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Chapter 4: How was life different for the various people in colonial Singapore before Chapter 4: How was life different for the various people in colonial Singapore before World War II?

Just a short note about the background of the slides: it’s 1 of the Just a short note about the background of the slides: it’s 1 of the earliest postcards of Singapore! (1901)

Collyer Quay Today Collyer Quay Today

Various aspects of life, such as living conditions and occupations Need to compare aspects Various aspects of life, such as living conditions and occupations Need to compare aspects of life of various communities How was life different for the various people in colonial Singapore before World War II? the different communities living in Singapore at that time e. g. : The Eurasians, the Indians 1819 -1839

Diversity • People lead different lives and have different experiences even if they live Diversity • People lead different lives and have different experiences even if they live in the same place in the same period of time. Think: - How is your life different/same from your best friend’s life? What makes it different?

Diversity • The different experiences of people can be influenced by their: – Gender Diversity • The different experiences of people can be influenced by their: – Gender – Age group – Occupation – Ethnicity – Social status – Place of origin – Occupation

Diversity • The diversity of people’s experiences can be understood through a comparison of Diversity • The diversity of people’s experiences can be understood through a comparison of their experiences. • We need to use a set of common criteria in order to make valid comparisons. – E. g. : • Living conditions • Employment • Leisure and entertainment

The Singapore River Song Yet Again! • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Rt 9 LBOhitk The Singapore River Song Yet Again! • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Rt 9 LBOhitk From the first 2 minutes of the song, • What kind of buildings did you see? • How would you describe the Singapore River?

Singapore River (THEN) • Singapore River Then and Now: • What are some differences Singapore River (THEN) • Singapore River Then and Now: • What are some differences that you can see?

The Singapore River • Singapore’s development as a British port from 1819 started along The Singapore River • Singapore’s development as a British port from 1819 started along this river. • The Singapore River was important to the development of trade because it was deep enough to accommodate most trading ships coming to Singapore for trade. • Many ships would come close to the banks of the river so that they could easily load and unload cargo at the marketplace located at the mouth of the Singapore.

The Singapore River (Boat Quay) • Boat Quay was the busiest part of the The Singapore River (Boat Quay) • Boat Quay was the busiest part of the river with many shophouses and godowns (warehouses). • Merchants traded goods like textiles and local products such as spices, tin and rubber. • Lighterage was a major commercial activity along the river. • Other than carrying people from one end of the river to the other, lighters would also carry fuel and goods from the ships to the shore and vice-versa.

How would you describe about the Singapore River during colonial Singapore? How would you describe about the Singapore River during colonial Singapore?

The Singapore River • The bustling activities along the Singapore River attracted thousands of The Singapore River • The bustling activities along the Singapore River attracted thousands of immigrants to Singapore. • The earliest immigrants settled along the riverbanks near the mouth of the Singapore river. • Gradually, the area became more disorganised.

The Singapore Town Plan • Raffles wanted to ensure each immigrant community had their The Singapore Town Plan • Raffles wanted to ensure each immigrant community had their own space to prevent confusion and disputes. • He instructed that the names assigned to every street should reflect the communities that were living there. • Ethnic enclaves are thus created. Ethnic enclaves: neighbourhoods where communities of people from similar cultural backgrounds live together

Wah! So messy sia! How can? Wah! So messy sia! How can?

Singapore Town Plan, drawn in 1825 Singapore Town Plan, drawn in 1825

Turn to TB page 144 and fill in the blanks Turn to TB page 144 and fill in the blanks

Turn to TB page 144 and fill in the blanks Area allocated to the Turn to TB page 144 and fill in the blanks Area allocated to the Indians Area for the Temenggong and his followers Area allocated for the Europeans Area allocated for the Arabs and Bugis Area allocated for the Chinese

Hook Activity: Then And Now Today, many of these places look dramatically different from Hook Activity: Then And Now Today, many of these places look dramatically different from how it was like during colonial Singapore. Categorize the street names and photographs (past and present) under the respective areas.

