- Количество слайдов: 45
Chapter 5: Historical Foundations u Trace the history of physical education, exercise science, and sport from earliest times to the present. u Identify events that served as catalysts for physical education, exercise science, and sport’s growth. u What are recent developments in physical education, exercise science, and sport?
The Field of Sport History u Emerged as a subdiscipline in the late 1960 s and early 1970 s. u “… field of scholarly inquiry with multiple and often intersecting foci, including exercise, the body, play, games, athletics, sports, physical recreations, health, and leisure. ” (Struna) u How has the past shaped sport and its experiences today? u 1973: North American Society for Sport History held its first meeting.
Sample Areas of Study. . . u How did urbanization influence the development of sports in America? u How did the sports activities of Native Americans influence the recreational pursuits of the early colonists? u How have Greek ideals influences the development of sportsmanship?
Ancient Nations: China u Influence of isolation due to topography and Great Wall u Influence of Taoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism which stressed the contemplative life ä Physical activity meant individual freedom of expression, which was contrary to the ancient teachings. u Con Fu gymnastics: To keep the body in good organic condition and ward off certain diseases caused by inactivity. u Activities: wrestling, jujitsi, boxing, ts’ u chu, ch’ui wan, shuttlecoach, and kite flying
Ancient Nations: India u Strong religious influence of Buddism and Hinduism. u Focus on spiritual needs, not the needs of the body and worldly things. u Buddism emphasized right living and thinking, including self-denial, to help the soul reach a divine state. u Activities ä Yoga, throwing, tumbling, chariot races, riding elephants and horses, marbles, swordsmanship, dancing, wrestling, foot races
Ancient Nations: Ancient Near East u Ancient Egypt, Assyria, Babylonia, Syria, Palestine, and Persia ä believed in living a full life, including engaging in physical activity u Influence from the military to build a stronger army ä Emphasize strength, stamina, endurance, agility for imperialistic means, not for the individual. u Activities ä Gymnastics, horsemanship, bow and arrow, water activities, wrestling, jumping, hunting, fishing, physical conditioning for strength and stamina
Greece u “Golden Age” of physical education and sport u Striving for perfection, including physical development u Vital part of the education of every Greek boy ä “Exercise for the body and music for the soul” ä Gymnastics - courage, discipline, and physical well -being, a sense of fair play, and amateurism u National festivals
Greece - Sparta u Main objective of physical education and sport was to build a powerful army. u Individuals were subservient to the state and required to defend the state against enemies. u Women and men were required to be in good physical condition. u agoge - a system of public, compulsory physical training for young boys u Activities ä wrestling, jumping, running, javelin and discus, marching, horseback riding, and hunting
Greece: Athens (Sparta’s antithesis) u Democratic government u Physical activity to develop bodies, for aesthetic value, and to live a more full, vigorous life. u Gymnastics practiced in a palaestra and supervised by a paidotribe. u Gymnasiums became the physical, social, and intellectual centers of Greece. u Instruction was given by a gymnast.
Greece: National Festivals u The foundation for the modern Olympic games. ä Olympic Games first held in 776 B. C. and continued every 4 years until abolished by Romans in 394 A. D. u u u Conducted in honor of a hero or deity Consisted of dancing, feasting, singing, and events of physical prowess Athletic events were the main attraction, although participation was mostly limited to men. ä Rigid set of requirements for participation in the games, including amateurism u u Truce declared by all city-states during the time of the festivals Victors won a wreath of olive branches; highest honor that could be bestowed in Greece.
Rome u Exercise for health and military purposes. ä Rigid training schedule for soldiers: marching, running, jumping, swimming, throwing javelin and discus u Greek gymnastics were introduced to Rome after the conquest of Greece but were not popular ä Rome did not believe in the “body beautiful” ä Preferred to be spectators rather than participants ä Preferred professionalism to amateurism. u Exciting “blood sports”: gladiatorial combats and chariout races. “Duel to the death” or satisfaction of spectators.
