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Chapter 4 Network Layer A note on the use of these ppt slides: We’re Chapter 4 Network Layer A note on the use of these ppt slides: We’re making these slides freely available to all (faculty, students, readers). They’re in Power. Point form so you can add, modify, and delete slides (including this one) and slide content to suit your needs. They obviously represent a lot of work on our part. In return for use, we only ask the following: q If you use these slides (e. g. , in a class) in substantially unaltered form, that you mention their source (after all, we’d like people to use our book!) q If you post any slides in substantially unaltered form on a www site, that you note that they are adapted from (or perhaps identical to) our slides, and note our copyright of this material. Computer Networking: A Top Down Approach 4 th edition. Jim Kurose, Keith Ross Addison-Wesley, July 2007. Thanks and enjoy! JFK/KWR All material copyright 1996 -2007 J. F Kurose and K. W. Ross, All Rights Reserved Network Layer 4 -1

Chapter 4: Network Layer Chapter goals: r understand principles behind network layer services: m Chapter 4: Network Layer Chapter goals: r understand principles behind network layer services: m network layer service models m forwarding versus routing m how a router works m routing (path selection) m dealing with scale m advanced topics: IPv 6, mobility r instantiation, implementation in the Internet Network Layer 4 -2

Chapter 4: Network Layer r 4. 1 Introduction r 4. 2 Virtual circuit and Chapter 4: Network Layer r 4. 1 Introduction r 4. 2 Virtual circuit and datagram networks r 4. 3 What’s inside a router r 4. 4 IP: Internet Protocol m m Datagram format IPv 4 addressing ICMP IPv 6 r 4. 5 Routing algorithms m Link state m Distance Vector m Hierarchical routing r 4. 6 Routing in the Internet m m m RIP OSPF BGP r 4. 7 Broadcast and multicast routing Network Layer 4 -3

Network layer r transport segment from r r sending to receiving host on sending Network layer r transport segment from r r sending to receiving host on sending side encapsulates segments into datagrams on rcving side, delivers segments to transport layer network layer protocols in every host, router examines header fields in all IP datagrams passing through it application transport network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical Network Layer application transport network data link physical 4 -4

Two Key Network-Layer Functions r forwarding: move packets from router’s input to appropriate router Two Key Network-Layer Functions r forwarding: move packets from router’s input to appropriate router output r routing: determine route taken by packets from source to dest. m routing analogy: r routing: process of planning trip from source to dest r forwarding: process of getting through single interchange algorithms Network Layer 4 -5

Interplay between routing and forwarding routing algorithm local forwarding table header value output link Interplay between routing and forwarding routing algorithm local forwarding table header value output link 0100 0101 0111 1001 3 2 2 1 value in arriving packet’s header 0111 1 3 2 Network Layer 4 -6

Connection setup r 3 rd important function in some network architectures: m ATM, frame Connection setup r 3 rd important function in some network architectures: m ATM, frame relay, X. 25 r before datagrams flow, two end hosts and intervening routers establish virtual connection m routers get involved r network vs transport layer connection service: m network: between two hosts (may also involve intervening routers in case of VCs) m transport: between two processes Network Layer 4 -7

Network service model Q: What service model for “channel” transporting datagrams from sender to Network service model Q: What service model for “channel” transporting datagrams from sender to receiver? Example services for individual datagrams: r guaranteed delivery with less than 40 msec delay Example services for a flow of datagrams: r in-order datagram delivery r guaranteed minimum bandwidth to flow r restrictions on changes in inter-packet spacing Network Layer 4 -8

Network layer service models: Network Architecture Internet Service Model Guarantees ? Congestion Bandwidth Loss Network layer service models: Network Architecture Internet Service Model Guarantees ? Congestion Bandwidth Loss Order Timing feedback best effort none ATM CBR ATM VBR ATM ABR ATM UBR constant rate guaranteed minimum none no no no yes yes yes no no (inferred via loss) no congestion yes no no Network Layer 4 -9