South Boat Quay, 1910 South Boat Quay, 1910

The Colonial Town Centre Area allocated for the Europeans The Colonial Town Centre Area allocated for the Europeans

The Colonial Town Centre • Consisted of the European Town and the Government Area. The Colonial Town Centre • Consisted of the European Town and the Government Area. • There were many European buildings built for government, commercial, residential and entertainment purposes. One example is the Old Supreme Court. • Houses were built in the same design with open porches. They were a stark contrast to the cramped living quarters of other communities. • Many of these roads and buildings were built by the Indian convicts whom the British brought over.

High Street, 1910 High Street, 1910

 • After the 1840 s, there was an increase in the number of • After the 1840 s, there was an increase in the number of Europeans who settled in Singapore as many European men brought their families from Europe to join them in Singapore. • Some of them moved out to the less crowded Orchard and Tanglin areas.

The Tanglin Bungalows The Tanglin Bungalows

Turn to TB page 144 and fill in the blanks Area allocated for the Turn to TB page 144 and fill in the blanks Area allocated for the Chinese

Chinese Kampong (Chinatown) • Raffles allocated the area west of the Singapore River to Chinese Kampong (Chinatown) • Raffles allocated the area west of the Singapore River to the various Chinese communities that came to Singapore during the early and mid-19 th century, because there was already a small Chinese village in this area.

Chinatown (Then) Chinatown (Then)

Chin Chew Street (Beancurd Street), Chinatown Chin Chew Street (Beancurd Street), Chinatown

Coolie Quarter replica Coolie Quarter replica

Chinese Kampong (Chinatown) • Although Chinatown was primarily populated by the Chinese in Singapore, Chinese Kampong (Chinatown) • Although Chinatown was primarily populated by the Chinese in Singapore, there was also an Indian community living there until the early 20 th century. • The Jamae Mosque was built by the Chulia Muslims who emigrated to Singapore from South India. This shows that the Indian Muslims lived side by side with the Chinese.

Jamae Mosque Jamae Mosque

Relationships with other communities? • The Europeans (Source 23, page 156) How would you Relationships with other communities? • The Europeans (Source 23, page 156) How would you describe the Europeans?

Relationships with other communities? • The Europeans (Source 23, page 156) - Ruled over Relationships with other communities? • The Europeans (Source 23, page 156) - Ruled over everyone - Felt that they were more superior than the other communities - Racist

Relationships with other communities? • Chinese and Indians – Able to live side by Relationships with other communities? • Chinese and Indians – Able to live side by side each other

Serangoon Serangoon

Video Time • Watch the video “Changing Times – Serangoon Road” and fill in Video Time • Watch the video “Changing Times – Serangoon Road” and fill in the blanks in the worksheet. • OPAL MOE (http: //library. opal. moe. edu. sg/cos/o. x? c=/lib rary/reslib&uid=&ptid=84&func=prop 2&id=23 3911 ) • From 1. 15 – 7. 16

Questions! • 1. Serangoon Road is the centre of Indian _______ activity. • 2. Questions! • 1. Serangoon Road is the centre of Indian _______ activity. • 2. The early pioneers arrived from India in the _____, hoping to eke out a better living, settling in Serangoon Road, linking Sungei Rochor in the south and Sungei Serangoon in the north. • 3. Cattle-________ was the main preoccupation then. • 4. There were many cow ____ on Serangoon Road. As _____ is an important part of the Hindus' diet, it sold well. Cows were also an important mode of _______. • 5. At the Madras Street area where the Muslim Indians lived, cattle _____ was conducted. ______ houses were located there as well.

