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CHAPTER # 4 Gerunds and Infinitives CHAPTER # 4 Gerunds and Infinitives

Verb Finite Verb Non Finite Verb: A verb which is used according to the Verb Finite Verb Non Finite Verb: A verb which is used according to the subject and tense. n Examples: Wakeel washes the dishes. They wash the dishes. I washed the dishes.

Non Finite Verb A verb that is not changed according to the subject or Non Finite Verb A verb that is not changed according to the subject or tense. Examples: I want to go to school. Hungama wants to go to school. They wanted to go to the school.

Verbal: Verb forms that are used as nouns or modifiers. n Gerunds n Infinitives Verbal: Verb forms that are used as nouns or modifiers. n Gerunds n Infinitives n Participles

Gerund (Verb+ ing) having the function of a noun is called Gerund or Verbal Gerund (Verb+ ing) having the function of a noun is called Gerund or Verbal noun. Examples: Meena enjoys watching TV. G. verb Gerund G. phrase

Gerund can have the following functions in a sentence n As the subject n Gerund can have the following functions in a sentence n As the subject n As the object of preposition n As the complement of (to be)

Examples: Eating is good for health. Subject I mind making noise. Object Examples: Eating is good for health. Subject I mind making noise. Object

Examples: Hungama thinks about going to Pakistan. O. of Pre What I hate the Examples: Hungama thinks about going to Pakistan. O. of Pre What I hate the most is coming late? Com. Of to be I love his crying. Com. Of P. A

Infinitive To+ verb or only base form of the verb which has the function Infinitive To+ verb or only base form of the verb which has the function of a noun is called Infinitive. Example: To play cricket is interesting. I can perform prayer. Infinitive

Kinds of Infinitives n Absolute Infinitive n Bare Infinitive n Split Infinitive n Abridge Kinds of Infinitives n Absolute Infinitive n Bare Infinitive n Split Infinitive n Abridge Infinitive

Absolute Infinitive (To+ verb) is called Absolute Infinitive. Examples: To save money is difficult Absolute Infinitive (To+ verb) is called Absolute Infinitive. Examples: To save money is difficult now. To study English is easy.

Bare Infinitive Only base form of the verb is called Bare Infinitive. Examples: Meena Bare Infinitive Only base form of the verb is called Bare Infinitive. Examples: Meena can cook rice. I make him study hard.

Split Infinitive When (to+ verb) is separated by an adverb is called Split Infinitive. Split Infinitive When (to+ verb) is separated by an adverb is called Split Infinitive. Examples: She wants to slowly talk on the phone. I like to quickly tell the truth.

Abridge Infinitive n When the marker to is used alone and the verb is Abridge Infinitive n When the marker to is used alone and the verb is implied is called Abridge Infinitive. Example: Do you want to play soccer? I would like to (play).

Uses of Infinitives As a subject of a verb. Examples: To play soccer is Uses of Infinitives As a subject of a verb. Examples: To play soccer is fun. As an object of a verb. Examples: She likes to play soccer. I want to get married.

As an object of preposition. Examples: Rubina is about to laugh. Meena is about As an object of preposition. Examples: Rubina is about to laugh. Meena is about to come. As a complement of (to be) Examples: Her hobby is to play games. What I love is to see her alone.

As a verb of an object. ( object complement) Examples: She wants him to As a verb of an object. ( object complement) Examples: She wants him to call her. I saw her teach in the class. As a qualifier of a verb. Examples: She comes to learn. I went to see my folks in Pakistan.

As a qualifier of a noun (as an adjective) Examples: It is his ability As a qualifier of a noun (as an adjective) Examples: It is his ability to solve the problems. It is time to earn money. As a qualifier of an adjective (as an adverb) Examples: We are glad to see each other. It is nice to call her on the spot.

Common verbs followed by either Infinitives or Gerunds The following verbs are followed by Common verbs followed by either Infinitives or Gerunds The following verbs are followed by both gerund and Infinitives with no difference in meaning. Begin Like Hate Start Love Can’t Stand Continue Prefer Can’t bear Examples: I began teaching here. I began to teach here. I was beginning to teach here.

The following verbs are followed by both Gerund or Infinitive with difference in meaning. The following verbs are followed by both Gerund or Infinitive with difference in meaning. Remember+ Infinitive: To remember to perform one’s duty, responsibility. Example: I remember to take her books. Remember+ Gerund: To recall something that happened in the past. Example: She remembers going to India.

Forget+ Infinitive: Forget to perform one’s duty or responsibility. Examples: I forgot to wash Forget+ Infinitive: Forget to perform one’s duty or responsibility. Examples: I forgot to wash my car. Forget+ Gerund: Forget something that happened in the past. Example: She forgot deceiving me.

Regret+ Infinitive: Sorry to tell bad news. Example: I regret to tell you that Regret+ Infinitive: Sorry to tell bad news. Example: I regret to tell you that I lost your gift. Regret+ Gerund: Sorry about something that one did in the past. Example: I regret going to Pakistan.

Try+ Infinitive: To attempt, to struggle, to make effort. Example: I tried to pass Try+ Infinitive: To attempt, to struggle, to make effort. Example: I tried to pass the exams. Try+ Gerund: To examine something whether it works or not. Example: I tried using all the mobiles.

Infinitive of Purpose Whenever we talk about purpose we use (in order to) Example: Infinitive of Purpose Whenever we talk about purpose we use (in order to) Example: We eat in order to live. We eat for live. (Incorrect) Note: (To) in the contraction form of in order to.