Chapter 4: Network Layer r 4. 1 Introduction r 4. 2 Virtual circuit and Chapter 4: Network Layer r 4. 1 Introduction r 4. 2 Virtual circuit and datagram networks r 4. 3 What’s inside a router r 4. 4 IP: Internet Protocol m m Datagram format IPv 4 addressing ICMP IPv 6 r 4. 5 Routing algorithms m Link state m Distance Vector m Hierarchical routing r 4. 6 Routing in the Internet m m m RIP OSPF BGP r 4. 7 Broadcast and multicast routing Network Layer 4 -10

Network layer connection and connection-less service r datagram network provides network-layer connectionless service r Network layer connection and connection-less service r datagram network provides network-layer connectionless service r VC network provides network-layer connection service r analogous to the transport-layer services, but: m service: host-to-host m no choice: network provides one or the other m implementation: in network core Network Layer 4 -11

Virtual circuits “source-to-dest path behaves much like telephone circuit” m m performance-wise network actions Virtual circuits “source-to-dest path behaves much like telephone circuit” m m performance-wise network actions along source-to-dest path r call setup, teardown for each call before data can flow r each packet carries VC identifier (not destination host address) r every router on source-dest path maintains “state” for each passing connection r link, router resources (bandwidth, buffers) may be allocated to VC (dedicated resources = predictable service) Network Layer 4 -12

VC implementation a VC consists of: 1. 2. 3. path from source to destination VC implementation a VC consists of: 1. 2. 3. path from source to destination VC numbers, one number for each link along path entries in forwarding tables in routers along path r packet belonging to VC carries VC number (rather than dest address) r VC number can be changed on each link. m New VC number comes from forwarding table Network Layer 4 -13

Forwarding table VC number 22 12 1 Forwarding table in northwest router: Incoming interface Forwarding table VC number 22 12 1 Forwarding table in northwest router: Incoming interface 1 2 3 1 … 2 32 3 interface number Incoming VC # 12 63 7 97 … Outgoing interface 3 1 2 3 … Outgoing VC # 22 18 17 87 … Routers maintain connection state information! Network Layer 4 -14

Virtual circuits: signaling protocols r used to setup, maintain teardown VC r used in Virtual circuits: signaling protocols r used to setup, maintain teardown VC r used in ATM, frame-relay, X. 25 r not used in today’s Internet application transport 5. Data flow begins network 4. Call connected data link 1. Initiate call physical 6. Receive data application 3. Accept call transport 2. incoming call network data link physical Network Layer 4 -15

Datagram networks r no call setup at network layer r routers: no state about Datagram networks r no call setup at network layer r routers: no state about end-to-end connections m no network-level concept of “connection” r packets forwarded using destination host address m packets between same source-dest pair may take different paths application transport network data link 1. Send data physical application transport 2. Receive data network data link physical Network Layer 4 -16

Forwarding table Destination Address Range 4 billion possible entries Link Interface 11001000 00010111 00010000 Forwarding table Destination Address Range 4 billion possible entries Link Interface 11001000 00010111 00010000 through 11001000 00010111 1111 0 11001000 00010111 00011000 0000 through 11001000 00010111 00011000 1111 1 11001000 00010111 00011001 0000 through 11001000 00010111 00011111 2 otherwise 3 Network Layer 4 -17

Longest prefix matching Prefix Match 11001000 00010111 00010 11001000 00010111 00011000 11001000 00010111 00011 Longest prefix matching Prefix Match 11001000 00010111 00010 11001000 00010111 00011000 11001000 00010111 00011 otherwise Link Interface 0 1 2 3 Examples DA: 11001000 00010111 00010110 10100001 Which interface? DA: 11001000 00010111 00011000 1010 Which interface? Network Layer 4 -18

