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Chapter 3 The History of Corrections in America Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 8 Chapter 3 The History of Corrections in America Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 8 th

The History of Corrections u The Colonial Period Arrival of the Penitentiary Ø Ø The History of Corrections u The Colonial Period Arrival of the Penitentiary Ø Ø Ø The Pennsylvania System The New York ( Auburn ) System Debating the Systems Ø Ø Southern Penology Western Penology 1. 2. 3. Cincinnati, 1870 Elmira Reformatory Lasting Reforms u Development or Prisons in the South and West u The Reformatory Movement Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 8 th

The History of Corrections Cont. u The Rise of the Progressives u The Rise The History of Corrections Cont. u The Rise of the Progressives u The Rise of the Medical Model Individualized Treatment and the Positivist School Ø Progressive Reforms Ø u From Medical Model to Community Model u The Crime Control Model: The Pendulum Swings Again Ø Ø The Decline of Rehabilitation The Emergence of Crime Control Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 8 th

Evolution of punishment in America, 1600 – 2000 Flow Chart Medical Model 1930 s Evolution of punishment in America, 1600 – 2000 Flow Chart Medical Model 1930 s - 1960 s Community Model 1960 s - 1970 s Crime Control Model 1970 s - 2000 Progressive Period Colonial Period 1890 s - 1930 s 1600 s - 1790 s Reformatory Movement Prisons in South & West Arrival of the Penitentiary 1870 s - 1890 s 1800’s 1790 s - 1860 s Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 8 th

William Penn u William Penn (1644– 1718) English Quaker who arrived in Philadelphia in William Penn u William Penn (1644– 1718) English Quaker who arrived in Philadelphia in 1682. Succeeded in getting Pennsylvania to adopt “The Great Law” emphasizing hard labor in a house of correction as punishment for most crimes Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 8 th

“Penitentiary” u an institution intended to isolate prisoners from society and from one another “Penitentiary” u an institution intended to isolate prisoners from society and from one another so that they could reflect on their past misdeeds, repent, and thus undergo reformation. Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 8 th

Benjamin Rush u Benjamin Rush (1745– 1813) Physician, patriot, signer of the Declaration of Benjamin Rush u Benjamin Rush (1745– 1813) Physician, patriot, signer of the Declaration of Independence, and social reformer, Rush advocated the penitentiary as replacement for capital and corporal punishment. Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 8 th

principles of the “penitentiary” u isolate prisoner from bad influences of society - liquor, principles of the “penitentiary” u isolate prisoner from bad influences of society - liquor, temptation, people u penance & silent contemplation u productive labor u reform (thinking & work habits) u return to society, renewed u key = solitary confinement n isolate from contagion n foster quiet reflection n punishment, since man is social animal n cheap shorter sentence, fewer Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 8 th

“Separate Confinement” u A penitentiary system developed in Pennsylvania in which each inmate was “Separate Confinement” u A penitentiary system developed in Pennsylvania in which each inmate was held in isolation from other inmates, with all activities, including craft work, carried on in the cells. Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 8 th

competing models u Pennsylvania system n “Separate system” Ø Ø solitary confinement eat, sleep, competing models u Pennsylvania system n “Separate system” Ø Ø solitary confinement eat, sleep, work in cell religious instruction reflection upon crimes n reform through n n model for Europe e. g. Ø salvation Ø religious enlightenment Ø Walnut St. Jail Ø Western Penitentiary Ø Eastern State Pen. Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 8 th

competing models u Pennsylvania system u New York system n “Separate system” Ø Ø competing models u Pennsylvania system u New York system n “Separate system” Ø Ø n solitary confinement eat, sleep, work in cell religious instruction reflection upon crimes n reform through n n model for Europe e. g. Ø salvation Ø religious enlightenment n Ø Walnut St. Jail Ø Western Penitentiary n Ø Eastern State Pen. n evolved into “Congregate system” Ø hard labor in shops- day Ø solitary confinementnight Ø strict discipline Ø rule of silence reform through Ø good work habits Ø discipline model for USeconomical e. g. , Auburn Prison, 1816 Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 8 th

and the winner is…? Pennsylvania/Philadelphia model n Europeans applauded and replicated u New York/Auburn and the winner is…? Pennsylvania/Philadelphia model n Europeans applauded and replicated u New York/Auburn model n won out in US; more cost-effective labor; state negotiated contracts with manufacturers u but neither curbed crime nor reformed offr’s n various reforms tinkered w/ look, purpose n but icon of high-walled fortress remained: Attica, Quentin, Folsom, Sing u Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 8 th

Southern penology u Devastation of war and economic hardship produced 2 results: u Lease Southern penology u Devastation of war and economic hardship produced 2 results: u Lease system n Private business negotiated with state for labor & care of inmates--Kentucky (1825) u Penal n farms State-run plantations which grew crops Ø To feed inmates Ø To sell on free market Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 8 th

Western developments u penology in west not greatly influenced by the ideologies of the Western developments u penology in west not greatly influenced by the ideologies of the east u prior to statehood, prisoners held in territorial facilities or in federal military posts and prisons u 1852: San Quentin - California’s 1 st prison u 1877: Salem, Oregon prison Auburn model u western states discontinued use of lease system as states entered into Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 8 th

the Reformatory Movement (1870 s - 1890 s) u product of disillusionment with oppressive the Reformatory Movement (1870 s - 1890 s) u product of disillusionment with oppressive penitentiary system u focus remained inmate change! u key features: n indeterminate sentences > fixed n offender classification should be based on character & institutional behavior n use early release as incentive to reform Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 8 th