Medieval Europe: The Dark Ages u Fall of the Roman Empire (476 A. D. ) ä Physical and moral decay of the Roman people u Physically strong Teutonic barbarians overran the Empire and brought the greatest decline in learning known to history. u People participated in hunting, vigorous outdoor sport, and warfare, thus building strong, fit bodies. u The spread of Christianity gave rise to asceticism. u Scholasticism
Age of Feudalism (Between 9 th and 14 th centuries) u Feudalism was a system of land tenure based on allegiance and service to the nobleman or the lord. u Career opportunities for a nobleman’s son: ä Church - religious and academic education ä Knighthood - education emphasized physical, social, and military training u Knights ä jousts and tournaments
Renaissance (14 th to 16 th centuries) u Feudal system replaced by monarchies. u Age of Enlightment, revival of learning, belief in dignity of human beings. u Men were being educated with the invention of the printing press and establishment of more schools and universities. u Humanism: “A sound mind in a sound body. ”
Renaissance u Leaders • Vittorino da Feltra • Francois Rabelais • Michel de Montaigne • John Comenius u Educational • John Milton • Martin Luther • John Locke • John Jacques Rousseau opportunities for the common people as well, but few for females. u Class differences appear in participation of some sports. u Physical education was important for learning, necessary for health, and preparation for warfare.
Modern Europe: Germany u Basedow - inclusion of physical education in the school’s curriculum. u Guts Muth - “Gymnastics for the Young” and “Games” - illustrated various exercises and apparatus; explained the relationship of physical education to education u Jahn - Turnverein societies to build strong and hardy citizens; turnplatz (exercise ground)
Modern Europe: Germany u Spiess -Founder of school gymnastics in Germany. ä Schools should be interested in the total growth of the individual; Physical education should receive the same consideration as other academic subjects ä Adapted physical activity for girls and boys ä Exercises combined with music ä Progressive program
Modern Europe: Sweden u Per Henik Ling ä Scientific study of physical education ä Establishment of training institutes ä Design of gymnastic programs to meet specific individual needs ä 3 Types: Educational gymnastics, military gymnastics, and medical gymnastics ä Teachers of physical education must have foundational knowledge of the effects of exercise on the human body.
Modern Europe: Sweden u Branting ä Devoted his time to medical gymnastics ä Understanding of the effects of gymnastics on the muscular as well as nervous and circulatory systems u Nyblaeus ä Military gymnastics and the inclusion of women u Hjalmar Fredick Ling ä Organization of school gymnastics in Sweden for boys and girls.
Modern Europe: Denmark u Nachtegall ä Introduced physical education into the public schools ä Teacher preparation u Bukh ä “primitive gymnastics” - build a perfect physique by performing exercises without cessation of movement.
Great Britain u Home of outdoor sports ä Wrestling, throwing, riding, fishing, hunting, swimming, rowing, skating, archery, hockey, quoits, tennis, football (soccer), cricket u Maclaren - ä Eager to make physical training a science; a system that was adopted by the British Army ä Health is more important than strength ä Exercise adapted to the individual ä physical education essential in school curriculum
Influences of PE in the U. S. u European ideals ä Systems of gymnastics (exercises) ä Philosophies of physical education u Ancient Asian cultures ä Yoga ä Martial arts ä Relationships between the mind, body, and spirit
Colonial Period (1607 -1783) u Colonists led an agrarian existence - physical activity through performing tasks essential to living and survival. u Colonists brought sports with them from their native lands. u Puritans denounced play as evil; recreational pursuits frowned upon. u Reading, writing, and arithmetic in schools, not physical education.
National Period (1784 -1861) u Growth of private schools for females u Introduction of German gymnastics to schools u 1852: First intercollegiate competition: a crew race between Harvard and Yale. u Catherine Beecher (1800 -1878) ä Calisthenics performed to music ä One of the first to advocate for daily physical education u Invention of baseball u Horseracing, foot races, rowing, and gambling on sport events
Civil War Period until 1900 u Turnverein societies continue to grow and include both girls and boys u Dio Lewis ä Programs for the “weak and feeble” in society ä Training school for teachers in Boston ä Inclusion of gymnastic programs in the schools u Nissen - Swedish Movement Cure grows in popularity and recognized for its inherent medical values u YMCA established; international training school at Springfield College
Civil War Period until 1900 u Growth of American sport in popularity ä Tennis ä Golf ä Bowling ä Basketball (Naismith) u Founding of forerunner of Amateur Athletic Association (AAU) u Revival of Olympics in Athens u Colleges and universities develop departments and expand programs
Civil War Period until 1900 u Expansion ä ä of intercollegiate athletics Abuses raise concerns Establishment of governing bodies u Emphasis on teacher preparation, scientific basis of PE, diagnosis and prescription of activity u Organized PE programs in elementary and secondary schools u 1885 - Founding of the forerunner of AAHPERD u “Battle of the Systems” (Which system of gymnastics should be included in curriculum? )
Early Twentieth Century (1900 s-1940 s) u Extensive interscholastic programs - controversy over programs for girls u Growth of intramural programs and emphasis on games and sports in our programs u Increased concern for the physically underdeveloped in our society u Playground movement u Higher standards for teacher training (4 year preparation) u NCAA established to monitor collegiate athletics
World War I (1916 -1919) u Physical educators developed conditioning programs for armed forces. u After the war, health statistics revealed that the nation was in poor shape (1/3 of men were physically unfit for armed service). u Growth and upgrade of PE programs in schools following war due to legislation in some states.
