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Chapter 5 Population regulation 鄭先祐 生態主張者 Ayo 作室 Ecology 2001 Chapter 5 Population regulation 鄭先祐 生態主張者 Ayo 作室 Ecology 2001

Population regulation n n n 2 Patterns of population fluctuation Equilibrium theories of population Population regulation n n n 2 Patterns of population fluctuation Equilibrium theories of population regulation Nonequilibrium theories of population regulation Population invasions Extinction and risk analysis Environmental application Ecology 2001

Population regulation n n 3 動物和植物的族群密度並非是固定的,而 是隨時間在改變的。 族群無法永遠持續的成長,因為自然資源 是有限的,永遠持續的成長是不可能的。 d. N/dt = r. N Population regulation n n 3 動物和植物的族群密度並非是固定的,而 是隨時間在改變的。 族群無法永遠持續的成長,因為自然資源 是有限的,永遠持續的成長是不可能的。 d. N/dt = r. N (K-N) / K N = (b + I) – (d – e) Ecology 2001

族群變動的類型 n n 4 小規模的不規則變動 (Fig. 5. 2) 大規模的不規則變動 (Fig. 5. 3) 週期性的變動 (Fig. 族群變動的類型 n n 4 小規模的不規則變動 (Fig. 5. 2) 大規模的不規則變動 (Fig. 5. 3) 週期性的變動 (Fig. 5. 4, Fig. 5. 5) 爆發性的變動 (Fig. 5. 6) Ecology 2001

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族群調控的平衡理論 n Density-dependent factors (Fig. 5. 7 a) n n Density-independent factors (Fig. 5. 族群調控的平衡理論 n Density-dependent factors (Fig. 5. 7 a) n n Density-independent factors (Fig. 5. 7 b) n 10 Those whose effects on the birth rate or death rate change as a function of the population density. Means the population birth rate and death rate do not change with the value of N. Ecology 2001

Fig. 5. 7 The effects of densitydependent and density-independent factors on populations 11 Ecology Fig. 5. 7 The effects of densitydependent and density-independent factors on populations 11 Ecology 2001

外在生物因素學派(The extrinsic biotic school) n n 12 This school accepts the important of density-dependent 外在生物因素學派(The extrinsic biotic school) n n 12 This school accepts the important of density-dependent factors and emphasizes the significance of biotic factors external to the species being regulated. Among the important density-dependent extrinsic factors are the food supply, predation, and disease. Ecology 2001

Food supply n n 13 Lack’s 1954 book, The Natural regulation of animal numbers. Food supply n n 13 Lack’s 1954 book, The Natural regulation of animal numbers. Lack concluded that whereas some changes in reproductive rate occur in response to density, mortality is a more important density-dependent factor. Of the three major factors (starvation, predation, and disease), Lack dismissed the latter two. Birds are frequently observed to be more abundant in areas of high food supplies. Ecology 2001

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圖 5. 8 Effects of supplemental feeding in the California vole. 控制組(沒有額外的 提供食物) 15 圖 5. 8 Effects of supplemental feeding in the California vole. 控制組(沒有額外的 提供食物) 15 Ecology 2001

n n 16 但是other studies on the same species produced no effect. The emergence n n 16 但是other studies on the same species produced no effect. The emergence of periodic cicada adults provides spectacular, natural food supplements for certain species of insectivorous animals. 13 or 17 years cicada Anderson (1977) reported that the reproductive success of the European tree sparrow increased significantly in a year during which 13 -year cicada adults emerged. Krohne, Couillard and Riddle (1991) reported the density of the short-tailed shrew increased fourfold in a year during which cicadas emerged in Indiana. Ecology 2001

Self-thinning 現象 (自我疏伐) 17 Ecology 2001 Self-thinning 現象 (自我疏伐) 17 Ecology 2001

Predation n 18 Coyote predation is an important source of mortality in jackrabbits. Ecology Predation n 18 Coyote predation is an important source of mortality in jackrabbits. Ecology 2001

The top-down or bottom-up controversy n n 19 The population dynamics of moose on The top-down or bottom-up controversy n n 19 The population dynamics of moose on Ise Royale represents an important example of the interacting effects of predation and food supply. Moose were not found on Isle Royale until the early 1900 s, when a few indivuals swam the 32 KM from Ontario to the island. (Fig. 5. 11) Ecology 2001

