Скачать презентацию Chapter 5 Economic Solutions to Environmental Problems The Скачать презентацию Chapter 5 Economic Solutions to Environmental Problems The

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Chapter 5 Economic Solutions to Environmental Problems: The Market Approach Chapter 5 Economic Solutions to Environmental Problems: The Market Approach

Overview • Market approach refers to incentivebased policy that encourages conservative practices or pollution Overview • Market approach refers to incentivebased policy that encourages conservative practices or pollution reduction strategies • Types of Market Instruments – Pollution charges – Subsidies – Deposit/refund systems – Pollution permit trading systems 2

1. Pollution Charges • Fees based on “Polluter-Pays Principle (polluter should bear costs of 1. Pollution Charges • Fees based on “Polluter-Pays Principle (polluter should bear costs of control measures)” • Types of pollution charges – Product charge – Emission/Effluent charge 3

(1) Product Charge • A fee added to price of pollutiongenerating ______, which generates (1) Product Charge • A fee added to price of pollutiongenerating ______, which generates negative externality • Impose product charge as per unit tax on product, e. g. , gas tax – If the tax equals the marginal external cost (MEC) at QE, it is called a _____ – How does the tax on gasoline in the US compare with that of other nations? 4

Selected International Gasoline Tax Rates Nation Tax Rate % of Price (2008) United States Selected International Gasoline Tax Rates Nation Tax Rate % of Price (2008) United States 18. 5 U. K. 67. 8 France 67. 4 Germany 70. 3 Japan 45. 8 Spain 56. 0 Source: International Energy Agency, November, 2008 5

Modeling a Pigouvian Tax $ MSC = MPC + MEC MPCt MPC a Amount Modeling a Pigouvian Tax $ MSC = MPC + MEC MPCt MPC a Amount of tax b MPB = MSB 0 QE QC Q of gasoline 6

Making sellers pay a tax on each unit they sell is equivalent to an Making sellers pay a tax on each unit they sell is equivalent to an increase in the cost of producing each unit. Anything that increases production costs causes the S curve to shift up: in order for sellers to be willing to supply the same quantity as before, they must receive a higher price to compensate them for the increase in their costs. 7

By setting the unit tax equal to the MEC at QE, the MPC curve By setting the unit tax equal to the MEC at QE, the MPC curve shifts up to MPCt. Equilibrium output is then determined by MPCt and MSB, which is QE. 8

Assessing the Model • In theory, achieves an efficient outcome • In practice, difficult Assessing the Model • In theory, achieves an efficient outcome • In practice, difficult to identify the value of MEC at QE • Allows only for an output reduction to reduce pollution 9

(2) Emission/Effluent Charge • A fee imposed directly on the discharge of _______ • (2) Emission/Effluent Charge • A fee imposed directly on the discharge of _______ • Typically implemented through a tax 10

Model: Single Polluter Case • Government sets an abatement standard at AST • A Model: Single Polluter Case • Government sets an abatement standard at AST • A 0 is actual abatement level. • Policy options to polluter are: – Abate up to AST and incur those costs, or – Pay a constant per unit tax, t (also called marginal tax, MT), on any abatement less than AST 11

Modeling Emission Charge Single Polluter $ Firm abates up to A 0 since MAC Modeling Emission Charge Single Polluter $ Firm abates up to A 0 since MAC < MT; firm pays tax between A 0 and AST, since MAC > MT c t 0 a A 0 b AST MAC MT Abatement (A) 12

Pollution Charges in Practice • Internationally, the pollution charge is the most commonly used Pollution Charges in Practice • Internationally, the pollution charge is the most commonly used market-based instrument – Australia, Bulgaria, France, and Japan, use fees or taxes to control noise pollution generated by aircraft – France, Mexico, and Poland are among the nations using effluent charges to protect water resources. – Others levy charges on products such as batteries, tires, lubricant oil, packaging, paint containers, and gasoline 13

2. Environmental Subsidies • Two major types of subsidies: – Abatement equipment subsidies – 2. Environmental Subsidies • Two major types of subsidies: – Abatement equipment subsidies – Pollution reduction subsidies 14

(1) Abatement Equipment Subsidy • A payment aimed at lowering the cost of abatement (1) Abatement Equipment Subsidy • A payment aimed at lowering the cost of abatement technology • Goal is to internalize the positive externality associated with the consumption of abatement activities • If the subsidy equals the marginal external benefit (MEB) at QE, it achieves an efficient equilibrium and is called a _________ 15

Pigouvian Subsidy Market for Scrubbers Coal-burning power plants buy scrubbers; scrubber manufacturers sell scrubbers Pigouvian Subsidy Market for Scrubbers Coal-burning power plants buy scrubbers; scrubber manufacturers sell scrubbers ($ millions) MSC K PE = 175 Subsidy = $14 million PC = 170 MSB MPBS L PE – s = 161 MPB 0 QC = 200 QE = 210 Q of scrubbers 16

 • In a competitive market, too few scrubbers are exchanged at too low • In a competitive market, too few scrubbers are exchanged at too low a price because the MEB of a cleaner environment are not recognized by the market participants. 17