Datagram or VC network: why? Internet (datagram) r data exchange among ATM (VC) r Datagram or VC network: why? Internet (datagram) r data exchange among ATM (VC) r evolved from telephony computers r human conversation: m “elastic” service, no strict m strict timing, reliability timing requirements r “smart” end systems m need for guaranteed (computers) service m can adapt, perform r “dumb” end systems control, error recovery m telephones m simple inside network, m complexity inside complexity at “edge” network r many link types m different characteristics m uniform service difficult Network Layer 4 -19

Chapter 4: Network Layer r 4. 1 Introduction r 4. 2 Virtual circuit and Chapter 4: Network Layer r 4. 1 Introduction r 4. 2 Virtual circuit and datagram networks r 4. 3 What’s inside a router r 4. 4 IP: Internet Protocol m m Datagram format IPv 4 addressing ICMP IPv 6 r 4. 5 Routing algorithms m Link state m Distance Vector m Hierarchical routing r 4. 6 Routing in the Internet m m m RIP OSPF BGP r 4. 7 Broadcast and multicast routing Network Layer 4 -20

Router Architecture Overview Two key router functions: r run routing algorithms/protocol (RIP, OSPF, BGP) Router Architecture Overview Two key router functions: r run routing algorithms/protocol (RIP, OSPF, BGP) r forwarding datagrams from incoming to outgoing link Network Layer 4 -21

Input Port Functions Physical layer: bit-level reception Data link layer: e. g. , Ethernet Input Port Functions Physical layer: bit-level reception Data link layer: e. g. , Ethernet see chapter 5 Decentralized switching: r given datagram dest. , lookup output port using forwarding table in input port memory r goal: complete input port processing at ‘line speed’ r queuing: if datagrams arrive faster than forwarding rate into switch fabric Network Layer 4 -22

Three types of switching fabrics Network Layer 4 -23 Three types of switching fabrics Network Layer 4 -23

Switching Via Memory First generation routers: r traditional computers with switching under direct control Switching Via Memory First generation routers: r traditional computers with switching under direct control of CPU rpacket copied to system’s memory r speed limited by memory bandwidth (2 bus crossings per datagram) Input Port Memory Output Port System Bus Network Layer 4 -24

Switching Via a Bus r datagram from input port memory to output port memory Switching Via a Bus r datagram from input port memory to output port memory via a shared bus r bus contention: switching speed limited by bus bandwidth r 32 Gbps bus, Cisco 5600: sufficient speed for access and enterprise routers Network Layer 4 -25

Switching Via An Interconnection Network r overcome bus bandwidth limitations r Banyan networks, other Switching Via An Interconnection Network r overcome bus bandwidth limitations r Banyan networks, other interconnection nets initially developed to connect processors in multiprocessor r advanced design: fragmenting datagram into fixed length cells, switch cells through the fabric. r Cisco 12000: switches 60 Gbps through the interconnection network Network Layer 4 -26

Output Ports r Buffering required when datagrams arrive from fabric faster than the transmission Output Ports r Buffering required when datagrams arrive from fabric faster than the transmission rate r Scheduling discipline chooses among queued datagrams for transmission Network Layer 4 -27

Output port queueing r buffering when arrival rate via switch exceeds output line speed Output port queueing r buffering when arrival rate via switch exceeds output line speed r queueing (delay) and loss due to output port buffer overflow! Network Layer 4 -28

How much buffering? r RFC 3439 rule of thumb: average buffering equal to “typical” How much buffering? r RFC 3439 rule of thumb: average buffering equal to “typical” RTT (say 250 msec) times link capacity C m e. g. , C = 10 Gps link: 2. 5 Gbit buffer r Recent recommendation: with N flows, buffering equal to RTT. C N Network Layer 4 -29

Input Port Queuing r Fabric slower than input ports combined -> queueing may occur Input Port Queuing r Fabric slower than input ports combined -> queueing may occur at input queues r Head-of-the-Line (HOL) blocking: queued datagram at front of queue prevents others in queue from moving forward r queueing delay and loss due to input buffer overflow! Network Layer 4 -30

