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Chapter 4 Section 2 b Chapter 4 Section 2 b

Conquest & War Weakened Rome n n Wars bring glory & create poverty Gap Conquest & War Weakened Rome n n Wars bring glory & create poverty Gap between rich & poor Small farmers lose land to rich ( slave work land ) import cheap food Farmers move to city -> no jobs, masses of unhappy people

Corruption in Govt n n n Rich buy votes Help themselves to tax money Corruption in Govt n n n Rich buy votes Help themselves to tax money Wide gap between rich &poor Efforts to please with “ bread & circuses” Free food & contests “ gladiators”

Romans Attempt Reforms n n n Realize the republic is in danger 1 st Romans Attempt Reforms n n n Realize the republic is in danger 1 st reformers: Tiberius& Gaius Gracchus Believe problems : condition of farmers landless & soldiers = give land back Senate puts Tiberius to death , Gaius kills himself Military leaders fight for control One - hero - dictator - Sulla

Julius Caesar Wins Control n n Popular with the masses Spends money on the Julius Caesar Wins Control n n Popular with the masses Spends money on the poor Marries a popular daughter Gains Sulla as a enemy

First Triumvirate n n n n Caesar joins forces “ political alliance’ A. - First Triumvirate n n n n Caesar joins forces “ political alliance’ A. - Hero = Pompey B. Crassus : richest man in Rome C. Caesar : consul & general - writes a story of military campaigns - brilliant military commander - while in Gaul , Crassus is killed in Persia

n n Pompey rules as dictator - afraid of Caesar - orders him to n n Pompey rules as dictator - afraid of Caesar - orders him to disband army - return to Italy

Triumph of Caesar n n n n 4 yrs of civil war - Pompey Triumph of Caesar n n n n 4 yrs of civil war - Pompey flees , Caesar becomes dictator of Rome Pompey is later murdered in Egypt Caesar starts many reforms 1. Sets up a stable govt. 2. Give people in provinces equal Rts. 3. Make the Senate more representative 44 BC Caesar is assassinated , (Mar 15)

Augustus 1 st Emperor n n n Caesars death issues in civil war Octavian Augustus 1 st Emperor n n n Caesars death issues in civil war Octavian & Mark Antony hunt down the assassins Divide up Rome , Octavian- west , Rome Antony - east , Egypt = Cleopatra : plan to invade the west Rome declares war on them

n n n Battle at Actium , Octavian wins & will now be called n n n Battle at Actium , Octavian wins & will now be called Augustus Rules a united empire 1. Rebuilds highways 2. Public buildings 3. Fair tax collection - commerce flourished

n n - wide spread prosperity - established the “ Pax Romana” = 200 n n - wide spread prosperity - established the “ Pax Romana” = 200 yrs of peace