Скачать презентацию Chapter 5 Product and Service Design Product Скачать презентацию Chapter 5 Product and Service Design Product

f1479819c05161db20907933b42f9e4e.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 58

Chapter 5 Product and Service Design Chapter 5 Product and Service Design

Product Design Specifies materials n Determines dimensions & tolerances n Defines appearance n Sets Product Design Specifies materials n Determines dimensions & tolerances n Defines appearance n Sets performance standards n

Service Design Specifies what the customer is to experience –physical items –sensual benefits –psychological Service Design Specifies what the customer is to experience –physical items –sensual benefits –psychological benefits

An Effective Design Process Matches product/service characteristics with customer needs n Meets customer requirements An Effective Design Process Matches product/service characteristics with customer needs n Meets customer requirements in simplest, most cost-effective manner n Reduces time to market n Minimizes revisions n

Breaking Down Barriers Breaking Down Barriers

Stages In The Design Process n Idea Generation –Product Concept n Feasibility Study –Performance Stages In The Design Process n Idea Generation –Product Concept n Feasibility Study –Performance Specifications n Preliminary Design –Prototype n Final Design –Final Design Specifications n Process Planning –Manufacturing Specifications

The Design Process Idea generation Feasibility study Product Yes Preliminary feasible? design No Final The Design Process Idea generation Feasibility study Product Yes Preliminary feasible? design No Final design Prototype Process planning Design & Manufacturing Specifications Manufacturing

Idea Generation n Suppliers, distributors, salespersons n Trade journals and other published material Warranty Idea Generation n Suppliers, distributors, salespersons n Trade journals and other published material Warranty claims, customer complaints, failures Customer surveys, focus groups, interviews Field testing, trial users Research and development n n

More Idea Generators n Perceptual Maps –visual comparison of customer perceptions n Benchmarking –comparing More Idea Generators n Perceptual Maps –visual comparison of customer perceptions n Benchmarking –comparing product/service against best-in-class n Reverse engineering –dismantling competitor’s product to improve your own product

Perceptual Map Of Breakfast Cereals Good taste • Cocoa Puffs High nutrition Low nutrition Perceptual Map Of Breakfast Cereals Good taste • Cocoa Puffs High nutrition Low nutrition • Rice Krispies • Cheerios • Wheaties Bad taste • Shredded Wheat

Feasibility Study n Market Analysis n Economic Analysis n Technical / Strategic Analysis Feasibility Study n Market Analysis n Economic Analysis n Technical / Strategic Analysis

Preliminary Design Create form & functional design n Build prototype n Test prototype n Preliminary Design Create form & functional design n Build prototype n Test prototype n Revise prototype n Retest n

Form Design (How The Product Looks) Form Design (How The Product Looks)

Functional Design (How The Product Performs) n Reliability –probability product performs intended function for Functional Design (How The Product Performs) n Reliability –probability product performs intended function for specified length of time n Maintainability –ease and/or cost or maintaining/repairing product

Computing Reliability Components in series 0. 90 x 0. 90 = 0. 81 Components Computing Reliability Components in series 0. 90 x 0. 90 = 0. 81 Components in parallel. 90 . 95 1 - (1 -0. 90)(1 -0. 95) = 0. 995

Final Design & Process Planning Produce detailed drawings & specifications n Create workable instructions Final Design & Process Planning Produce detailed drawings & specifications n Create workable instructions for manufacture n Select tooling & equipment n Prepare job descriptions n Determine operation & assembly order n Program automated machines n

Distribution Of Design Changes Number of Design Changes Company 2 Company 1 90% of Distribution Of Design Changes Number of Design Changes Company 2 Company 1 90% of Total changes complete 21 12 3 Months Production begins 3

Improving The Design Process 1. Design teams 2. Concurrent design 3. Design for manufacture Improving The Design Process 1. Design teams 2. Concurrent design 3. Design for manufacture & assembly 4. Design for environment 5. Measure design quality 6. Utilize quality function deployment 7. Design for robustness

Design Teams Marketing, manufacturing, engineering n Suppliers, dealers, customers n Lawyers, accountants, insurance companies Design Teams Marketing, manufacturing, engineering n Suppliers, dealers, customers n Lawyers, accountants, insurance companies n

Concurrent Design Customers Marketing Suppliers Design Engineering Production Concurrent Design Customers Marketing Suppliers Design Engineering Production