(2) Pollution Reduction Subsidy FYI • To implement, government pays the polluter a subsidy (2) Pollution Reduction Subsidy FYI • To implement, government pays the polluter a subsidy (s) for every unit of pollution abated below some preestablished level ZST • Per unit subsidy = s, total subsidy = s(ZST ZO), where ZO is the actual level of pollution – Analogous to an emission charge 18

Subsidies in Practice FYI • Environmental subsidies typically are implemented as grants, low-interest loans, Subsidies in Practice FYI • Environmental subsidies typically are implemented as grants, low-interest loans, tax credits or exemptions, and rebates • Many countries around the world use these instruments, including Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Japan, and Turkey • In the U. S. , common uses include federal funding to build publicly-owned treatment works and subsidies to encourage the development of cleaner fuels and low-emission vehicles 19

3. Deposit/Refund Systems • A market instrument that imposes an upfront charge to pay 3. Deposit/Refund Systems • A market instrument that imposes an upfront charge to pay for potential damages and refunds it for returning a product for proper disposal or recycling • The deposit is intended to capture the MEC of improper waste disposal (IW) in advance 20

Modeling Deposit/Refund System improper waste (IW) disposal market • MECIW: health damages + aesthetic Modeling Deposit/Refund System improper waste (IW) disposal market • MECIW: health damages + aesthetic impairment from litter, trash accumulation, etc. • MPCIW: costs to disposer (e. g. , trash receptacles, collection fees, plus forgone revenue from not recycling) • MSCIW = MPCIW + MECIW • MPBIW: demand for improper disposal § Assume MEBIW = 0, so MPBIW = MSBIW FYI 21

Deposit-Refund Model Deposit converts % of overall waste disposal, measured by (QIW - QE), Deposit-Refund Model Deposit converts % of overall waste disposal, measured by (QIW - QE), from improper methods to proper $ FYI MSCIW MPCIW + Deposit MPCIW a Deposit=MEC at QE b MPBIW = MSBIW QE 0 100 QIW Improper Waste Disposal (%) 100 Proper Waste Disposal (%) 0 22

Assessing the Model • Promotes responsible behavior • Requires minimal supervision by government • Assessing the Model • Promotes responsible behavior • Requires minimal supervision by government • Can help slow the use of virgin raw materials by improving availability of recycled materials 23

Deposit/Refund Systems in Practice • Deposit/refund systems are used worldwide – Many nations use Deposit/Refund Systems in Practice • Deposit/refund systems are used worldwide – Many nations use these systems to encourage proper disposal of beverage containers: in the U. S. , 11 states have bottle bills • Other applications include systems used to promote responsible disposal of used tires, car hulks, and lead-acid batteries 24

4. Pollution Permit Trading Systems • A pollution permit trading system establishes a market 4. Pollution Permit Trading Systems • A pollution permit trading system establishes a market for rights to pollute by issuing _____ pollution credits or allowances – Credits are issued for emitting below a standard – Allowances indicate how much can be released • Two components of the system are 1. Fixed number of permits is issued based on an “acceptable” level of pollution set by government 2. The permits are marketable 25

How Permit Trading Works There is an incentive to trade as long as polluters How Permit Trading Works There is an incentive to trade as long as polluters face different ____ levels • Suppose a firm has 50 permits but normally emits 75 units of SO 2. What must it do? – Answer • Abate 25 units of emissions, OR • Buy 25 permits from another producer • Which option will the firm choose? – Answer • Whichever option is cheaper • 26

Result • Low-cost abaters will clean up pollution and sell excess permits to other Result • Low-cost abaters will clean up pollution and sell excess permits to other firms – They will _____ at any P _____ than their MAC • High-cost abaters will buy permits rather than abate – They will _____ at any P _____ than their MAC • Trading will continue until the incentive to do so no longer exists, at which point, the cost-effective solution is obtained, i. e. , the MACs across firms are _____ 27

An Example (Ch 4—slide 20) Polluter 1: TAC 1 = 1. 25(A 1)2 MAC An Example (Ch 4—slide 20) Polluter 1: TAC 1 = 1. 25(A 1)2 MAC 1 = 2. 5(A 1) • where A 1 is pollution abated by Polluter 1 Polluter 2: TAC 2 = 0. 3125(A 2)2 MAC 2 = 0. 625(A 2) • where A 2 is pollution abated by Polluter 2 28

Round 1: Government issues 5 permits to each polluter Polluter 1: Current pollution level: Round 1: Government issues 5 permits to each polluter Polluter 1: Current pollution level: 10 units # of permit held: 5 abatement required: 5 MAC 1 = 2. 5(A 1)=2. 5( __ )= $12. 50 TAC 1 = 1. 25(A 1)2=1. 25( __) 2= $31. 25 Polluter 2: Current pollution level: 10 units # of permit held: 5 abatement required: 5 MAC 2 = 0. 625(A 2)=0. 625( ___)= $3. 125 TAC 2 = 0. 3125(A 2)2=0. 3125( ___) 2= $7. 81 29

