- Количество слайдов: 74
Chapter 4: Languages Communication, Aspects of Cultures
What do you call someone who • • Speaks Two languages? Speaks three languages? Speaks four or more languages? Speaks one language?
Linguistic boundaries • Languages are definite separators of cultures. – If you cannot communicate, you cannot understand. Gallic Shrug Translations: • It’s not my fault • I don’t know • I doubt it can be done • I don’t really agree Source: Gesture 6: « Alors là / Bof » http: //french. about. com/library/weekly/aa 020901 g. htm Different Image: http: //farm 4. static. flickr. com/3440/3889275125_5276695 abf. jpg
Language • Common oral communication of a group. . . – Transmits • • Ideas Beliefs Histories Codes, laws, rules Stories Agreements Formal religions
Linguistic Families in Africa • Linguistic Families are often regionally separate. • These families bisect countries. – http: //www. artsci. wustl. edu/~anthro/courses/306/language. GIF – Text: http: //www. artsci. wustl. edu/~anthro/courses/306/resources. html
Language and Acculturation • Acculturation often involves development or adoption of new linguistic norms. • Examples: – Immigrants ‘fitting in’ by learning a new language – German aggregation of various languages and dialects • (Figure, next page) – French focus on 'pure French' • No 'Franglais', no borrow words • State committee on language to 'make it so. ' • Suppression of variations, dialects
• • http: //www. serve. com/shea/germusa/dialkart. jpg Text: http: //www. serve. com/shea/germusa/dialects. htm Where is this? What countries are affected?
Language barriers: further separation of cultures • • Strongly differentiate 'us' from 'them. ' Provide barriers to communication. Help maintain old suspicions and hatreds. 'Ours' is better. – Francophiles vs. Anglophiles • Help sustain cultural conflicts. – There was usually an original trigger, and other acts that followed. – Lack of communication effectively keeps groups apart. • Bilingual and monolingual efforts (local events) – Arizona – California
Image: http: //www. unc. edu/~tgillan /chechenlanguate. jpg Context: http: //www. unc. edu/~tgillan /language_map. html Caucasus Mountain Language Groups
Languages make it harder to keep countries together. . . • Multi-lingual countries require extra effort to keep them together. • This is particularly true of colonial countries, whose boundaries were arbitrarily drawn, not following linguistic or other cultural patterns.
Kenya: one country, multiple languages http: //www. simbaeastafricansaf ari. com/Language%20 Map%20 Kenya. jpg
Accommodation: Switzerland, The oldest federation Take-home message: It is not impossible to keep together. Our longest standing federal republic is multilingual. http: //www. genealogienetz. de/reg/CH/chspra. jpg, Context: http: //www. genealogienetz. de/reg/CH/history. html
Language barriers ------within a country (Cultural split reinforced by language barriers. ) Source: http: //www. ned. univie. ac. at/Publicaties/taalgeschiedenis/en/belgie. gif Context: http: //www. ned. univie. ac. at/Publicaties/taalgeschiedenis/en/belgienkarte. htm
Language boundaries often formed at physical barriers, then cultures reinforce them) • Romans found violent Celts (Scots) in hilly undesirable land. – The land was not worth the battles. – Romans built a wall along mountain ridge lines to keep them out. . . – Scots survived in isolation as dialects. – The boundary between Scotland England was set between these walls, along other physical boundaries. http: //www. worldatlas. com/webimage/countrys/printpage. php? l=/webimage/countrys/europe/lgcolor/ukscolor. gif http: //upload. wikimedia. org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0 e/Hadrians_Wall_map. png/220 px-Hadrians_Wall_map. png
Language boundaries often formed at physical barriers, then cultures reinforce them. (2) • Normans found Scots to be difficult; – They built forts at the border to keep them at bay. . . • Normans built castles on the borders – This isolated the Welsh in their highlands. – Welsh culture and language survive. http: //www. castlewales. com/wales_m. html http: //www. castlewales. com/maps. html
Languages and Boundaries Context: http: //linguarium. iling-ran. ru/maps. shtml Source: http: //linguarium. iling-ran. ru/maps/istria 2 -150. gif
Remnants of cultural dominance. . . • The winners write the history, in their language. – The surviving losers often learn that language. • After a collapse, regions become isolated. – Isolation allows linguistic variability. – Some regions return to their native tongues. • Isolated languages then change over time. Source: http: //linguistics. buffalo. edu/people/faculty/dryer/map. euro. ie. GIF Other links, etc: http: //www. ling. su. se/staff/ljuba/maps. html
Romance Dialects: Cultures and Countries • • http: //home. wanadoo. nl/arjenbolhuis/language-family-trees/63. gif http: //home. wanadoo. nl/arjenbolhuis/language-family-trees/
Languages vs. Dialects Language: 1. A system of communication through speech. 2. A collection of sounds that a group understands to have the same meaning. Dialect: A regional variation of a language distinguished by distinctive vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation. • When no longer understood, the dialect becomes a language. This would require isolation over time. http: //robert spage. com/ diausa. gif
Isolation Allows dialects to form. • Continued isolation allows them to remain. – Appalachian: Olde English – Ozarks: Similar effect – Swamps: Creole, etc. – Oceans: Hawaiian, other Austronesian tongues, Icelandic… • What happened to Hawaiian? – Political boundaries along physical boundaries reinforce this effect. (multiple contributions) • If re-joined, dialects remain, not new languages. – Trade and communication (the exchange of ideas) – Government actions – Education systems, etc.
