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Chapter 30, Section 3: The Spread of Regional Conflict Main Idea: A series of regional conflicts in the Middle East eventually spread to the United States.
§ § § § § So what is the problem? The land called ‘Israel’ is also a land called ‘Palestine’. The local people of this land were Muslim Arabs, called Palestinians. 60 years ago it was under British protection (since WWI) After WWII Jewish people were escaping from a shattered Europe. Many owned nothing and had stepped straight out from Hitler’s death camps. They sought refuge in the land of their ancestors- Judea (where the word ‘Jew’ comes from) was also the name of the land known as Palestine. Jews migrated to Palestine (Judea) in large numbers. The British were unable to stop them. The Jews pushed the Palestinians east and claimed Palestine as their own territory by religious right. They were merely coming home. They renamed it ‘Israel’. The Palestinian Arabs fought back, however, to keep their property. Against so many people however they were forced back. They turned to their Muslim neighbors for help and assistance. This time the Israelis were outnumbered. The Israelis turned to anyone who might help them- and found the USA. The two sides were now set up for war- and have been sparring ever since. On one side is a well-equipped, modern, conventional Israeli army. On the other side is a modern, not so well-equipped but innovative, Muslim terrorist army ‘Hamas’. The fight claims military & civilian deaths regularly on both sides.
• Israel is a small but developed country on land east of the Mediterranean Sea. • It has its own religion –Judaism- and is a recently formed country-1948. • It is surrounded by Muslim (Arabic) countries on three sides-Egypt, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, and Syria. • Has long history of war and bloodshed
A. The Arab-Israeli Conflict § For years, friction between religious groups in the Middle East has led to violence & bloodshed. § US has conflicting interests there. While supporting the Jewish state of Israel, we also have economic ties (oil) to the Islamic Arab countries that dominate there. Israelis & Arabs § History: Jews came to Palestine in the late 1800 s hoping to create a new Jewish homeland. Their settlement grew during the ’ 30 s & ’ 40 s as Jews fled Europe (Nazis). After WWII, Jews in Palestine created Israel & US & other nations quickly recognized it. Neighboring Arab nations refused to recognize it & attacked Israel many times over the following yrs to get back their “occupied territories. ” § OPEC - Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries – slowed production & shipments of oil to US in ‘ 70 s due to US support of Israel § Camp David Accords – Pres. Carter mediates peace treaty between Egypt ( Anwar Sadat) & Israel (Menachem Begin) in 1979
The Palestinian Issue § Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) – led by Yasir Arafat, goal was to reclaim Palestine for Arabs & destroy Israel (Intifada – unrest to protest Israeli rule in Palestine) § 1993 – US persuades Israel & PLO to sign pact. PLO will recognize Israel’s existence & end violence. Israel will allow for limited freedoms for Palestinians in Gaza Strip & West Bank. (Within 10 yrs, violence had resumed) § US continues to help the two sides work toward a lasting peace agreement, but militant groups on both sides continue to undermine the peace process & unrest/violence remains in the region.
B. Conflict With Iran & Iraq Iran Hostage Crisis § In 1953, the US helped overthrow the elected government of Iran and return the Shah back to power. § In 1979, a revolution forced the unpopular Shah to flee & the Ayatolla Khomeini took control. § The Ayatolla was very anti-American & he wanted to move Iran away from Western ideas & return to strict Islamic traditions. § In 11/79, President Carter allowed the Shah to come to the US for medical treatment. In response, Iranian revolutionaries seized the American embassy & took 53 Americans hostage for 444 days (not released until Reagan took office)
Changes in Iran: · In 1979, a revolution occurred in Iran in which the Muslim religious leader Ayatollah Khomeini overthrew the Shah of Iran and took control of the nation. Left: The last Shah of Iran, Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi and (right), his successor, Ayatollah Rouhollah Khomeini.
· In November of 1979 the American embassy in Tehran was seized and 53 Americans were taken hostage. News Footage (: 31)
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad? Iranian militants escort a blindfolded U. S. hostage to the media.
A man holding a sign during a protest of the crisis in Washington, D. C. in 1979. The sign reads "Deport all Iranians" and "Get the hell out of my country" on its forefront, and "Release all Americans now" on its back.
· The hostages were not released until January 1981, after the inauguration of Ronald Reagan as President.
A group photograph of the former hostages in the hospital. The 52 hostages were spending a few days in the hospital after their release from Iran prior to their departure for the U. S.
The Persian Gulf War § Saddam Hussein invaded oil-rich Kuwait in 1990. § The UN/US boycotted (trade) Iraq, but Hussein refused to leave Kuwait. § Operation Desert Storm - UN/US launched air attack, followed by ground forces & defeated Iraq in only 6 wks. § UN continued its boycott of Iraq in order to force Hussein to stop chemical & biological weapons programs, but he refused to cooperate with UN weapons inspectors
Persian Gulf War: World Rank: Wealth · In 1990, Iraq invaded their oil rich neighbor of Kuwait – 9 th Iraq – 108 th · In 1991, the U. N. sent troops from 28 nations to attack Iraq and force their troops out of Kuwait. The entire war lasted only six weeks.