The top-down or bottom-up controversy 20 Ecology 2001 The top-down or bottom-up controversy 20 Ecology 2001

A century of changes in moose abundance n n n 21 1900 s a A century of changes in moose abundance n n n 21 1900 s a few individuals 引入。 By 1930, overpopulated and a crash 出現。 In the mid-1940 s, wolves arrived. 野狼來了之後,moose族群穩定於 200 -300 頭個體,與野狼共存。 近四十年來,這個平衡受到干擾。野狼與 moose的族群變動加大。 同時,野狼族群又受到疾病的侵襲。 Ecology 2001

ä Bottom-up control ä Ecologists refer to the control of ecosystem function by nutrient ä Bottom-up control ä Ecologists refer to the control of ecosystem function by nutrient flux and the condition of the physical environment as bottom-up control. ä top-down control ä regulation by consumption 圖 13 -16 Diagram of atrophic cascade. 22 Ecology 2001

Disease n n n 23 The rate of disease transmission to be related to Disease n n n 23 The rate of disease transmission to be related to population density. If so, disease could affect populations in a density-dependent manner. Dobson and Meagher (1966) have shown that the prevalence of brucellosis, a bacterial disease of ungulates, in Yellowstone National Park bison is density-dependent (Fig. 5. 12) Ecology 2001

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Red grouse and nematode n n n 族群密度與感染疾病率相關,未必然就可有疾病 調控族群的結論。 Red grouse 的族群愈大,感染nematode寄生蟲 的個體比率愈多。(Fig. 5. Red grouse and nematode n n n 族群密度與感染疾病率相關,未必然就可有疾病 調控族群的結論。 Red grouse 的族群愈大,感染nematode寄生蟲 的個體比率愈多。(Fig. 5. 13) 然而,有幾項並未清楚: n n 25 1. 每個個體的感染程度之高低? 2. 受到感染後,個體的健康情況? Infections are an effect rather than a cause. Food shortages weaken the birds and predispose them to disease. Ecology 2001

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Infection of Brucellosis in Yellowstone n n 27 對Bison而言,show no pathological effects from infection. Infection of Brucellosis in Yellowstone n n 27 對Bison而言,show no pathological effects from infection. 對moose,infections are virtually always fetal. 對elk,intermediate, infected females often abort their first fetus. 有相關,未必然就有因果關係。有因果關係, 也未必然就可以說是有調控的關係。 Ecology 2001

Disease as a regulatory factor n n n 28 There are numerous instances of Disease as a regulatory factor n n n 28 There are numerous instances of outbreaks of diseases like botulism and avian cholera decimating wintering flocks of waterfowl. These episodes of mortality typically occur when birds are concentrated at very high densities on wildlife refuges. Tent caterpillars produce cyclic outbreaks of defoliation throughout their ranges. 週期約是 13 年(Fig. 5. 14) Ecology 2001

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Cyclical tent caterpillar populations n n 30 Food limitation does not explain the pattern. Cyclical tent caterpillar populations n n 30 Food limitation does not explain the pattern. Even though the degree of defoliation is highly variable across sites and between years, the populations remain cyclical, with very strong synchrony in different regions (Fig. 5. 15). Ecology 2001

Fig. 5. 15 Synchrony of cyclical tent caterpillar populations in different regions of Ontario. Fig. 5. 15 Synchrony of cyclical tent caterpillar populations in different regions of Ontario. The hypothesis that exhaustion of food supply triggers population collapse is not supported, because collapses often occur after only partial defoliation. 31 Ecology 2001

Cyclical tent caterpillar populations n n 32 Myers (1993) cropped some populations of the Cyclical tent caterpillar populations n n 32 Myers (1993) cropped some populations of the tent caterpillar to maintain them in the outbreak phase, the cropped population crashed just like the controls (Fig. 5. 16) She introduced populations to a new area using caterpillars from a population at the peak phase. The new populations crashed synchronously with the source populations, even though they were introduced into regions with abundant food supplies. Ecology 2001