Chapter 4: Network Layer r 4. 1 Introduction r 4. 2 Virtual circuit and Chapter 4: Network Layer r 4. 1 Introduction r 4. 2 Virtual circuit and datagram networks r 4. 3 What’s inside a router r 4. 4 IP: Internet Protocol m m Datagram format IPv 4 addressing ICMP IPv 6 r 4. 5 Routing algorithms m Link state m Distance Vector m Hierarchical routing r 4. 6 Routing in the Internet m m m RIP OSPF BGP r 4. 7 Broadcast and multicast routing Network Layer 4 -31

The Internet Network layer Host, router network layer functions: Transport layer: TCP, UDP Network The Internet Network layer Host, router network layer functions: Transport layer: TCP, UDP Network layer IP protocol • addressing conventions • datagram format • packet handling conventions Routing protocols • path selection • RIP, OSPF, BGP forwarding table ICMP protocol • error reporting • router “signaling” Link layer physical layer Network Layer 4 -32

Chapter 4: Network Layer r 4. 1 Introduction r 4. 2 Virtual circuit and Chapter 4: Network Layer r 4. 1 Introduction r 4. 2 Virtual circuit and datagram networks r 4. 3 What’s inside a router r 4. 4 IP: Internet Protocol m m Datagram format IPv 4 addressing ICMP IPv 6 r 4. 5 Routing algorithms m Link state m Distance Vector m Hierarchical routing r 4. 6 Routing in the Internet m m m RIP OSPF BGP r 4. 7 Broadcast and multicast routing Network Layer 4 -33

IP datagram format IP protocol version number header length (bytes) “type” of data max IP datagram format IP protocol version number header length (bytes) “type” of data max number remaining hops (decremented at each router) upper layer protocol to deliver payload to how much overhead with TCP? r 20 bytes of TCP r 20 bytes of IP r = 40 bytes + app layer overhead 32 bits ver head. type of len service length fragment 16 -bit identifier flgs offset upper time to header layer live checksum total datagram length (bytes) for fragmentation/ reassembly 32 bit source IP address 32 bit destination IP address Options (if any) data (variable length, typically a TCP or UDP segment) E. g. timestamp, record route taken, specify list of routers to visit. Network Layer 4 -34

IP Fragmentation & Reassembly r network links have MTU (max. transfer size) - largest IP Fragmentation & Reassembly r network links have MTU (max. transfer size) - largest possible link-level frame. m different link types, different MTUs r large IP datagram divided (“fragmented”) within net m one datagram becomes several datagrams m “reassembled” only at final destination m IP header bits used to identify, order related fragments fragmentation: in: one large datagram out: 3 smaller datagrams reassembly Network Layer 4 -35

IP Fragmentation and Reassembly Example r 4000 byte datagram r MTU = 1500 bytes IP Fragmentation and Reassembly Example r 4000 byte datagram r MTU = 1500 bytes 1480 bytes in data field offset = 1480/8 length ID fragflag offset =4000 =x =0 =0 One large datagram becomes several smaller datagrams length ID fragflag offset =1500 =x =1 =0 length ID fragflag offset =1500 =x =1 =185 length ID fragflag offset =1040 =x =0 =370 Network Layer 4 -36

Chapter 4: Network Layer r 4. 1 Introduction r 4. 2 Virtual circuit and Chapter 4: Network Layer r 4. 1 Introduction r 4. 2 Virtual circuit and datagram networks r 4. 3 What’s inside a router r 4. 4 IP: Internet Protocol m m Datagram format IPv 4 addressing ICMP IPv 6 r 4. 5 Routing algorithms m Link state m Distance Vector m Hierarchical routing r 4. 6 Routing in the Internet m m m RIP OSPF BGP r 4. 7 Broadcast and multicast routing Network Layer 4 -37