Language, Cultures, Politics, & landforms http: //www. fordham. edu/halsall/maps/15 citaly. jpg Context: http: //www. fordham. edu/Halsall/lect/med 26. html
Compare dialects and kingdoms • • Context: http: //www. fordham. edu/Halsall/lect/med 26. html http: //www. fordham. edu/halsall/maps/15 citaly. jpg http: //home. wanadoo. nl/arjenbolhuis/language-family-trees/63. gif http: //home. wanadoo. nl/arjenbolhuis/language-family-trees/
Without strong barriers, the dominant language spreads. • • This often takes time. Slowly, old tongues are subsumed. Some borrow words survive. Note the loss of languages in – England – United States: Pacific Coast (Indian Schools, etc. ) – Amazonia
The (almost? ) loss of a language: Cornish http: //www. cornwall-calling. co. uk/cornish-language-map. gif Context: http: //www. cornwall-calling. co. uk/cornish-language/original-language. htm (300 proficient speakers…)
Dying Languages(? ) Tribes of the Pacific Northwest: Washington http: //www. lanecc. edu/library/don/map 1. gif http: //www. lanecc. edu/library/don/orelang. htm
South America Languages http: //www. maps-eureka. com/images/samerlang. jpg Source: http: //www. maps-eureka. com/language-regions. html
One view of world language migration • • http: //www. orangeyeti. com/wp-content/img/language-map-old-world. jpg (Get a better reference, and a better map…)
Minority Languages: Minority Cultural Remnants http: //tork. blogspot. com/uploaded_images/language%20 map-733767. jpg
Major Languages of the World • • http: //www. theodora. com/maps/world_language_map_transparent. gif Context: http: //www. allcountries. org/maps/world_language_maps. html
European Linguistic Patterns: Indo-European Sub-Families Source: http: //linguistics. buffalo. edu/people/faculty/dryer/map. euro. ie. GIF Other links, etc: http: //www. ling. su. se/staff/ljuba/maps. html
China: One Language? • • http: //eagle 1. american. edu/~ks 0867 a/images 4/China%20 population%20 language%20 map%20 revised. png http: //eagle 1. american. edu/~ks 0867 a/xinjiang. htm
Language changes over time. • Words are added and others forgotten. – Consider archaic and slang terms. – How long is four score and 20 years? – Cool ==> Hot ==> Rad ==> The Bomb ==> Sly? – We can hear our language change, • if we listen for it, and remember the changes over time. • Language: wider range • Dialects: Yall, Dude, etc. • Dialect words ==> main language – Nucular may be 'wrong', but they use it dude. – Dude?
Proto-Indo-European Note: major parents, not migrations. . . http: //andromeda. rutgers. edu/~jlynch/language. gif
Language trees • Show the dominant parent language. – Newer changes are more certain. • There is much borrowing from other languages. – Some trees show this. Others don't. – What languages contribute to modern English? • Thor's day, lunar, croissant, kirk, sushi, Shiva, etc. • (Tie borrow-words to languages. ) • (Look for 10 or so. . . ) • Some branches survive, others wither and die. – Witness Finno-urgic and German branches.