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Infection of baculovirus n n 34 If food availability does not explain caterpillar population Infection of baculovirus n n 34 If food availability does not explain caterpillar population changes, what does? Wellington’s (1960) description the caterpillars at different stages of the population cycle provided the clue. Expanding caterpillar populations are typically characterized by a preponderance of colonies of an active morph that disperse the caterpillars; colonies of a sluggish, less hardy morph predominate. The circumstances are consistent with the action of a baculovirus. Ecology 2001

Infection of baculovirus n n n 35 Baculovirus is ingested with the foliage on Infection of baculovirus n n n 35 Baculovirus is ingested with the foliage on which the caterpillars feed. When the viral coat is digested, virions penetrate the insect’s gut and replicate in cells. Death of the caterpillar follows and results in the release of millions of new virus particles onto the bark and leaves. Ecology 2001

The intrinsic school The population is self-regulated. n Stress and territoriality n Genetic polymorphism The intrinsic school The population is self-regulated. n Stress and territoriality n Genetic polymorphism hypothesis n Dispersal 36 Ecology 2001

Stress n n 37 Christaian and Davis (1971) proposed the social stress hypothesis, in Stress n n 37 Christaian and Davis (1971) proposed the social stress hypothesis, in which some mammalian populations show density-dependent effects on reproduction as a result of pathological effects of crowding. Increased population density leads to a large number of agonistic interactions among individuals, which stimulates hypertrophy of the adrenal glands. Ecology 2001

Territoriality n n n 38 Territorial behavior can regulate population density. Watson and Jenkins Territoriality n n n 38 Territorial behavior can regulate population density. Watson and Jenkins (1968) artificially removed territorial individuals from a red grouse population to assess the effect of open territories on breeding by other birds, they found that only territory holders bred. When territorial grouse were removed from the population, their neighbors increased the size of their territories, or the vacant territory was quickly colonized by formerly nonterritorial grouse. Ecology 2001

Genetic polymorphism hypothesis n n 39 First proposed by D. Pimentel (1968), suggests that Genetic polymorphism hypothesis n n 39 First proposed by D. Pimentel (1968), suggests that some genetic feedback exists between, bor example, a plant and the herbivores that consume it. Because increases in herbivore density constitute a selective force on the plant, genes for resistance to grazing increase in frequency. As a result of this resistance, the rate of grazing decreases. Similar feedback loops can occur between a parasite and its host. Ecology 2001

Housefly and a parasitic wasp n n n 40 Pimentel maintained caged populations of Housefly and a parasitic wasp n n n 40 Pimentel maintained caged populations of the housefly and a parasitic wasp. In the experimental cage, host density was kept constant and parasite density was allowed to vary. Over a period of 1004 days, the experimental host population became more resistant, and the experimental parasite population became less virulent. (Fig. 5. 17) Ecology 2001

The population density of the parasite in the experimental cage declined relative to parasite The population density of the parasite in the experimental cage declined relative to parasite density in the control cage. 41 Ecology 2001

Starfish on reef in Australia n n 42 Benzie and Stoddart (1992) used electrophoresis Starfish on reef in Australia n n 42 Benzie and Stoddart (1992) used electrophoresis of proteins to identify genetic loci from starfish from various outbreaks. 這些結果用來驗證以下兩個假說: 1. The outbreaks start at one site on the reef, and then starfish larvae genetically predisposed to producing outbreaks drift southward to start numerous secondary outbreaks. 2. Outbreaks have multiple origins, and the pattern of southward movement outbreaks results from the movement of physical or biological factors. Ecology 2001

The predictions of the two hypothesis n n 43 The first hypothesis predicts that The predictions of the two hypothesis n n 43 The first hypothesis predicts that outbreaking and nonoutbreaking populations should have different levels of genetic differentiation. The second hypothesis predicts that outbreaking and nonoutbreaking populations should be genetically similar. Ecology 2001

With one exception, the outbreaking populations are genetically very similar to one another and With one exception, the outbreaking populations are genetically very similar to one another and distinct from nonoutbreaking ones. 44 Ecology 2001