For isn’t used to show purpose. Exception: When it is used with the phrase For isn’t used to show purpose. Exception: When it is used with the phrase (be used for+ gerund) to show common or general purpose. Example: Pens are used for writing. Pens are used to write with. (possible) I go to Bazaar for bread. ( Possible) for+ noun

Adjectives followed by Infinitives Here adjectives are used to describe a person or persons, Adjectives followed by Infinitives Here adjectives are used to describe a person or persons, not a thing. Examples: Rubina is happy to meet me. Shazia is upset to go to Pakistan.

Infinitives with too and enough Examples: The weather is too hot to play soccer. Infinitives with too and enough Examples: The weather is too hot to play soccer. The weather is very hot, but we can play soccer. The class is big enough to study in it. The class has students enough to take exam. The class has enough students to take exam.

Passive & Past forms of Infinitives & Gerund 1. Present Active Infinitive: Sub+ Inf Passive & Past forms of Infinitives & Gerund 1. Present Active Infinitive: Sub+ Inf verb+ to+ verb Examples: He wants to play soccer. Rubina refuses to call me again.

2. Present Passive Infinitive Sub+ Inf verb+ to+ be+ 3 rd verb Examples: Abdullah 2. Present Passive Infinitive Sub+ Inf verb+ to+ be+ 3 rd verb Examples: Abdullah wants to be taught. Baqi wishes to be annoyed.

3. Past Active Infinitive Sub+ Inf verb+ to+ have+ 3 rd verb Examples: Jasmine 3. Past Active Infinitive Sub+ Inf verb+ to+ have+ 3 rd verb Examples: Jasmine decided to have studied English. They needed to have stolen money.

4. Past Passive Infinitive Sub+ Inf verb+ to+ have+ been+ 3 rd verb Examples: 4. Past Passive Infinitive Sub+ Inf verb+ to+ have+ been+ 3 rd verb Examples: Meena managed to have been helped. She is happy to have been written a letter.

5. Present Active Gerund Sub+ G. verb+ V- ing Examples: Shakila finishes writing a 5. Present Active Gerund Sub+ G. verb+ V- ing Examples: Shakila finishes writing a letter. She postpones visiting her friend.

6. Present Passive Gerund Sub+ G. verb+ being+ 3 rd verb Examples: Arzoo minds 6. Present Passive Gerund Sub+ G. verb+ being+ 3 rd verb Examples: Arzoo minds being teased in the class. Karim enjoyed being watched by his friend.

7. Past Active Gerund Sub+ G. verb+ having+ 3 rd verb Examples: Hungama appreciates 7. Past Active Gerund Sub+ G. verb+ having+ 3 rd verb Examples: Hungama appreciates having gone to Pakistan. Wali disliked having studied.

8. Past Passive Gerund Sub+ G. verb+ having+ been+ 3 rd verb Examples: I 8. Past Passive Gerund Sub+ G. verb+ having+ been+ 3 rd verb Examples: I appreciated having been given the chance. They deny having been taken away.

Using Gerund or Passive Infinitive following “Need” Examples: She needs to buy a car. Using Gerund or Passive Infinitive following “Need” Examples: She needs to buy a car. The car needs repairing. (fixing or developing situation) The car needs to be repaired.

Using a Possessive to modify a Gerund Examples: Meena likes my writing a message. Using a Possessive to modify a Gerund Examples: Meena likes my writing a message. (formal) Meena likes me writing a message. (informal) I love Rubina’s laughing. (formal) I love Rubina laughing. (informal)

Verbs of Perception Are those verbs which refer to the five senses of human Verbs of Perception Are those verbs which refer to the five senses of human being (smell, taste, see, hear and touch). They are also called Sense verbs. 1. Sub+ sense verb+ obj+ verb: This structure shows that one has seen or heard the action completely (from the beginning to the end). Example: I saw Rubina cook rice.

Sub+ sense verb+ obj+ verb-ing This structure shows that only a part of someone’s Sub+ sense verb+ obj+ verb-ing This structure shows that only a part of someone’s action has been seen or heard (not a complete action). Example: I saw Rubina cooking rice.

Causative Verb Is a verb the subject of which doesn’t perform the activity, but Causative Verb Is a verb the subject of which doesn’t perform the activity, but it causes the object to do it. Examples: I had Karim open the door. Rubina makes Hungama clean the room.

Make, Have, Let, Get and Help Make: To force someone to do something. It Make, Have, Let, Get and Help Make: To force someone to do something. It is followed by Bare Infinitive. Examples: Ali makes Laila wash the car. Arzoo made Dilroba write a letter. Note: Rubina was made to wash the dishes.

Have: To hire, to choose someone to do something. It is followed by Bare Have: To hire, to choose someone to do something. It is followed by Bare Infinitive. Example: Karim had Wali bring a chair. Let: To allow someone to do something. It is followed by Bare Infinitive. Example: I will let her come in.

Get: To persuade, to encourage someone to do something. It is followed by Full Get: To persuade, to encourage someone to do something. It is followed by Full Infinitive. Example: I get Arzoo to get married. Help: To assist someone to do something. It is followed by either Full or Bare Infinitive. Examples: Yasmine will help Hungama write HW. Shabnam helps Karim to cook rice.

Special Expression followed by the ing form of a verb Spend/ Waste+ expression of Special Expression followed by the ing form of a verb Spend/ Waste+ expression of time or money+ gerund. Examples: Ali spends twenty rupees watching TV. Karim wastes two hours walking on the road.

Sit/ Stand/ Lie+ expression of place+ gerund Examples: Rubina sits on the mattress reciting Sit/ Stand/ Lie+ expression of place+ gerund Examples: Rubina sits on the mattress reciting the Holy Quran. Karim stood in the class calling Karima. Wakeel lies in the bed writing messages. Find/ Catch+ pro(noun)+ gerund (means to discover) Examples: I found Hungama chatting with her mom. She caught Arzoo eating rice.

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