1. Today, Serangoon Road is the centre of Indian commercial activity. 2. The early 1. Today, Serangoon Road is the centre of Indian commercial activity. 2. The early pioneers arrived from India in the 1830 s, hoping to eke out a better living, settling in Serangoon Road, linking Sungei Rochor in the south and Sungei Serangoon in the north. 3. Cattle-rearing was the main preoccupation then. 4. There were many cow sheds on Serangoon Road. As milk is an important part of the Hindus' diet, it sold well. Cows were also an important mode of transport. 5. At the Madras Street area where the Muslim Indians lived, cattle trade was conducted. Slaughter houses were located there as well.

Serangoon • Originally an industrial area for making bricks and cattle farming. • The Serangoon • Originally an industrial area for making bricks and cattle farming. • The area was suitable for cattle farming because of the presence of abundant water and grassland. • Many Indians were attracted to move here because of the cattle farming. • From the 1840 s, another wave of Indian immigrants came from Tamil-speaking areas in the south as well as from Bengal. They worked at the plantations in Serangoon. • Overtime, Serangoon replaced Chulia Kampong as the area where the majority of the Indian community lived.

Psst. . Did you know? There used to be a horse racing circuit in Psst. . Did you know? There used to be a horse racing circuit in Serangoon!

K. K. (Kandang Kerbau Hospital) Kandang Kerbau – “buffalo shed” K. K. (Kandang Kerbau Hospital) Kandang Kerbau – “buffalo shed”

Relationships with Other Communities? • Worked for the British • Indians were often hired Relationships with Other Communities? • Worked for the British • Indians were often hired as stable boys. • Some worked for the local government by building roads and constructing buildings.

Kampong Gelam (Glam) Area allocated for the Arabs and Bugis Kampong Gelam (Glam) Area allocated for the Arabs and Bugis

Video Time • Watch the video “Changing Times – Kampong Glam/Geylang Serai” and fill Video Time • Watch the video “Changing Times – Kampong Glam/Geylang Serai” and fill in the blanks! • http: //library. opal. moe. edu. sg/cos/o. x? c=/libr ary/reslib&uid=&ptid=84&func=prop 2&id=25 3875 • From 2. 17 to 8. 00

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. ________ culture has been deeply ingrained in Kampong 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. ________ culture has been deeply ingrained in Kampong Glam. Islamic migrants in the 19 th century were urged by Sir Stamford ________ to settle in Kampong Glam, around the Sultan Hussein Shah's ___________. Sultan Hussein was the colony's ______ figurehead, to whom the British gave an estate of 56 acres, including a _______ and a mosque. There was a strong _____ influence in Kampong Glam, as seen from street names like Arab Street, Muscat Street and Bussorah Street. THese are the legacies of the rich Arab _______. The _________ Kampong Glam, or Sultan's Palace was the stage for colonial _______ society life. The Masjid Sultan (Sultan's Mosque) was built on 1824 on the Sultan's ______ to serve Kampong Glam's Muslim community. The mosque also drew many ____ from the region. Up till the 1960 s, they would gather at Bussorah Street, before sailing from _______ Road's harbour to Mecca, _______ city for Islam.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Muslim culture has been deeply ingrained in Kampong 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Muslim culture has been deeply ingrained in Kampong Glam. Islamic migrants in the 19 th century were urged by Sir Stamford Raffles to settle in Kampong Glam, around the Sultan Hussein Shah's residence. Sultan Hussein was the colony's royal figurehead, to whom the British gave an estate of 56 acres, including a palace and a mosque. There was a strong Arab influence in Kampong Glam, as seen from street names like Arab Street, Muscat Street and Bussorah Street. THese are the legacies of the rich Arab landowners. The Istana Kampong Glam, or Sultan's Palace was the stage for colonial high society life. The Masjid Sultan (Sultan's Mosque) was built on 1824 on the Sultan's request to serve Kampong Glam's Muslim community. The mosque also drew many pilgrims from the region. Up till the 1960 s, they would gather at Bussorah Street, before sailing from Beach Road's harbour to Mecca, holy city for Islam.