Chitty-Krebs hypothesis n n 45 A hypothesis to explain the four-year population cycle of Chitty-Krebs hypothesis n n 45 A hypothesis to explain the four-year population cycle of microtines. The hypothesis is based on the empirical observation that the phenotype of voles changes over the course of the cycle; at the peak, voles are larger and more aggressive. These phenotypic changes are driven by genetic change over the course of the cycle. Selection causes genetic change. Ecology 2001

The environment differs such that the selective pressures change. 46 Ecology 2001 The environment differs such that the selective pressures change. 46 Ecology 2001

Dispersal n n n 47 Dispersal is the movement of individuals from their natal Dispersal n n n 47 Dispersal is the movement of individuals from their natal area or their current home range. In the study of the prairie vole, Krebs (1969) evaluated the roles of emigration and immigration by comparing the changes in density over time of enclosed and unenclosed populations in the same field (Fig. 5. 20). The density of the unenclosed population was affected by dispersal. Ecology 2001

48 Fig. 5. 20 Density changes in prairie vole populations in unfenced field (grid 48 Fig. 5. 20 Density changes in prairie vole populations in unfenced field (grid H) and in fenced grids B and D. Ecology 2001

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Saturation and presaturation dispersal n n Saturation dispersal occurs when the population has reached Saturation and presaturation dispersal n n Saturation dispersal occurs when the population has reached carrying capacity. Presaturation dispersal occurs before the carrying capacity is reached. n 51 It may have a genetic basis, this is, individuals of certain age or sex classes may be programmed to emigrate. Ecology 2001

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族群調控的不平衡理論 nonequilibrium theories n n n 53 Nicholson(1954, 1957) emphasized densitydenpendent factors that return 族群調控的不平衡理論 nonequilibrium theories n n n 53 Nicholson(1954, 1957) emphasized densitydenpendent factors that return populations to equilibrium values. The alternative view was initially advanced by Andrewartha and Birch (1954), who emphasized the importance of density-independent factors such as weather. There is currently great interest in the nonequilibrium view of populations (Botkin, 1990; Krebs, 1992). Ecology 2001

族群的變動相當的大 n n n 54 For example, in a 14 -year study of insect 族群的變動相當的大 n n n 54 For example, in a 14 -year study of insect populations in undisturbed rain forests in Panama, Wolda(1992) found that whereas some species show relative stability, others fluctuate wildly. Mean abundance of 22% of the species studied had mean annual fluctuations of more than 10%; some 4% of species fluctuated more than 20% per year. Thus, even in stable and undisturbed populations in the tropics, apparently random, large-scale fluctuations are evident. Ecology 2001

Nonequilibrium theories n n 55 Nonequilibrium theories of regulation are applied to populations that Nonequilibrium theories n n 55 Nonequilibrium theories of regulation are applied to populations that do not appear to return to an equilibrium value related to carrying capacity. Such populations may be controlled by abiotic factors or by a complex set of abiotic and biotic factors that give at least the appearance of random fluctuations. Ecology 2001

Abiotic extrinsic regulation n Andrewartha 和 Birch (昆虫學者):族群成 長受到三項因素限制: n n 56 (a) 資源有限、 Abiotic extrinsic regulation n Andrewartha 和 Birch (昆虫學者):族群成 長受到三項因素限制: n n 56 (a) 資源有限、 (b) 獲取資源的困難 、 (c) 時間有限 其中以最後一個最為重要;第一個卻是最 不重要。 Ecology 2001

Fig. 16 -15 Thrips 小虫,寄生於花朵。澳洲(1933)。 點點是每天的數量,曲線是每 15天的平均。 57 Ecology 2001 Fig. 16 -15 Thrips 小虫,寄生於花朵。澳洲(1933)。 點點是每天的數量,曲線是每 15天的平均。 57 Ecology 2001

Thrips 數量與食物量無關 n n 58 甚至在 Thrips 量最大的時候,整體的密度 並未呈現過度的現像( 除了一些局部地點和 暫時的時段)。 Thrips 快速繁殖,但花朵的增加更加快速。 當Thrips Thrips 數量與食物量無關 n n 58 甚至在 Thrips 量最大的時候,整體的密度 並未呈現過度的現像( 除了一些局部地點和 暫時的時段)。 Thrips 快速繁殖,但花朵的增加更加快速。 當Thrips 數量開始下降,密度下降,花朵 的量仍很多。 Thrips populations 和 氣候的關係。 Ecology 2001

