathy in an institutional setting where people are incarcerated could be very risky because it could lead to explosive behavior and violence. Hence it is discouraged. • This is known as emotional feedback. • Normal Communication – This is based on the assumption that the interviewees are functioning in a normal range of personal adjustment. – DO NOT use this approach with seriously disturbed individuals. CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 23

p. 153 Communicating Empathy Communicating accurate empathy involves 1)directing, 2) identifying the mode, 3) p. 153 Communicating Empathy Communicating accurate empathy involves 1)directing, 2) identifying the mode, 3) labeling the thought or emotion, and 4) reflecting the emotion or thought. 1. Directing Establishing to whom the response is being made involves directing. When we respond the other person, we start with “you” as opposed to “they, ” “it, ” or “someone. ” CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 24

Communicating Empathy p. 153 2. Identifying the Mode: Two Modes of Empathy; Cognitive and Communicating Empathy p. 153 2. Identifying the Mode: Two Modes of Empathy; Cognitive and Affective – Cognitive: refers to the person’s ability to perceive how the other is thinking. – Affective: refers to the person’s ability to perceive how the other is feeling. – Either of these choices can affect the flow and outcome of the interview. CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 25

p. 153 Communicating Empathy • Cognitive/Affective Relationship – Information gained from each of these p. 153 Communicating Empathy • Cognitive/Affective Relationship – Information gained from each of these is a fact. – For example: the lady’s husband returned home at 03: 00 hrs. with a loaded. 38 S&W revolver. He fired three shots at her, she left the house, and so on. (cognitive information) – The lady was frightened, desperate, and panicky. She could, at any time, do something very irrational. (affective) • Note: both sets of facts are important but the latter set is probably more important for prediction. CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 26

Communicating Empathy p. 154 – According to Fenlason (1962)“Emotional needs take priority over reasoning. Communicating Empathy p. 154 – According to Fenlason (1962)“Emotional needs take priority over reasoning. ” – Neglect of the basic truism that emotion transcends reason results, at the most, in errors of prediction in criminal justice interviews. • It is therefore imperative for the interviewer to create a balance between the cognitive and affective areas of communication. • Focusing only on the cognitive area will often lead to miscommunication between the interviewer and the interviewee. CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 27

Communicating Empathy p. 154 § This basic concept leads to several practical directives for Communicating Empathy p. 154 § This basic concept leads to several practical directives for interviewers: 1. Factual, cognitive data obtained in an overriding emotional interview is suspect of being garbled and unreliable. 2. Prediction is most reliable if both cognitive and affective facts are available. If both are not available, affective facts are the next most reliable. 3. Pretending affective facts (emotions) are not relevant will not improve the low reliability of the information. 4. The interviewer’s emotions (affective facts) will lead to a poorly conducted interview if their emotions override their reasoning ability. CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 28

Communicating Empathy p. 155 3. Labeling the Emotion – Discriminating the accurate emotion the Communicating Empathy p. 155 3. Labeling the Emotion – Discriminating the accurate emotion the interviewee is expressing from other possible emotions is the next step in communicating accurate empathy. 4. Reflecting the Emotion – Finally, the identified emotion is reflected back to the interviewee to complete the communication. CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 29

p. 155 The Basic Model of Empathy • Direct Empathy – It is better p. 155 The Basic Model of Empathy • Direct Empathy – It is better to learn the basic form first, even if it seems mechanical and then to modify it to fit your personal style of responding. – This is the most direct form of empathy. – Interviewee: My wife is really getting on my case to get out of police work. She thinks I don’t make enough money… – Interviewer: You feel trapped and desperate. • Here the interviewer chooses to emphasize the interviewee’s feeling because they believe the feeling of “trapped and desperate” are very important right now. CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 30

p. 155 The Basic Model of Empathy • Indirect Forms – Other designs of p. 155 The Basic Model of Empathy • Indirect Forms – Other designs of the basic model that are not as direct and are consequently less effective are: You feel ______? Notice that in this form the empathy comes as a question. However, this tends to indicate that the interviewer missed the communication the interviewee made and really is not engaged in the communication process. CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 31