IP Addressing: introduction r IP address: 32 -bit identifier for host, router interface: connection IP Addressing: introduction r IP address: 32 -bit identifier for host, router interface: connection between host/router and physical link m m m router’s typically have multiple interfaces host typically has one interface IP addresses associated with each interface 223. 1. 1. 1 223. 1. 1. 2 223. 1. 1. 4 223. 1. 1. 3 223. 1. 2. 1 223. 1. 2. 9 223. 1. 3. 27 223. 1. 2. 2 223. 1. 1. 1 = 11011111 00000001 223 1 1 1 Network Layer 4 -38

Subnets r IP address: m subnet part (high order bits) m host part (low Subnets r IP address: m subnet part (high order bits) m host part (low order bits) r What’s a subnet ? m device interfaces with same subnet part of IP address m can physically reach other without intervening router 223. 1. 1. 1 223. 1. 1. 2 223. 1. 1. 4 223. 1. 1. 3 223. 1. 2. 1 223. 1. 2. 9 223. 1. 3. 27 223. 1. 2. 2 subnet 223. 1. 3. 2 network consisting of 3 subnets Network Layer 4 -39

Subnets Recipe r To determine the subnets, detach each interface from its host or Subnets Recipe r To determine the subnets, detach each interface from its host or router, creating islands of isolated networks. Each isolated network is called a subnet. 223. 1. 1. 0/24 223. 1. 2. 0/24 223. 1. 3. 0/24 Subnet mask: /24 Network Layer 4 -40

Subnets 223. 1. 1. 2 How many? 223. 1. 1. 1 223. 1. 1. Subnets 223. 1. 1. 2 How many? 223. 1. 1. 1 223. 1. 1. 4 223. 1. 1. 3 223. 1. 9. 2 223. 1. 7. 0 223. 1. 9. 1 223. 1. 7. 1 223. 1. 8. 0 223. 1. 2. 6 223. 1. 2. 1 223. 1. 3. 27 223. 1. 2. 2 223. 1. 3. 2 Network Layer 4 -41

IP addressing: CIDR: Classless Inter. Domain Routing m subnet portion of address of arbitrary IP addressing: CIDR: Classless Inter. Domain Routing m subnet portion of address of arbitrary length m address format: a. b. c. d/x, where x is # bits in subnet portion of address subnet part host part 11001000 00010111 00010000 200. 23. 16. 0/23 Network Layer 4 -42

IP addresses: how to get one? Q: How does a host get IP address? IP addresses: how to get one? Q: How does a host get IP address? r hard-coded by system admin in a file m Windows: control-panel->network->configuration>tcp/ip->properties m UNIX: /etc/rc. config r DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol: dynamically get address from as server m “plug-and-play” Network Layer 4 -43

DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Goal: allow host to dynamically obtain its IP address DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Goal: allow host to dynamically obtain its IP address from network server when it joins network Can renew its lease on address in use Allows reuse of addresses (only hold address while connected an “on”) Support for mobile users who want to join network (more shortly) DHCP overview: m host broadcasts “DHCP discover” msg m DHCP server responds with “DHCP offer” msg m host requests IP address: “DHCP request” msg m DHCP server sends address: “DHCP ack” msg Network Layer 4 -44

DHCP client-server scenario A B 223. 1. 1. 2 223. 1. 1. 4 223. DHCP client-server scenario A B 223. 1. 1. 2 223. 1. 1. 4 223. 1. 1. 3 223. 1. 2. 1 DHCP server 223. 1. 1. 1 223. 1. 2. 9 223. 1. 3. 27 223. 1. 2. 2 223. 1. 3. 2 E arriving DHCP client needs address in this network Network Layer 4 -45