Thrips 數量與氣候的關係 n Dependent variable , n Y:平均每朵花上的 thrips 數量。 n Independent variables , Thrips 數量與氣候的關係 n Dependent variable , n Y:平均每朵花上的 thrips 數量。 n Independent variables , n a:the effective degree-days from the first rains of the winter season to August 31. n b:the rainfall during Sept. and Oct. n c:the effective degree-days during Sept. and Oct. n d:the same as X 1, but for the previous year. Log Y = -2. 390+0. 125 a+0. 2019 b +0. 1866 c+0, 0850 d n 59 Ecology 2001

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Fig. 16 -16 Observed peak numbers of thrips per rose between 1932 and 1945(green Fig. 16 -16 Observed peak numbers of thrips per rose between 1932 and 1945(green vertical lines) compared with the predictions of a regression equation based upon four climate variables (black line). 61 Ecology 2001

Based on two premises: n n 62 1. Most species have a high innate Based on two premises: n n 62 1. Most species have a high innate capacity for increase, and thus, under favorable conditions, the population can grow rapidly. 2. The vagaries of weather and other abiotic factors are so great that no population experiences favorable growth periods for very long. Severe conditions always reduce densities before density-dependent factors come into play. Ecology 2001

A model for California quail n n The productivity of quail, expressed as the A model for California quail n n The productivity of quail, expressed as the ratio of juveniles to adults in fall samples, is predicted by the following equation: Y=0. 929 H + 0. 021 A – 0. 120 C – 0. 975 n n n 63 Where H is soil moisture A is the proportion of females that were adults in the previous fall C is total seasonal rainfall. Ecology 2001

A model for California quail n n 64 Almost 99% of the variation observed A model for California quail n n 64 Almost 99% of the variation observed in the natural population is explained by this equation. Soil moisture accounts for 83. 1% of the variation in quail productivity. Adding the proportion of females that were adults into the equation explains another 12. 4% of the variation. Seasonal rainfall accounts for another 3. 3%. Ecology 2001

The density of this species (a desert shrub) is positively correlated with rainfall. 65 The density of this species (a desert shrub) is positively correlated with rainfall. 65 Ecology 2001

This shrub is relatively unaffacted by indirect biotic factors, because the density of creosote This shrub is relatively unaffacted by indirect biotic factors, because the density of creosote bush does not decline as the density of competing species increases. 66 Ecology 2001

Darwin’s finches on the Galapagos islands n n n 67 Grant and Grant (1992) Darwin’s finches on the Galapagos islands n n n 67 Grant and Grant (1992) Rainfall fluctuate wildly. On isla Daphne Major between 1976 and 1991, the yearly numbers of breeding finches of two species, Geospiza fortis and G. scandens, closely corresponded to annual amounts of rain. Ecology 2001

圖 5. 25 Annual rainfall (a) and numbers of breeding finches, Geospiza spp. (b) 圖 5. 25 Annual rainfall (a) and numbers of breeding finches, Geospiza spp. (b) on Isla Daphne Major, 1976 -1991. 68 Ecology 2001

Three species of birds have highly synchronized populations across 11 provinces of Finland. Linstrom Three species of birds have highly synchronized populations across 11 provinces of Finland. Linstrom et al. (1966) conclude that spatial synchrony in climate is an important factor responsible for the synchrony. 69 Ecology 2001

The two peak years, 1931 and 1941, there is nearly 100 % synchrony across The two peak years, 1931 and 1941, there is nearly 100 % synchrony across this region. Sinclair and Gosline (1997) show that the hare cycle is strongly associated with high-amplitude sunspot cycles. 70 Ecology 2001

The concept of the Metapopulation n n 71 Levins(1971) introduced the concept of the The concept of the Metapopulation n n 71 Levins(1971) introduced the concept of the metapopulation as a collection of subpopulations interconnected by dispersal (Fig. 5. 28) The concept of metapopulations is applicable to nonequilibrium population dynamics because the nature of equilibrium within any habitat patch is irrelevant to the dynamics of the metapopulation. Ecology 2001