The Basic Model of Empathy p. 156 • Indirect Forms You just feel ______. The Basic Model of Empathy p. 156 • Indirect Forms You just feel ______. – Another bad mistake. You have just discounted the interviewee’s feelings and make it seem as though their feelings are unimportant. You feel like ______. – This is a bad statement on your part. The person knows how they feel and for you to suggest otherwise is a turn-off for the interviewee. CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 32

p. 156 The Basic Model of Empathy • Superficial Forms – Avoid the following p. 156 The Basic Model of Empathy • Superficial Forms – Avoid the following at all cost! – “I understand” and “I know just how you feel” • Saying either one of these only goes to underscore your naiveté. • If you can actually show otherwise, you may establish rapport with the interviewee but don’t hold your breath. CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 33

p. 156 Rating Responses • Stay-With (no intensity of emotion is lost) – If p. 156 Rating Responses • Stay-With (no intensity of emotion is lost) – If the interviewer gave back to the interviewee a response at an energy level at least at the level that was given to them so that statements are interchangeable. • Turn-Off (intensity and/or accuracy is lost) – If the interviewer makes a response that takes away from what the interviewee said, then it is a turn-off because some of the intensity or accurracy is lost. CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 34

p. 157 Rating Responses • Turn-On (interviewer provides more to the interviewee than was p. 157 Rating Responses • Turn-On (interviewer provides more to the interviewee than was stated on the surface of the conversation) – The response may be a turn-on because of additional clarification or deeper levels of understanding. – May include areas that the interviewee is not openly talking about, but about which they are providing hints and clues to the interviewer. Thereby, allowing the interviewee to elaborate. CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 35

Modes of Interchangeable Responses p. 159 Mode 1: Responding verbally to cognitive data Cognitive Modes of Interchangeable Responses p. 159 Mode 1: Responding verbally to cognitive data Cognitive Summary Mode 2: Responding nonverbally to cognitive data Head Shake Mode 3: Initiating verbally cognitive data Information Mode 4: Initiating nonverbally cognitive data Baseball Signs Mode 5: Responding verbally to affective data Affective Summary Mode 6: Responding nonverbally to affective data Scowl Back Mode 7: Initiating verbally affective data Information, Selfdisclosure Mode 8: Initiating nonverbally affective data Finger CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 36

Modes of Interchangeable Responses p. 160 • Mode 1: – Responding verbally to cognitive Modes of Interchangeable Responses p. 160 • Mode 1: – Responding verbally to cognitive data. – This includes summarizing back to the interviewee facts and information. • Mode 2: – Responding nonverbally to cognitive data. – Includes shaking your head to indicate “yes” or “no” CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 37

Modes of Interchangeable Responses p. 160 • Mode 3: – Initiating verbally cognitive data. Modes of Interchangeable Responses p. 160 • Mode 3: – Initiating verbally cognitive data. • Mode 4: – Initiating nonverbally cognitive data. – Not used in CJ • Mode 5: – Responding verbally to affective data. – This mode is the central element of empathy and a summary of feelings. CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 38

Modes of Interchangeable Responses p. 160 • Mode 6: – Responding nonverbally to affective Modes of Interchangeable Responses p. 160 • Mode 6: – Responding nonverbally to affective data. • It is very important and facilitative for the interviewer to use nonverbal gestures with their hands, for example, to encourage communication from the interviewee. • When the interviewer “telegraphs” their approval or displeasure through nonverbal responses. This leads to manipulation by the interviewee of the interviewer. The interviewee figures out what the interviewer wants and feeds it to him. CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 39

Modes of Interchangeable Responses p. 160 • Mode 7: – Initiating verbally affective data. Modes of Interchangeable Responses p. 160 • Mode 7: – Initiating verbally affective data. • If the interviewer discloses their feelings to the interviewee, the communication is classified in this mode. • Mode 8: – Initiating nonverbally affective data. • Any physical gesture by the interviewer that represents emotional expression is included in this mode. Sticking out tongue, the finger etc. CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 40

 • https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Qgg. BQm AJf. LQ Texas Rangers Video • • https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Qgg. BQm AJf. LQ Texas Rangers Video • https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=v. Yf. Fg. EP Xmh. A Provides a Summary of Skills • https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=CLy. Tb. L W 9 Lm. A The Peace Model of Interviewing CJFS 5865 Chapter 5 41