Hallmarks of the reformatory movement u National Prison Association n precursor: American Correctional Asso. Hallmarks of the reformatory movement u National Prison Association n precursor: American Correctional Asso. n strong religious influence (still) u Cincinnati meeting, 1870 Declaration of Principles “reformation is a work of time: and a benevolent regard to the good of the criminal himself, as well as to the protection of society, requires that his sentence be long enough for the reformatory process to take effect. ” u e. g. , Machonochie, Crofton, Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 8 th

“Reformatory” u an institution for young offenders emphasizing training, a mark system of classification, “Reformatory” u an institution for young offenders emphasizing training, a mark system of classification, indeterminate sentences, and parole Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 8 th

“mark system” a system for calculating when an offender will be released from custody, “mark system” a system for calculating when an offender will be released from custody, based on both the crime & his behavior in prison u devised by Alexander Maconochie u (England), at Norfolk Island penal settlement (off Australia, 1840) at sentencing, offender is ‘given’ a number of “marks, ” based on offense severity (a “debt” to society, to be “paid” off) u for release, offender must earn marks via u voluntary labor participation in educational, religious programs u good behavior u u Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 8 th

the Irish system u developed by Sir Walter Crofton u derived from Maconochie’s mark the Irish system u developed by Sir Walter Crofton u derived from Maconochie’s mark system u four-stage program of graduated release, based on offender performance u all sentences served in four stages; move “up” w/ accumulation of marks 1. solitary confinement - all start here 2. public works prison - begin earning marks 3. intermediate stage - (like half-way Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 8 th

“reformatory” Zebulon Brockway u u an institution for young offenders emphasizing training, a mark “reformatory” Zebulon Brockway u u an institution for young offenders emphasizing training, a mark system of classification, indeterminate sentences, and parole: 1 st time felons (16 -30) u diagnosis, individualized treatment, reform operation: u intake interview: determine causes of crime u individualized work & education program u mark system of classification (work, school, behavior). move up OR down, with accumulation of marks: • begin at grade 2 • can earn 9 marks/mo. for 6 months: • grade 1; or • grade 3; Clear & Cole, again. • then, 3 mo. good behavior: grade 2 American Corrections, 8 th

Reformatory movement ends u failed to reform (like penitentiary) u brutality u corruption u Reformatory movement ends u failed to reform (like penitentiary) u brutality u corruption u not administered as planned u but, important features survived: n inmate classification n rehabilitation programs n indeterminate sentences n parole Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 8 th

the Progressive Era (1890 s - 1930 s) u age of reform: set tone the Progressive Era (1890 s - 1930 s) u age of reform: set tone for American social thought & political action until 1960 s! u condemned ills of new urban society--big business, big industry, urban blight u faith in science to find answers to crime, criminal behavior, treatment u new faith in government action to eliminate social problems--slums, crime u trends of period n n n industrialization urbanization technological change Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 8 th

the “Progressives” u socially conscious, politically active, mostly upper-class reformers of early 1900 s the “Progressives” u socially conscious, politically active, mostly upper-class reformers of early 1900 s u attacked excesses of emergent 20 th century - big business, industry, urban society u believed science (positivism) + state intervention could/should solve social & political problems u advocated “treatment according to the needs of the offender, ” not “punishment according to severity of the crime” u subscribed to “positivism” Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 8 th

“positivist school” u an approach to criminology and other social sciences based on the “positivist school” u an approach to criminology and other social sciences based on the assumption that human behavior is a product of biological, economic, psychological, and social factors, and that the scientific method can be applied to ascertain the causes of individual behavior 1. subscribed to by Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 8 th

principles of Positivist School u behavior (including crime) is NOT the product of free principles of Positivist School u behavior (including crime) is NOT the product of free will. n behavior stems from factors beyond control of the individual u criminals can be treated so they can lead crimefree lives. u treatment must focus on Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 8 th

“progressive” reforms u 2 strategies for CJ reform: improve general social, economic conditions that “progressive” reforms u 2 strategies for CJ reform: improve general social, economic conditions that seem to breed crime rehabilitate individual offenders u 4 planks in “progressive” platform: probation (John Augustus, 1841) indeterminate sentencing (by 1920 s, 37 states) n parole (by 1920 s, 44 states; 80% of releases) n juvenile courts (1899, Cook County) u By 1970 s, most of these enlightened & well-meaning reforms seen as having n n Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 8 th

The Medical Model (1930 s - 1960 s) ua model of corrections positing that The Medical Model (1930 s - 1960 s) ua model of corrections positing that criminal behavior is caused by social, psychological, biological deficiencies that require medical treatment first serious efforts to implement truly medical strategies aimed at scientifically classifying, treating, rehabilitating criminal offenders n e. g. “medical” programs & institutions n Fpsychology (Karl Menninger) FMaryland Patuxent Institution, 1955 Fsexual psychopath, sociopath &laws Corrections, 8 Clear Cole, American Fcrime as sickness th

The Community Model (1960 s - 1970 s) u model of corrections positing goal The Community Model (1960 s - 1970 s) u model of corrections positing goal of CJS: to reintegrate offender into community u key features prisons should be avoided; prison = artificial environment; prison frustrates crime-free lifestyle n need to focus on offender’s adjustment into society; not just on psychological treatment n Øprobation Øintermediate sanctions; (alternatives to incarceration) Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 8 th

The Crime Control Model (1970 s - 2000) u less ambitious, less optimistic, less The Crime Control Model (1970 s - 2000) u less ambitious, less optimistic, less forgiving view of man & ability of CJS to change him u crime better controlled by more incarceration & strict supervision u precipitating factors public concern over rising crime in ‘ 60 s n disillusionment with treatment n public clamor for longer sentences n distrust of broad discretion given to correctional & parole authorities n Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 8 th