Uralic Language Family • • http: //www. cc. jyu. fi/~tojan/rlang/uralic. gif Context: http: //www. cc. jyu. fi/~tojan/rlang/finn 1. htm
Pidgin Languages • • Combination of parts of two languages Used for communication between people Limited vocabulary, often combined rules Example: – Spanglish • Some Spanish words, phrases • Some English words, phrases • Mixture of structure rules from both. – Different from bilingual. Speak 1 & 1/nth language. – If not fluent in both languages there is less benefit. • Day labourer language vs. corporate communication – One needs more linguistic facility to earn more money, etc. – Works for trade, basic instructions.
Lingua Franca • Language of international communication • Globally: English now. • Regionally: English, French, etc. – Depends on the region. • History – Latin: Priests with a common tongue: interpreters – Frankish: Lingua Franca – French: politics, dominated the courts of kings. – English: after England dominated the seas – English: America as a dominant commercial power – Next: Chinese? (Don't know. It depends. . . )
More Permanent Traditions: Printing • http: //www. writers-edge. info/uploaded_images/printing-747487. jpg
Technological advances • • Oral Written Manuscript Print Photocopy Fax Computer http: //www. nla. gov. au/worldtreas ures/pictures/gut_bible/big_gut_v ol 1 det_uk. jpg See also: http: //www. hrc. utexas. edu/exhibit ions/permanent/gutenberg/
How do Languages Spread? • • •
• Migration Spread of Languages – People take their language with them. (People take culture with them. ) – Isolation dialects, eventually distinct languages – Example: Paleo-indians and Eskimos (Inuits) cross Bearing Land Bridge • War (People take friends with weapons with them, too. ) – Who writes history? The winners. – What language do they use? Theirs. – Who adapts? The losers, (if they survive). • Trade – Communication is crucial to trade (Lingua Franca = English for trade) – Dominant trade language wins. (French --> English as Lingua Franca) • Religion – Spread of Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, map. p. 165 • Knowledge – Internet supports English speakers, dominant internet communication. – Much of American higher education is taught in English. • Technological Advances – Facilitate cultural growth and diffusion. This benefits these cultures and their languages.
Language Dissemination • Languages, like stories, change over time. • When written, one version can spread out. • When printed, the spread is enhanced. – Diffusion • Heirarchical – Core to periphery » Consolidation of language and other cultural attributes. » Such as. . . • Religion
Koran http: //www. movinghere. or g. uk/gallery/childhood/i mages/koran. jpg Context: http: //www. movinghere. org. uk/default. htm
Torah • http: //www. ch avurah. org/T orah%20 Stu dys. JPG
Language Diffusion • Languages travel with cultures, to regions cultures are adapted to. • Isolation over time produces dialects, then new languages. • Cultural discovery and dominance (economic or military) enhance diffusion. – Agricultural revolution (first two: seeds and cuttings) – Food storage counting numbers • later, written sounds… – Clay, then papyrus, then paper (writing media) – Horseback, shipping, air mail (transportation) – Printing, then copying (duplication) – E- distribution: fax, web, wireless (more a-spatial distribution) • Cultures that dominate these processes have linguistic and economic advantages.
Diffusion: How languages spread • • • Migration War Trade Religion Knowledge
Diffusion: One language? • Support: – Interactions favor one language over another. – Dominant languages spread. • Contradiction: – English dialects differentiate. – Some become languages • Ex: Singlish in Singapore (Jordan et. Al. p. 102)
Cultural Ecology • Isolation over time produces new languages – (Cultural drift) • New environments produce new words. – Need to describe the places you use… • Spanish: dry landscapes (ranching, etc. ) • High latitudes: many words for snow (survival) • Seafaring Polynesians: describe sea swells, etc. • Traditional societies rely upon the land. – This makes describing it critical to success. • Adapt or die be sufficiently clear and precise. – Describe what you have adapted to, for future generations.
Cultural Ecology and Migration • Cultures often migrate to similar environments. – Their skill base and languages are more suited to the land. http: //www. longwood. edu/staff/hardinds/Maps/USethnic. jpg
Culture and Language Interaction • • Religion Technology Empires Cultural survival
Culture and Language Interaction • Religion – Religion supports languages. • Survival of Latin, Hebrew • Expansion of Arabic, English, – Languages help spread religions. • • Use the original language (Arabic) Use the dominant language (Latin) Use the language of your country (English) Select one language of the region. (One in Fiji) – (Synergy)
Culture and Language Interaction • Technology – Agricultural revolution(s) – Writing, printing, internet, phone – Transportation systems and routes • These increase diffusion. – Diffusion paths are preferential. • These bring core languages to the periphery. • These often increase peripheral language loss.