Round 2: Polluter 1 purchases 1 permit ($8. 00) from polluter 2 Polluter 1: Round 2: Polluter 1 purchases 1 permit ($8. 00) from polluter 2 Polluter 1: Current pollution level: 10 units # of permit held: 6 abatement required: 4 MAC 1 = 2. 5(A 1)=2. 5( ___)= $10. 00 TAC 1 = 1. 25(A 1)2=1. 25(___) 2= $20. 00 (cost of 1 permit purchased=$8. 00) Polluter 2: Current pollution level: 10 units # of permit held: 4 abatement required: 6 MAC 2 = 0. 625(A 2)=0. 625(___)= $3. 75 TAC 2 = 0. 3125(A 2)2=0. 3125(___) 2= $11. 25 (revenue from 1 permit sold=$8. 00) 30

Final round: Polluter 1 purchases 3 permits ($8; $7; $5) from polluter 2; MAC Final round: Polluter 1 purchases 3 permits ($8; $7; $5) from polluter 2; MAC 1 = MAC 2 Polluter 1: Current pollution level: 10 units # of permit held: 8 abatement required: 2 MAC 1 = 2. 5(A 1)=2. 5(___)= $5. 00 TAC 1 = 1. 25(A 1)2=1. 25(___) 2= $5. 00 (cost of 3 permits purchased=$8+$7+$5=$20. 00) Polluter 2: Current pollution level: 10 units # of permit held: 2 abatement required: 8 MAC 2 = 0. 625(A 2)=0. 625(___)= $5. 00 TAC 2 = 0. 3125(A 2)2=0. 3125(___) 2= $20. 00 (revenue from 3 permits sold =$8+$7+$5=$20. 00) 31

Assessing the Model Advantages: • Trading establishes the price of a right to pollute Assessing the Model Advantages: • Trading establishes the price of a right to pollute without government trying to “search” for a price • Trading system is flexible – Note that an emissions standard can be adjusted by changing the number of permits issued • Cost-effective solution is obtained 32

Disadvantages: • No tax revenues are generated • When there are too many buyers Disadvantages: • No tax revenues are generated • When there are too many buyers and sellers, transaction cost (the cost of conducting a negotiation) is big • The system creates “pollution hot spots” (localized areas face high concentrations of pollutants where most of the permit buying takes place) 33

Pollution Trading Systems in Practice • • Most of the evolution of trading is Pollution Trading Systems in Practice • • Most of the evolution of trading is occurring in U. S. – An important example is the allowance-based trading program to control sulfur dioxide emissions under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 – More innovation has occurred at state and local levels • Ozone Transport Commission in the Northeast • California Regional Clean Air Incentives Market (RECLAIM) Key international example – Trading of greenhouse gas allowances are part of the Kyoto Protocol, an international accord aimed at global warming • Includes the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading System (EU ETS), launched in 2005 34

Positive Externalities from Education • A more educated population benefits society: – lower crime Positive Externalities from Education • A more educated population benefits society: – lower crime rates: educated people have more opportunities, so less likely to rob and steal – better government: educated people make betterinformed voters • People do not consider these external benefits when deciding how much education to “purchase” • Result: market eq’m quantity of education—too low • How govt may improve the market outcome: – subsidize cost of education 35

Other Examples of Positive Externalities • Being vaccinated against contagious diseases protects not only Other Examples of Positive Externalities • Being vaccinated against contagious diseases protects not only you, but people who visit the salad bar or produce section after you. Thank you for not contaminating the fruit supply! 36

Positive Externalities • In the presence of a positive externality, the social value of Positive Externalities • In the presence of a positive externality, the social value of a good includes – private value – the direct value to buyers – external benefit – the value of the positive impact on bystanders 37

1: Analysis of a positive externality ACTIVE LEARNING P The market for flu shots 1: Analysis of a positive externality ACTIVE LEARNING P The market for flu shots External benefit = $10/shot • Draw the social value curve. • Find the socially optimal Q. • What policy would internalize this externality? $50 40 S 30 20 10 D 0 0 10 20 30 Q 38

ACTIVE LEARNING Answers 1: Socially optimal Q = ___ shots 25 P The market ACTIVE LEARNING Answers 1: Socially optimal Q = ___ shots 25 P The market for flu shots $50 external benefit 40 S 30 To internalize the externality, use _______ subsidy = $10/shot. Social value = private value + external benefit 20 10 D 0 0 10 20 25 30 Q 39

Effects of Externalities: Summary If negative externality § market produces a larger quantity than Effects of Externalities: Summary If negative externality § market produces a larger quantity than is socially desirable If positive externality § market produces a smaller quantity than is socially desirable To remedy the problem, “internalize the externality” § tax goods with negative externalities § subsidize goods with positive externalities 40

Consumption externalities Production externalities Positive Negative The benefits to the rest of society of Consumption externalities Production externalities Positive Negative The benefits to the rest of society of people being vaccinated before traveling abroad Noise pollution from using car stereos The benefits to the environment that arise from the planting of woodland by a forestry company Wastes being dumped into a river by a company 41