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73 圖 A metapopulation Ecology 2001 73 圖 A metapopulation Ecology 2001

森林邊的雜草 74 Ecology 2001 森林邊的雜草 74 Ecology 2001

Fig. 5. 30 Characteristics of a European nuthatch metapopulation. (a) Extinction frequency as a Fig. 5. 30 Characteristics of a European nuthatch metapopulation. (a) Extinction frequency as a function of woodlot carry capacity (expressed as number of breeding territories). 75 Ecology 2001

Fig. 5. 30 (b) Colonization frequency as a function of dispersal influx index fi(t), Fig. 5. 30 (b) Colonization frequency as a function of dispersal influx index fi(t), which reflects the number of breeding p; airs adjacent to empty habitat patches; low values correspond to a high degree of isolation. 76 Ecology 2001

Fig. 5. 31 Lidicker’s multifactorial model for an idealized microtine population cycle. Changes in Fig. 5. 31 Lidicker’s multifactorial model for an idealized microtine population cycle. Changes in the number of individuals are plotted over time for patches of colonizing and survival habitats and for both combined. The proportion of the population involved in dispersal is shown by the lower of the two metapopulation curves; the shaded area represents the extent of frustrated dispersal. 77 Ecology 2001

Chaos theory n 78 As r greater than 2. 692, populations fluctuate unpredictably and Chaos theory n 78 As r greater than 2. 692, populations fluctuate unpredictably and without ever repeating a pattern. These patterns are called chaotic. Ecology 2001

Fig. 5. 33 Plots of N t+1 versus Nt for populations with different values Fig. 5. 33 Plots of N t+1 versus Nt for populations with different values of r. (a) approach to equilibrium N t+1 = Nt + r Nt (1 -Nt) /K 79 Ecology 2001

Fig. 5. 33 (b) a cycle 80 Ecology 2001 Fig. 5. 33 (b) a cycle 80 Ecology 2001

Fig. 5. 33 © chaos. The patterns of fluctuation that appear random, particularly the Fig. 5. 33 © chaos. The patterns of fluctuation that appear random, particularly the large-scale irregular fluctuations. 81 Ecology 2001

Hassell and colleagues (1976) n n n 82 4 laboratory and 24 natural populations Hassell and colleagues (1976) n n n 82 4 laboratory and 24 natural populations of insects for chaotic behavior. The majority of the species showed a return to equilibrium density; a few showed cyclic dynamics, and only one of the species exhibited chaotic behavior. The cyclic and chaotic dynamics were found primarily in laboratory populations. Ecology 2001

A synthetic view of regulation n n 83 歷經五十年的研究,相關族群調控的機制, 顯現出族群變動的複雜度。 原本以為單純的承載量(K)的觀念,結果顯 現初期內涵相當的複雜。 K 值原本是常數(固定的),但實際上卻是變 A synthetic view of regulation n n 83 歷經五十年的研究,相關族群調控的機制, 顯現出族群變動的複雜度。 原本以為單純的承載量(K)的觀念,結果顯 現初期內涵相當的複雜。 K 值原本是常數(固定的),但實際上卻是變 動的。 Wolda(1995) 認為調控與沒有調控的爭議, 應該要給以埋葬,迅速的給予遺忘。 Ecology 2001

共識 n n n 84 1. The per capita rate of change, r. is 共識 n n n 84 1. The per capita rate of change, r. is affected b both exogenous and endogenous factors. 2. Exogenous factors are not “noise”. They are important factors that affect population densities. 3. Some negative feedback between r and population density (density dependence) is necessary (but not sufficient) for regulation. Ecology 2001

範例:the dynamics of moose n n 85 Fig. 5. 11 the dynamics of moose 範例:the dynamics of moose n n 85 Fig. 5. 11 the dynamics of moose on island. There have been periods of relative stability and equilibrium, at other times the population was growing without control or crashing. Abiotic and biotic factors play a role. Moose on Isle Royale represent an extremely well-studied example of the complex sets of factors that determine population size. Ecology 2001

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Table 5. 2 summary of the factors affecting the population of Moose on Islae Table 5. 2 summary of the factors affecting the population of Moose on Islae Royale. 87 Ecology 2001