Concurrent Design n n n Also, simultaneous or concurrent engineering Simultaneous decision making by Concurrent Design n n n Also, simultaneous or concurrent engineering Simultaneous decision making by design teams Integrates product design & process planning Details of design more decentralized Encourages price-minus not cost-plus pricing Needs careful scheduling - tasks done in parallel

General Performance Specifications n Instructions to supplier: – “Design a set of brakes that General Performance Specifications n Instructions to supplier: – “Design a set of brakes that can stop a 2200 pound car from 60 miles per hour in 200 feet ten times in succession without fading. The brakes should fit into a space 6” x 8” x 10” at the end of each axle and be delivered to the assembly plant for $40 a set. ” n Supplier submits design specifications and prepares a prototype for testing.

Role Of Design Engineer No longer totally responsible for product design n Responsible for Role Of Design Engineer No longer totally responsible for product design n Responsible for more than what was traditionally considered “design” n Merging of design engineer and manufacturing engineer n

Design For Manufacture n n n Design a product for easy & economical production Design For Manufacture n n n Design a product for easy & economical production Consider manufacturability early in the design phase Identify easy-to-manufacture product-design characteristics Use easy to fabricate & assemble components Integrate product design with process planning

DFM Guidelines 1. Minimize the number of parts 2. Develop a modular design 3. DFM Guidelines 1. Minimize the number of parts 2. Develop a modular design 3. Design parts for multi-use 4. Avoid separate fasteners 5. Eliminate adjustments 6. Design for top-down assembly

7. Design for minimum handling 8. Avoid tools 9. Minimize subassemblies 10. Use standard 7. Design for minimum handling 8. Avoid tools 9. Minimize subassemblies 10. Use standard parts when possible 11. Simplify operations 12. Design for efficient and adequate testing 13. Use repeatable & understood processes 14. Analyze failures 15. Rigorously assess value

Design Simplification (a) The original design (b) Revised design (c) Final design Assembly using Design Simplification (a) The original design (b) Revised design (c) Final design Assembly using common fasteners One-piece base & elimination of fasteners Design for push-and-snap assembly

More Design Improvements n Standardization –uses commonly available parts –reduces costs & inventory n More Design Improvements n Standardization –uses commonly available parts –reduces costs & inventory n Modular design –combines standardized building blocks/modules into unique products

Design For Assembly (DFA) n Procedure for reducing number of parts n Evaluate methods Design For Assembly (DFA) n Procedure for reducing number of parts n Evaluate methods for assembly n Determine assembly sequence

Analyzing Failures n Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) –a systematic approach for analyzing Analyzing Failures n Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) –a systematic approach for analyzing causes & effects of failures –prioritizes failures –attempts to eliminate causes n Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) –study interrelationship between failures

Failure Mode & Effects Analysis Failure Mode & Effects Analysis

Fault Tree For Potato Chips And Or Fault Tree For Potato Chips And Or

Value Analysis (Engineering) Ratio of value / cost n Assessment of value : n Value Analysis (Engineering) Ratio of value / cost n Assessment of value : n – 1. Can we do without it? – 2. Does it do more than is required? – 3. Does it cost more than it is worth? – 4. Can something else do a better job – 5. Can it be made by less costly method, tools, material? – 6. Can it be made cheaper, better or faster by someone else?

Design For Environment Design from recycled material n Use materials which can be recycled Design For Environment Design from recycled material n Use materials which can be recycled n Design for ease of repair n Minimize packaging n Minimize material & energy used during manufacture, consumption & disposal n

Measures Of Design Quality 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Number Measures Of Design Quality 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Number of component parts and product options Percentage of standard parts Use of existing manufacturing resources Cost of first production run First six months cost of engineering changes First year cost of field service repair Total product cost Total product sales Sustainable development

Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Translates the “voice of the customer” into technical design requirements Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Translates the “voice of the customer” into technical design requirements n Displays requirements in matrix diagrams n First matrix called “house of quality” n Series of connected houses n

House Of Quality 5. Tradeoff matrix Importance 3. Product characteristics 1. Customer requirements 4. House Of Quality 5. Tradeoff matrix Importance 3. Product characteristics 1. Customer requirements 4. Relationship matrix 6. Technical assessment and target values 2. Competitive assessment