DHCP client-server scenario DHCP server: 223. 1. 2. 5 DHCP discover src : 0. DHCP client-server scenario DHCP server: 223. 1. 2. 5 DHCP discover src : 0. 0, 68 dest. : 255, 67 yiaddr: 0. 0 transaction ID: 654 arriving client DHCP offer src: 223. 1. 2. 5, 67 dest: 255, 68 yiaddrr: 223. 1. 2. 4 transaction ID: 654 Lifetime: 3600 secs DHCP request time src: 0. 0, 68 dest: : 255, 67 yiaddrr: 223. 1. 2. 4 transaction ID: 655 Lifetime: 3600 secs DHCP ACK src: 223. 1. 2. 5, 67 dest: 255, 68 yiaddrr: 223. 1. 2. 4 transaction ID: 655 Lifetime: 3600 secs Network Layer 4 -46

IP addresses: how to get one? Q: How does network get subnet part of IP addresses: how to get one? Q: How does network get subnet part of IP addr? A: gets allocated portion of its provider ISP’s address space ISP's block 11001000 00010111 00010000 200. 23. 16. 0/20 Organization 1 Organization 2. . . 11001000 00010111 00010000 11001000 00010111 00010010 0000 11001000 00010111 00010100 0000 …. 200. 23. 16. 0/23 200. 23. 18. 0/23 200. 23. 20. 0/23 …. Organization 7 11001000 00010111 00011110 0000 200. 23. 30. 0/23 Network Layer 4 -47

Hierarchical addressing: route aggregation Hierarchical addressing allows efficient advertisement of routing information: Organization 0 Hierarchical addressing: route aggregation Hierarchical addressing allows efficient advertisement of routing information: Organization 0 200. 23. 16. 0/23 Organization 1 200. 23. 18. 0/23 Organization 2 200. 23. 20. 0/23 Organization 7 . . . Fly-By-Night-ISP “Send me anything with addresses beginning 200. 23. 16. 0/20” Internet 200. 23. 30. 0/23 ISPs-R-Us “Send me anything with addresses beginning 199. 31. 0. 0/16” Network Layer 4 -48

Hierarchical addressing: more specific routes ISPs-R-Us has a more specific route to Organization 1 Hierarchical addressing: more specific routes ISPs-R-Us has a more specific route to Organization 1 Organization 0 200. 23. 16. 0/23 Organization 2 200. 23. 20. 0/23 Organization 7 . . . Fly-By-Night-ISP “Send me anything with addresses beginning 200. 23. 16. 0/20” Internet 200. 23. 30. 0/23 ISPs-R-Us Organization 1 200. 23. 18. 0/23 “Send me anything with addresses beginning 199. 31. 0. 0/16 or 200. 23. 18. 0/23” Network Layer 4 -49

IP addressing: the last word. . . Q: How does an ISP get block IP addressing: the last word. . . Q: How does an ISP get block of addresses? A: ICANN: Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers m allocates addresses m manages DNS m assigns domain names, resolves disputes Network Layer 4 -50

NAT: Network Address Translation rest of Internet local network (e. g. , home network) NAT: Network Address Translation rest of Internet local network (e. g. , home network) 10. 0. 0/24 10. 0. 0. 1 10. 0. 0. 2 138. 76. 29. 7 10. 0. 0. 3 All datagrams leaving local network have same single source NAT IP address: 138. 76. 29. 7, different source port numbers Datagrams with source or destination in this network have 10. 0. 0/24 address for source, destination (as usual) Network Layer 4 -51

NAT: Network Address Translation r Motivation: local network uses just one IP address as NAT: Network Address Translation r Motivation: local network uses just one IP address as far as outside world is concerned: m range of addresses not needed from ISP: just one IP address for all devices m can change addresses of devices in local network without notifying outside world m can change ISP without changing addresses of devices in local network m devices inside local net not explicitly addressable, visible by outside world (a security plus). Network Layer 4 -52

NAT: Network Address Translation Implementation: NAT router must: m outgoing datagrams: replace (source IP NAT: Network Address Translation Implementation: NAT router must: m outgoing datagrams: replace (source IP address, port #) of every outgoing datagram to (NAT IP address, new port #). . . remote clients/servers will respond using (NAT IP address, new port #) as destination addr. m remember (in NAT translation table) every (source IP address, port #) to (NAT IP address, new port #) translation pair m incoming datagrams: replace (NAT IP address, new port #) in dest fields of every incoming datagram with corresponding (source IP address, port #) stored in NAT table Network Layer 4 -53