Population invasions (族群的入侵) n n n 88 When a new species invades a region Population invasions (族群的入侵) n n n 88 When a new species invades a region that contains appropriate habitat, we have the opportunity to observe exponential growth. In 1940, the house finch was intentionally introduced to eastern North ‘America. The species spread rapidly (Fig. 5. 34 a) The fluctuations were of the small-scale irregular type (Fig. 5. 34 b) Ecology 2001

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After the European starling was introduced to Central Park in New York City in After the European starling was introduced to Central Park in New York City in 1890, it spread rapidly thereafter (Fig. 5. 35) By 1954 it had reached the West Coast of US and northern Mexico. Its current North American population is over 100 million. 90 Ecology 2001

有害昆蟲與外來種 n n 大部分的農業害蟲,於其原本的自然生態裡, 通常是無害的。然而若被引進到別的生態系時, 才變成所謂的害蟲。 有意或無意的引進物種,不但會引發農業的災 難,而且也會引起自然環境的大災害。 n n n 91 譬如:斑馬貽貝(Zebra mussel)原生於中南亞的裡海 有害昆蟲與外來種 n n 大部分的農業害蟲,於其原本的自然生態裡, 通常是無害的。然而若被引進到別的生態系時, 才變成所謂的害蟲。 有意或無意的引進物種,不但會引發農業的災 難,而且也會引起自然環境的大災害。 n n n 91 譬如:斑馬貽貝(Zebra mussel)原生於中南亞的裡海 地區。藉著附著於船隻外殼,擴遷入美加的大湖區。 於 1980年代,族群暴增,導致堵塞水管,破壞魚類 維生體系,而成為有害的生物。 福壽螺,原本引進為桌上佳餚的材料。 Integrated pest management (整合性害蟲管制方 法) Ecology 2001

 摘取自:Vitousek, et al. (1996), 92 American Scientist 84(5): 468 -478. Ecology 2001 摘取自:Vitousek, et al. (1996), 92 American Scientist 84(5): 468 -478. Ecology 2001

成功的外來種 n n n 93 1. Exponential growth in the vicinity of the introduction. 成功的外來種 n n n 93 1. Exponential growth in the vicinity of the introduction. 2. Rapid range expansion 3. Invasions essentially represent an escape from density-dependent regulatory systems. Ecology 2001

Key factor analysis n n The technique of key factor analysis uses the information Key factor analysis n n The technique of key factor analysis uses the information in a life table to identify those life cycle stages that are most vulnerable to mortality and thus are crucial to achieving high densities of invaders. The mortality occurring over a generation, K is then calculated from the sum of the mortality rates associated with each stage of the life history: n n k = log(Nx) – log(Ny) n 94 K = k 1 + K 2 + K 3 + K 4 +……. Nx is the number of individuals in a particular life history stage at the start of the stage. Ny is at the end of the stage. Ecology 2001

95 Ecology 2001 95 Ecology 2001

The factor strongly associated with K is likely to be the key factor. The The factor strongly associated with K is likely to be the key factor. The values of k 1, winter mortality, are highly correlated with the value of K. 96 Ecology 2001

Environmental application Human Demographic history 97 Ecology 2001 Environmental application Human Demographic history 97 Ecology 2001

98 Fig. 5 B. 2 The demographic transition. Ecology 2001 98 Fig. 5 B. 2 The demographic transition. Ecology 2001

圖 5 -12. 由高出生和 死亡率與低生產力經 人口變遷至低出生和 死亡率與高生產力的 社會。修改自 Frederiksen (1969) 的報告。 99 Ecology 2001 圖 5 -12. 由高出生和 死亡率與低生產力經 人口變遷至低出生和 死亡率與高生產力的 社會。修改自 Frederiksen (1969) 的報告。 99 Ecology 2001

圖 5 -13. 人口變遷的 失敗結果。修改自 Frederiksen (1969) 的報告。 100 Ecology 2001 圖 5 -13. 人口變遷的 失敗結果。修改自 Frederiksen (1969) 的報告。 100 Ecology 2001