House Of Quality For Steam Iron House Of Quality For Steam Iron

Series Of QFD Houses Series Of QFD Houses

Classical Models of QFD Matrix What How House of Quality Subsystem Design Matrix Piece/Part Classical Models of QFD Matrix What How House of Quality Subsystem Design Matrix Piece/Part Design Matrix Process Design Matrix Voice of Customer Tech. Performance Measures Piece/Part Characteristics Process Parameters Production Operations

Management & Planning Tools for QFD Affinity Diagram (Idea grouping) n Tree Diagram (Hierarchical Management & Planning Tools for QFD Affinity Diagram (Idea grouping) n Tree Diagram (Hierarchical structure) n Matrix Diagram ( =9, = 3, =1) n Priotization Matrix (Weighted) n

Customer Needs n Importance to the Customer n – Absolute Importance – Relative Importance Customer Needs n Importance to the Customer n – Absolute Importance – Relative Importance – Ordinal Importance (ranking)

The Planning Matrix Current satisfaction performance n Competitive satisfaction performance n Goal n Improvement The Planning Matrix Current satisfaction performance n Competitive satisfaction performance n Goal n Improvement ratio = Goal / Current S. P. n Sales point (1= no change, 1. 2 = medium, 1. 5 = strong) n Raw weight = Importance x Imp. Ratio x S. P. n Normalized raw weight = R. W. / R. W. n

Substitute Quality Characteristics (Technical Response) Performance Measurements n Product Functions n Substitute Quality Characteristics (Technical Response) Performance Measurements n Product Functions n

Impacts, Relationships, & Priorities n Amount of Impact – Strongly linked = 9, – Impacts, Relationships, & Priorities n Amount of Impact – Strongly linked = 9, – Moderately linked = 3 – Possibly linked = 1 Priorities of SQC ( Impacts) n Negative Impacts n

Technical Correlations : Strong positive impact n : Moderate positive impact n Blank: No Technical Correlations : Strong positive impact n : Moderate positive impact n Blank: No impact n : Moderate negative impact n : Strong negative impact n n Direction of impact

Technical Benchmarks Benchmarking performance measures n Benchmarking functionality n – Competitive Benchmarks – Own Technical Benchmarks Benchmarking performance measures n Benchmarking functionality n – Competitive Benchmarks – Own Performance – Targets

Benefits Of QFD Promotes better understanding of customer demands n Promotes better understanding of Benefits Of QFD Promotes better understanding of customer demands n Promotes better understanding of design interactions n Involves manufacturing in the design process n Breaks down barriers between functions and departments n

Focuses the design effort n Fosters teamwork n Improves documentation of the design and Focuses the design effort n Fosters teamwork n Improves documentation of the design and development process n Provides a database for future designs n Increases customer satisfaction n Reduces the number of engineering changes n Brings new designs to the market faster n Reduces the cost of design and manufacture n

Design For Robustness Product can fail due to poor design quality n Products subjected Design For Robustness Product can fail due to poor design quality n Products subjected to many conditions n Robust design studies n –controllable factors - under designer’s control –uncontrollable factors - from user or environment n Designs products for consistent performance

Consistency Is Important Consistent errors are easier to correct than random errors n Parts Consistency Is Important Consistent errors are easier to correct than random errors n Parts within tolerances may yield assemblies which aren’t n Consumers prefer product characteristics near their ideal values n

Technology In Design n CAD - Computer Aided Design –assists in creating and modifying Technology In Design n CAD - Computer Aided Design –assists in creating and modifying designs n CAE - Computer Aided Engineering –tests & analyzes designs on computer screen n CAD/CAM - Design & Manufacturing –automatically converts CAD data into processing instructions for computer controlled equipment

Benefits Of CAD n n n Produces better designs faster Builds database of designs Benefits Of CAD n n n Produces better designs faster Builds database of designs and creates documentation to support them Shortens time to market Reduces time to manufacture Enlarges design possibilities Enhances communication and promotes innovation in design teams

Characteristics Of Services 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Intangible Variable output Characteristics Of Services 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Intangible Variable output High customer contact Perishable Service inseparable from delivery Decentralized Consumed more often Easily emulated

Service Design Performance Specifications Design Specifications Delivery Specifications Service Design Performance Specifications Design Specifications Delivery Specifications

A Well-designed Service System Is Consistent with firm’s strategic focus n User friendly n A Well-designed Service System Is Consistent with firm’s strategic focus n User friendly n Robust n Easy to sustain n Effectively linked between front & back office n Cost effective n Visible to customer n