Persian Gulf War – Allied Nation Troop Levels United States: 575, 000 Saudi Arabia: 52, 000 Turkey: 50, 000 United Kingdom: 43, 000 Egypt: 35, 000 Syria: 16, 000 France: 14, 663 Kuwait: 7, 000 Pakistan: 5, 500 Canada: 4, 500 Spain: 3, 000 United Arab Emirates: 2, 000 Morocco: 2, 000 Bangladesh: 2, 000 Qatar: 1000 Oman: 950 Italy: 800 Niger: 500 Bahrain: 200 Senegal: 200 Czechoslovakia: 200 Netherlands: 200 Honduras: 150
Kurdish No-Fly Zone Shiite No-Fly Zone
Saddam Hussein: Crimes and Human Rights Abuses A report on the human cost of Saddam’s policies by the Foreign & Commonwealth Office (Great Britain, 2002) The Treatment of Women Najat Mohammed Haydar, an obstetrician in Baghdad, was beheaded in October 2000 apparently on suspicion of prostitution, according to Amnesty International. Even by Iraqi standards her execution was an outrage. There was no evidence to support the charge of prostitution and she was reportedly arrested before the introduction of the policy to behead prostitutes. The real reason for her death was her criticism of corruption in the Iraqi health service. Persecution of the Kurds • In 1983, approximately 8, 000 Kurdish males aged 13 and upwards were arrested and executed. • In 1988, Iraqi government forces systematically razed Kurdish villages and killed civilians. Amnesty International estimates that over 100, 000 Kurds were killed or disappeared during 1987 -1988, in an operation known as the Anfal campaigns, to quell Kurdish insurgency and activities. The campaign included the use of chemical weapons. According to Human Rights Watch, a single attack on the Kurdish town of Halabja killed up to 5, 000 civilians and injured some 10, 000 more.
Saddam Hussein’s Regime’s Methods of Torture The following methods of torture have all been reported to international human rights groups by the victims of torture or their families. Eye gouging Amnesty International reported the case of a Kurdish man in Baghdad who was executed in 1997. When his family retrieved his body, the eyes had been gouged out and the empty eye sockets stuffed with paper. Piercing of hands with electric drill A common method of torture for political detainees. Amnesty International reported one victim who then had acid poured into his open wounds. Suspension from the ceiling Victims are blindfolded, stripped and suspended for hours by their wrists, often with their hands tied behind their backs. This causes dislocation of shoulders & tearing of muscles & ligaments. Electric shock Shocks are applied to various parts of the body, including the genitals, ears, tongue and fingers. Other physical torture Extinguishing cigarettes on various parts of the body, extraction of fingernails and toenails and beatings with canes, whips, hose pipes and metal rods are common. Mock executions Victims are told that they are to be executed by firing squad and a mock execution is staged. Victims are hooded and brought before a firing squad, who then fire blank rounds. Acid baths David Scheffer, US Ambassador-at-Large for War Crimes, reported that photographic evidence showed that Iraq had used acid baths during the invasion of Kuwait. Victims were hung by their wrists and gradually lowered into the acid.
C. Terrorism & violence to spread fear & to. States the United achieve § Terrorism – the deliberate use of political goals (bombings, kidnappings, hijackings, etc. ) Americans and Terrorism § Many radical Muslim groups in the Middle East have sponsored terrorist activities around the globe in the last 40 -50 years. US is often a target. Why? § Upset about American foreign policies & US support of Israel. § Saw American culture as immoral & offensive to their strict Islamic views. § Not all Muslims are terrorists & not all terrorists are Muslim! Attacks on the United States § 1988: American passenger plane explodes over Scotland § 1993: bomb damaged World trade Center § 1998 -2000: 2 US embassies in Africa & US navy ship near Yemen bombed § 2001: September 11 th - 3 American airliners are hijacked & crashed into the World Trade Center Towers (they collapse) & the Pentagon in Wash, DC. A 4 th plane is taken down by passengers in PA. It was believed to be headed to the White House or the Capitol Building. This date will forever change Americans perceptions on terrorism & their own safety. The Human Cost § More Americans died in this attack than in the attack on Pearl Harbor (1941) War on Terrorism § America declares a “War on Terrorism. ” al-Quaida, a terrorist network led by Osama bin Laden, & the Taliban, who protected bin Laden, become the primary targets. (USA Patriot Act is passed to arrest suspected terrorists in US)
Previous al-Qaeda attacks on the United States 1993: World Trade Center; six dead, more than 1, 000 wounded. 1996: U. S. military housing complex in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia; 19 servicemen killed, 372 wounded. 1998: U. S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania; 224 killed, 5, 000 hurt. 2000: USS Cole in Yemeni harbor of Aden; 17 sailors killed, 39 wounded.