Culture and Language Interaction • Cultural survival – Languages transmit cultures – Loss loss of history, information, skills, etc. • Die with the older generations… • Younger generations have different languages. – Communication breaks down even more than normal. – Even worse if newer generations take to popular culture – (The culture does not die, but parts of it are lost. ) • Some counter this by using some technologies to support the impacted languages.
Culture and Language Interaction • Religion – Religion supports languages. – Languages help spread religions. • (synergy) • Technology – Agricultural revolution(s) – Writing, printing, internet, phone – Transportation • Empires – Internal stability literacy, literature, technologies – Expansion diffusion, lingua franca – Routes faster diffusion, faster change
Linguistic Landscapes • Signs – Show languages of commerce • Inclusion for those who read the language • Exclusion for all others – Deny language use • Deny broadcasting, use • Part of ethnic cleansing – Claim areas • Gang graffiti – Also messages of exclusion, threats – Historical place names (toponyms) • • Northern vs. Southern US (book) Australia (book), Moorish influence in Spain (book) California (Your reality: Spanish toponyms)
Linguistic Cultural Ecology • Isolation over time produces new languages – (Cultural drift) • New environments produce new words. – Need to describe the places you use… • Spanish: dry landscapes (ranching, etc. ) • High latitudes: many words for snow (survival) • Seafaring Polynesians: describe sea swells, etc. • Traditional societies rely upon the land. – This makes describing it critical to success. • Adapt or die be sufficiently clear and precise. – Describe what you have adapted to, for future generations.
Don’t forget the text! • • • Scan quickly for content overview. Read and outline for comprehension. Review outlines. Review your class notes. Review powerpoints.
Next Chapter: Ethnicity and Race (Questions? ) ((Stop. ))
Yes, written: 100 down, 3900 to go… for High School? http: //webjapanese. com/kanji/wall/kanji 01. gif Note: This is Japanese. . . They copied the patterns.
Unused slides follow.
Try link first… http: //titus. fkidg 1. unifrankfurt. de/didact/karten/indiefa. jpg Context: http: //titus. fkidg 1. unifrankfurt. de/didact/karten/indicm. htm
Check Link… • http: //www. akatsukinishisu. net/itazuragaki/ kanji-de-genso_utf-8. png • Context: http: //www. akatsukinishisu. net/itazuragaki/ 2001_10. html
Language Groups • Go to: http: //home. wanadoo. nl/arjenbolhuis/langu age-family-trees/
The big picture: World languages today: (Link to history, development, trade, etc. )
It’s All Greek to me! • • http: //www. 1728. com/greek. gif Context: http: //www. 1728. com/greek. htm
'Borrowed words': Written Greek • Romans borrowed much from Greek culture • They then changed it. – (Like the Japanese. Patterns repeat. This is useful. ) • They borrowed – Gods – Ideas – Stories – Written language, • And changed them. Hera ==> Juno, etc.
It’s not even Greek to me! Cyrillic: Orthodox Catholicism ‘Natives’ • • http: //www. pbs. org/weta/faceofrussia/reference/img/cyrillic-alphabet. gif Reference: http: //www. pbs. org/weta/faceofrussia/reference/cyrillic. html
(Language is a part of cultural identity. ) http: //www. unc. edu/~rdgreenb/dialectmap_small. gif
Alphabet and Cultural Identity: Korean • • http: //silentnight. web. za/translate/korean. gif Context: http: //silentnight. web. za/translate/korean. htm
Languages as a tool for cultural identity: Korean • After the last invasion by Japan – Yes, there were others, Japanese and Chinese – and the Koreans have NOT forgotten them. • The Koreans expressed a resurgent cultural identity – In part by re-shaping the character strokes.
Germanic Tree • • Trimmed branches Branches not commonly known Dispersion over space, over time. Then, change, combination. – Germanic and English Afrikaans
Proto-Germanic • • http: //www. steve. gb. com/images/science/germanic. png http: //www. steve. gb. com/science/learn. html
Arabic: (Allah) • • http: //www. historyforkids. org/learn/islam/literature/pictures/allah. gif Context: http: //www. historyforkids. org/learn/islam/literature/pictures/allah. gif
Vernacular English: Soda-pop • http: //quittingsoda. com/wp-content/uploads/2008/09/popvssodamap-300 x 180. gif