NAT: Network Address Translation 2: NAT router changes datagram source addr from 10. 0. NAT: Network Address Translation 2: NAT router changes datagram source addr from 10. 0. 0. 1, 3345 to 138. 76. 29. 7, 5001, updates table 2 NAT translation table WAN side addr LAN side addr 1: host 10. 0. 0. 1 sends datagram to 128. 119. 40. 186, 80 138. 76. 29. 7, 5001 10. 0. 0. 1, 3345 …… …… S: 10. 0. 0. 1, 3345 D: 128. 119. 40. 186, 80 S: 138. 76. 29. 7, 5001 D: 128. 119. 40. 186, 80 138. 76. 29. 7 S: 128. 119. 40. 186, 80 D: 138. 76. 29. 7, 5001 3: Reply arrives dest. address: 138. 76. 29. 7, 5001 3 1 10. 0. 0. 4 S: 128. 119. 40. 186, 80 D: 10. 0. 0. 1, 3345 10. 0. 0. 1 10. 0. 0. 2 4 10. 0. 0. 3 4: NAT router changes datagram dest addr from 138. 76. 29. 7, 5001 to 10. 0. 0. 1, 3345 Network Layer 4 -54

NAT: Network Address Translation r 16 -bit port-number field: m 60, 000 simultaneous connections NAT: Network Address Translation r 16 -bit port-number field: m 60, 000 simultaneous connections with a single LAN-side address! r NAT is controversial: m routers should only process up to layer 3 m violates end-to-end argument • NAT possibility must be taken into account by app designers, eg, P 2 P applications m address IPv 6 shortage should instead be solved by Network Layer 4 -55

NAT traversal problem r client wants to connect to server with address 10. 0. NAT traversal problem r client wants to connect to server with address 10. 0. 0. 1 m m server address 10. 0. 0. 1 local Client to LAN (client can’t use it as destination addr) only one externally visible NATted address: 138. 76. 29. 7 r solution 1: statically configure NAT to forward incoming connection requests at given port to server m 10. 0. 0. 1 ? 138. 76. 29. 7 10. 0. 0. 4 NAT router e. g. , (123. 76. 29. 7, port 2500) always forwarded to 10. 0. 0. 1 port 25000 Network Layer 4 -56

NAT traversal problem r solution 2: Universal Plug and Play (UPn. P) Internet Gateway NAT traversal problem r solution 2: Universal Plug and Play (UPn. P) Internet Gateway Device (IGD) Protocol. Allows NATted host to: v learn public IP address (138. 76. 29. 7) v add/remove port mappings (with lease times) 10. 0. 0. 1 IGD 10. 0. 0. 4 138. 76. 29. 7 NAT router i. e. , automate static NAT port map configuration Network Layer 4 -57

NAT traversal problem r solution 3: relaying (used in Skype) m NATed client establishes NAT traversal problem r solution 3: relaying (used in Skype) m NATed client establishes connection to relay m External client connects to relay m relay bridges packets between to connections 2. connection to relay initiated by client Client 3. relaying established 1. connection to relay initiated by NATted host 138. 76. 29. 7 10. 0. 0. 1 NAT router Network Layer 4 -58

Chapter 4: summary r 4. 1 Introduction r 4. 2 Virtual circuit and datagram Chapter 4: summary r 4. 1 Introduction r 4. 2 Virtual circuit and datagram networks r 4. 3 What’s inside a router r 4. 4 IP: Internet Protocol m m Datagram format IPv 4 addressing ICMP IPv 6 r 4. 5 Routing algorithms m Link state m Distance Vector m Hierarchical routing r 4. 6 Routing in the Internet m m m RIP OSPF BGP r 4. 7 Broadcast and multicast routing Network Layer 4 -59