Objective: To examine the circumstances surrounding, and effects of, the attacks of September 11, 2001. (ppt. link)
9/11/01: September 11 Television Archive · On September 11, 2001, the international terrorist group al-Qaeda, led by Osama bin Laden, attacked the U. S. in New York City and Washington, D. C. · With the use of airliners, the World Trade Center in New York City was destroyed, and the Pentagon building in Washington, D. C. was severely damaged. · Approximately 3, 000 Americans lost their lives in these attacks. 2 nd Plane Hitting: Video 1 Video 2 South Tower Collapse: Video North Tower Collapse: Video
The Pentagon Building, 9/11/01
Invasion of Afghanistan: · In response to the attacks of 9/11, the U. S. invaded Afghanistan, which had been providing shelter for Osama bin Laden and al. Qaeda. · We defeated the Afghan government, known as the Taliban, and we continue to hunt the country for bin Laden and his supporters.
Interview with Osama bin laden, by ABC reporter John Miller May 1998, Southern Afghanistan (2: 20) “The call to wage war against America was made because America has spear-headed the crusade against the Islamic nation, sending tens of thousands of its troops to the land of the two Holy Mosques over and above its meddling in its affairs and its politics, and its support of the oppressive, corrupt and tyrannical regime that is in control. These are the reasons behind the singling out of America as a target. And not exempt of responsibility are those Western regimes whose presence in the region offers support to the American troops there. We know at least one reason behind the symbolic participation of the Western forces and that is to support the Jewish and Zionist plans for expansion of what is called the Great Israel. Surely, their presence is not out of concern over their interests in the region. . Their presence has no meaning save one and that is to offer support to the Jews in Palestine who are in need of their Christian brothers to achieve full control over the Arab Peninsula which they intend to make an important part of the so called Greater Israel. . ”
Asif Ali Zardari , President of Pakistan Hamid Karzai, President of Afghanistan
Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan (above) while fighting the Soviets in the 1980’s after the 9/11 attacks in 2001. § America declares “War on Terrorism. ” al-Quaida, a terrorist network led by Osama bin Laden, & the Taliban, who was protecting bin Laden, become the primary targets. § US creates the Office of Homeland Security to defend against future terrorist attacks & Congress passes the Patriot Act for surveillance of suspected terrorists in the US (very controversial – privacy rights? ) § President Bush’s campaign against terrorism § Diplomatic: asked other nations to stand united against terrorism § Economic: blocked the money supplies of terrorist organizations § Military: US attacked military sites & terrorist training camps in Afghanistan, destroyed al-Qaida, the Taliban & Osama bin-Laden
Objective: To examine the causes and importance of our military involvement in Afghanistan.
The Middle East Jihad 1: a holy war waged on behalf of Islam as a religious duty 2: a crusade for a principle or belief
U. S. Troops in Afghanistan Mark 9/11 (1: 40) Taliban Training Video (2: 41) Taliban’s Treatment of Women (4: 08)
Taliban Publically Whips Teenage Girl in Pakistan (2: 18) Pakistan v. Taliban (2: 44) Afghan civilian deaths help Taliban (3: 31)
Ousting Saddam Hussein § In his 2002 State of the Union address, President Bush referred to Iraq, Iran & North Korea as an “axis of evil” that was endangering the world. § Claimed they oppressed their people, sponsored terrorism, & were developing weapons of mass destruction (WMD) § Despite opposition from other countries, including France, Germany & Russia, the US invaded Iraq in March 2003 & toppled Hussein’s regime in just 6 weeks. After the leaders went into hiding, the US tracked them down one by one. Saddam was captured in December 2003 & was executed by the new government of Iraq. § The US military would stay in Iraq for the next decade, trying
May 2, 2003, aboard the USS Abraham Lincoln
Pres. Bush stated that the war in Iraq was necessary in order to prevent Hussein from using weapons of mass destruction against the U. S. or our allies in the future.
Vice President Joseph R. Biden Jr. talking with soldiers at Camp Victory on the outskirts of Baghdad. (July 4, 2009) Iraqis Celebrate U. S. Troop Withdrawals – 6/30/09 (3: 03) After the withdrawal in Iraq – 7/2/09 (1: 23)
Fast forward to 2009… "They have "Israel is athe invented a “It was tyrannical most clean myth that Jews were regime that will one the and free election in massacred destroyed. " place this day will beand fault was world. . . no above God, religions and discovered. The whole the prophets. " nation understood this. ” Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Iranian Presidential Election: June, 2009 versus Mir Hossein Mousavi Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Ahmadinejad was declared the winner in what many feel was a fraudulent election.
Grand Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, the current Supreme Leader of Iran.
After the results were announced, thousands of Iranians took the streets in protest. BBC – June 13: Protest against Iran election results (4: 14) June 14 th: Iranians protest against election results, police intervene (3: 30) CNN: "Death Of Neda" Video Becomes Symbol Of Iranian Protests (2: 54)