Extinction and Risk analysis Exponential growth n N t = R 0 t N Extinction and Risk analysis Exponential growth n N t = R 0 t N 0 n n 101 R 0 is the net reproductive rate R 0 = lx mx If Ro is less than 1. 0, then the population is at risk of extinction. A population is vulnerable to extinction if its mortality rate exceeds its birth rate for very long. Ecology 2001

Allee effect n n 102 At very low density, the growth rate actually becomes Allee effect n n 102 At very low density, the growth rate actually becomes negative, a phenomenon called the Allee effect. 於低族群密度時,族群的成長率會轉成負值。 (Fig. 5. 37) Ecology 2001

103 Ecology 2001 103 Ecology 2001

Anthropogenic factors n n n 104 1. Decreased population size leads to a higher Anthropogenic factors n n n 104 1. Decreased population size leads to a higher probability accidents will cause extinction 2. Habitat alteration may result in fragmentation of large tracts of habitat into a series of smaller habitat islands or fragments 3. Small populations tend to have lower genetic variation and higher levels of homozygosity than large populations. Ecology 2001

Demographic accidents n n n 105 As total population size decrease, the risk of Demographic accidents n n n 105 As total population size decrease, the risk of accidental extinction increases. Stochastic effects played a role in the extinction of the heath hen (Tympanuchus cupido) on Martha’s vineyard (Fig. 5. 38). Overhunting caused a major decline in the population until 1907, when management regulations were imposed. Ecology 2001

106 Ecology 2001 106 Ecology 2001

傳統的方法 (範例) Heath hem (Tympanuchus cupido) n n n 107 n 曾分布於New England 至Virginia 傳統的方法 (範例) Heath hem (Tympanuchus cupido) n n n 107 n 曾分布於New England 至Virginia State 1876,只存在於 Martha's Vineyard。 1900,只剩不到 100隻。 1907,設立refuge(保護區)。 1916,族群數目增加到 800隻。但當年火災, 冬天又有強大的掠食壓力,族群數目又下降到 100隻至 150隻。 1920,族群數目再上升至 200隻。但又遭疾病 侵襲,又再下降到 100隻以下。 1932,滅絕。 Ecology 2001

四項不確定因素 n n 108 (1) demographic stochasticity (2) environmental stochasticity (3) natural catastrophes (4) 四項不確定因素 n n 108 (1) demographic stochasticity (2) environmental stochasticity (3) natural catastrophes (4) genetic stochasticity Ecology 2001

Habitat fragmentation n n 109 Fragmentation can affect populations in one of two ways. Habitat fragmentation n n 109 Fragmentation can affect populations in one of two ways. First, a decline in total area of suitable habitat can result in smaller populations. Second, the formation of habitat island results in effects on population size that are related to the size of the fragments and their degree of isolation. We will discuss size and isolation effects of habitat islands in Chapter 12. Ecology 2001

110 Metapopulation models Ecology 2001 110 Metapopulation models Ecology 2001

Endangered or threatened species 111 Ecology 2001 Endangered or threatened species 111 Ecology 2001

Falcon 112 Ecology 2001 Falcon 112 Ecology 2001

Genetic risks to small populations n n n As population size declines, the importance Genetic risks to small populations n n n As population size declines, the importance of genetic drift and inbreeding increases, both processes increase the homozygosity of the population. Heschel and Paige (1995) demonstrated the effects of these kinds of genetic changes for populations of the scarlet gilia, a biennial or perennial herb found in montane regions. They located 10 populations of with a wide range of densities– from 12 individuals to more than 4, 500 – and studies the fitness characters of the individuals. 113 Ecology 2001

Populations of scarlet gilia n n n 114 They found that seed size and Populations of scarlet gilia n n n 114 They found that seed size and germination success were significantly lower in the small populations. In addition, the small populations were more susceptible to stress from simulated herbivory. When new alleles were artificially introduced into the small populations, these effects were reversed. Ecology 2001

v 問題與討論! ayo@faculty. pccu. edu. tw Ayo 文化站 http: //faculty. pccu. edu. tw/~ayo 115 v 問題與討論! [email protected] pccu. edu. tw Ayo 文化站 http: //faculty. pccu. edu. tw/~ayo 115 Ecology 2001