Golden Twenties (1920 -1929) u Move away from formal systems of gymnastics toward games, sports, and valuable recreation and leisure time. u “New” physical education emphasized contribution to the total development of the individual; “education through the physical” vs. “education of the physical”. u Calls for reform of collegiate athletics due to increasing professionalism, public entertainment, and commercialization. u Women’s programs increase staff, activities, required participation, and facilities.
Depression Years (1930 -1939) u Economic forces lead to cutbacks in PE programs and growth of recreational programs. ä Between 1932 and 1934, nearly 40% of all physical education programs were dropped completely. u Physical educators more involved in recreational programs for the unemployed. u Growth of interscholastic, intercollegiate and women’s programs. u 1940: National Association of Intercollegiate Basketball became National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics in 1952
Mid-twentieth Century (1940 -1970) u Impact of WW II - physical training programs u Physical fitness movement ä President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports u Athletics ä Increase opportunities for girls and women ä Increased interest in lifetime sports ä Sport programs below high school level increase ä Increased number of intramural programs
Mid-twentieth Century (1940 -1970) u Professional preparation ä Colleges and universities increase programs for teachers ä American College of Sports Medicine (1954) ä National Athletic Trainers’ Association (1950) u Programs for individuals ä Special Olympics (1968) u Research with disabilities grows in importance and becomes increasingly specialized
Significant Recent Developments u Emergence of subdisciplines u Disease prevention and health promotion ä ä ä Healthy People Objectives for the Nation Healthy People 2000 Healthy People 2010 Surgeon General’s Report on Physical Activity and Health u Legislation promoting opportunities for girls and women, and people with disabilities u Increased technology
School Physical Education u Recognition of the critical role school PE in achieving national health goals u Fitness status and physical activity of children and youth u Congressional support for high-quality, daily physical education u Daily PE declines from 42% to 25%
School Physical Education u National Content Standards offer a national framework u Emergence of new curricular models u Only one state, Illinois, requires daily PE for all students, K-12
Physical Fitness and Participation in Physical Activity u Expansion of the fitness movement and involvement in physical activity u Shift from performance to health-related fitness to an emphasis on moderate-intensity physical activity u Physical inactivity recognized as a major health problem
The Growth of Sport u Phenomenal growth of participation in sports at all levels u Youth sports involve more than 25 million children u Interscholastic sports involve more than 6 million boys and girls ä Trend toward early specialization
The Growth of Sport u Intercollegiate sports involve over 450, 000 athletes ä Growth of sport as “big business” in some institutions u Growth of recreational sport leagues and amateur sports for adults of all ages u Professional sports continue to expand
Girls and Women in Sport u Rapid growth since the passage of Title IX in 1972 u Changes in governance of intercollegiate sports u Challenges to Title IX u Changes in physical education classes following passage of Title IX
Programs for Individuals with Disabilities u Federal Legislation ä PL 93 -122 Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act ä PL 94 -142 Education of All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 ä Amateur Sports Act of 1978 ä PL 101 -336 Americans with Disabilities Act u Paralympics
Olympics u Rebirth of the Olympics in 1896 u Centennial Olympics celebrated in Atlanta in 1996 u Politicization of the Olympic Games u Evolving definitions of amateurism u “Fairness” issues in the Olympics u Addition of non-traditional sports u Commercialization of the Olympics
Technology u Computer technology and sophisticated research equipment u Has led to record-breaking achievements for elite athletes in nearly all sports u Facility improvement u Fitness tests data available in schools with addition of heart rate monitors
U. S. Leaders in Physical Education • Beck • Follen • Beecher • Winship • Dio Lewis • Nissen • Anderson • Homans • Hemenway • Delsarte • Sloane • Roberts • Durant • Sargent • Hitchcock
U. S. Leaders in Physical Education • Posse • Mc. Kenzie • Bancroft • Hanna • Mc. Curdy • Gulick • Riis • Hetherington • Nash • Wood • Cassidy • Williams • Brace • Rogers