Kampong Gelam (Glam) • It was originally a Malay settlement for Sultan Hussein and Kampong Gelam (Glam) • It was originally a Malay settlement for Sultan Hussein and his followers in 1819. • Arab traders and Malay traders from other parts of the Malay archipelago settled there as well. • Kampong Gelam was probably named after the gelam trees that grew plentifully in the area. The gelam trees were used by the Orang Laut for many purposes such as making boats and for firewood.

Kampong Glam Today Kampong Glam Today

Shops in Kampong Glam Today Shops in Kampong Glam Today

Geylang Serai Geylang Serai

Video on Geylang Serai • Watch the video from 16. 30 to 20. 12 Video on Geylang Serai • Watch the video from 16. 30 to 20. 12 and answer the questions. • http: //library. opal. moe. edu. sg/cos/o. x? c=/libr ary/reslib&uid=&ptid=84&func=prop 2&id=25 3875

Geylang Serai 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Geylang Serai did not Geylang Serai 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Geylang Serai did not exist until ____. The British wanted to ____ the Geylang River for trading vessels to ply, so the sea-settlement located at the mouth of the river was scattered inland. Most of the Malay residents of Geylang Serai are of ________ origin. Their forefathers possibly came to work in the ________ and rubber plantations. The area was first called Geylang Kelapa, which translates to mean coconut ________. It became Geylang Serai only after the Alsagoff family, who were rich Arab ______ began cultivating Serai or ______ here. Its oil was extracted for ______ and scents. In the 1930 s to 1950 s, Geylang was a huge kampong area. Life was ______. Most homes had no __________ and running water. People used ___________ lamps for light. Floods occurred often, because the houses were on _______, with no proper drainage.

Geylang Serai 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Geylang Serai did not Geylang Serai 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Geylang Serai did not exist until 1842. The British wanted to clear the Geylang River for trading vessels to ply, so the sea-settlement located at the mouth of the river was scattered inland. Most of the Malay residents of Geylang Serai are of Javanese origin. Their forefathers possibly came to work in the coconut and rubber plantations. The area was first called Geylang Kelapa, which translates to mean coconut plantation. It became Geylang Serai only after the Alsagoff family, who were rich Arab landowners, began cultivating Serai or lemongrass here. Its oil was extracted for soaps and scents. In the 1930 s to 1950 s, Geylang was a huge kampong area. Life was simple. Most homes had no electricity and running water. People used kerosene lamps for light. Floods occurred often, because the houses were on lowland, with no proper drainage.

Relationships with Other Communities • Source 70, page 186 How was the relationship like Relationships with Other Communities • Source 70, page 186 How was the relationship like between the Malays and the other communities?

Relationships with Other Communities • Able to accommodate other communities like the Indians and Relationships with Other Communities • Able to accommodate other communities like the Indians and Chinese.

Time for Sources • Groups of 5. • Discuss the sources and fill in Time for Sources • Groups of 5. • Discuss the sources and fill in the relevant sections of your worksheet. Group Read page(s) Community Focus 1 and 2 154 -155, 158 -159 Europeans Leisure & Entertainment 3 152 -153 and 160 Europeans Employment 4 160 Europeans Living Conditions 5 and 6 165 -167 Chinese Leisure & Entertainment 7 162 -163 Chinese Employment 8 162 -163 Chinese Living Conditions

Time For Sources Group TB page(s) Community Focus on 1 -6 173 -177 Indian Time For Sources Group TB page(s) Community Focus on 1 -6 173 -177 Indian Employment 7 -8 175 (Source 53) Indian Living Conditions

Time For Sources Group TB page (s) Community Focus on 1 &2 179, 181 Time For Sources Group TB page (s) Community Focus on 1 &2 179, 181 Malays Leisure and Entertainment 3&4 186, 187 Malays Living Conditions 5, 6, 7, 8 180, 182, 183, 185, Malays Employment

Homework • Read pages 188 -193 and fill up the columns (Eurasians and Peranakans) Homework • Read pages 188 -193 and fill up the columns (Eurasians and Peranakans)

The End The End