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Chapter 3 Television Since the Telecommunications Act of 1996 was signed into law, the Chapter 3 Television Since the Telecommunications Act of 1996 was signed into law, the electronic media landscape has changed noticeably. - Kaye & Medoff, p. 57 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: • Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; • Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; • Any rental, lease, or lending of the program. www. ablongman. com/medoffkaye 1 e Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

See It Then – Early Experiments ¡ Electrical Systems l l ¡ Vladimir Zworykin See It Then – Early Experiments ¡ Electrical Systems l l ¡ Vladimir Zworykin & RCA – 1923 Philo Farnsworth designed system – 1922 (while still in High School) NTSC set standards for TV – 1941 l l Growth of TV halted by WWII Essentially same technology as today (except HD) Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

Television’s Halting Launch ¡ After WWII growth was slow l l l ¡ Licensing Television’s Halting Launch ¡ After WWII growth was slow l l l ¡ Licensing new stations frozen 1948 l ¡ Expensive to build stations Audience was very small Applications for licenses were high Added UHF channels 14 -83 to existing VHF channels (2 -13) New fights over color system l l CBS system required new TV RCA system viewable in black & white Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

Networks Continue ¡ Radio profits and programming gave CBS & NBC a head start Networks Continue ¡ Radio profits and programming gave CBS & NBC a head start l ¡ ABC (formerly NBC Blue) and Du. Mont fought to be third network Network affiliation almost mandatory for survival at first l Networks had leverage to dictate terms Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

Television Production History Compared to radio Early TV cameras large, not mobile ¡ Cameras Television Production History Compared to radio Early TV cameras large, not mobile ¡ Cameras more costly than audio technology ¡ Shows live in studio, films of TV sets (kinescope) ¡ No Video Tape until 1956 ¡ Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

TV’s Golden Age & Problems ¡ Television versions of radio programs were also far TV’s Golden Age & Problems ¡ Television versions of radio programs were also far more costly to make because l actors had to memorize their lines for TV. Radio required only that actors read. l TV rehearsals required the presence of all the actors, crew, set, & props required for the show. Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

TV’s Golden Age & Problems ¡ ¡ Quiz Show Scandal of mid-1950 s l TV’s Golden Age & Problems ¡ ¡ Quiz Show Scandal of mid-1950 s l Rigged contests became illegal l Lost public confidence Blacklisting l Communist “sympathizers” excluded l Used as political tool for power through rhetoric of fear Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

TV Programs in the 1950 s and 60 s ¡ ¡ ¡ Radio shows TV Programs in the 1950 s and 60 s ¡ ¡ ¡ Radio shows added pictures Anthologies – serious theater Variety shows l l The Ed Sullivan Show The Carol Burnett Show ¡ Game and Quiz Shows l ¡ Comedy l ¡ Fixing scandal ended genre for 40 years I Love Lucy News Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

TV Programs - 1960 s & 1970 s ¡ Children’s shows l l l TV Programs - 1960 s & 1970 s ¡ Children’s shows l l l ¡ Kukla, Fran, & Ollie The Howdy-Doody Show Captain Kangaroo Sports ¡ Movies & Miniseries l l l Movies re-released to TV Made-for-TV movies Multi-part programs Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

TV Programming 1950 s thru 1960 s ¡ ¡ ¡ Least Common Denominator (LCD) TV Programming 1950 s thru 1960 s ¡ ¡ ¡ Least Common Denominator (LCD) programming Truly MASS audience (3 national networks, 1 -2 independent stations) Most writing to grade school level Entertainment - wholesome, centrist, non-confrontational, noncontroversial Conservative Codes of content Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

TV Programming Late 1960 s and beyond ¡ ¡ ¡ Still a mass audience TV Programming Late 1960 s and beyond ¡ ¡ ¡ Still a mass audience & 3 nets Social change crescendo - Vietnam war, acid-rock, sexual revolution Changes mirrored on TV (somewhat) Laugh-in (1968) - post-modern sketch comedy: hippy culture, jumpy, fast, 1 -liners, news parody, slapstick Smothers Brothers 1967 -69 - sex, drugs, rock & roll, politics (Nixon black list led to cancellation; heavy censorship) Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

TV Programming Late 1960 s and beyond ¡ ¡ Subversion of conservative shows Ed TV Programming Late 1960 s and beyond ¡ ¡ Subversion of conservative shows Ed Sullivan Show - Elvis, Beatles The Who, Stones Increased diversity in programming though white dominated. More African American sitcoms, dramas, though many still stereotypical Question status quo, confrontational - All in the Family (Archie Bunker), Maude, SNL Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

Educational / Public Television Initially National Educational Television Network – ineffective ¡ Corporation for Educational / Public Television Initially National Educational Television Network – ineffective ¡ Corporation for Public Broadcasting & PBS ¡ l l l Standardized Program Schedules Not Just Education Non-Commercial Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

Competition Challenges Networks ¡ Technology increased competition l l ¡ 1990 s - New Competition Challenges Networks ¡ Technology increased competition l l ¡ 1990 s - New broadcast networks emerge l l l ¡ Cable delivery of new networks VCRs provided viewing options Fox (1986) WB(1995), UPN(1995), Pax (1998) UPN+WB=CW 2006 Cable networks grow their audience Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

TV Programs - 1990 s-present ¡ Influence of cable TV on broadcasters l l TV Programs - 1990 s-present ¡ Influence of cable TV on broadcasters l l ¡ ¡ Harsher language Pushing limits of taste, sex, violence Copy-cat programming - copy successful formats/genres Number of channels yields many narrow genres l Narrowcasting - specialized programs intended for narrow audiences Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

See it Now – TV Genres ¡ Narrative Programs ¡ Dramas Serials (“Soaps”) Sitcoms See it Now – TV Genres ¡ Narrative Programs ¡ Dramas Serials (“Soaps”) Sitcoms ¡ l l l ¡ l Non-Narrative Programs l l Game shows Talk Shows Public Affairs News Movies & Miniseries Non-Commercial TV l l l ¡ Children’s shows, like Sesame Street Documentaries, like Frontline British Comedies Reality-based Blended, realitybased, nonscripted Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

Television Program Production ¡ Program Life Cycle l ¡ Producers l l l ¡ Television Program Production ¡ Program Life Cycle l ¡ Producers l l l ¡ Treatment - Pitch - Pilot - Program Production companies Networks Some independent producers Syndication l l Off-Network First-Run Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

Economics of TV Programming Advertiser- Supported Broadcasting ¡ Production companies finance program creation ¡ Economics of TV Programming Advertiser- Supported Broadcasting ¡ Production companies finance program creation ¡ Networks buy rights to air program but at less than production cost ¡ Networks pay their affiliate stations to air programs ¡ Stations pay for syndicated shows Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

Economics of TV Programming Non-Commercial Broadcasting ¡ PBS stations pay network for programs ¡ Economics of TV Programming Non-Commercial Broadcasting ¡ PBS stations pay network for programs ¡ Collect donations ¡ Grants from foundations Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

New Technology Again Direct Broadcast Satellite – mid ’ 90 s ¡ HDTV – New Technology Again Direct Broadcast Satellite – mid ’ 90 s ¡ HDTV – Government mandate ¡ l l ¡ SDTV - same old quality l l l ¡ Little audience Heavy expense More channels for broadcasters More revenue streams? More local content? Digital transmissions by 2006 Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

Consolidation of Ownership ¡ Fewer Companies Own More Stations l l l ¡ Less Consolidation of Ownership ¡ Fewer Companies Own More Stations l l l ¡ Less localism likely More formulaic programming Fewer different “voices” heard Cross-ownership: One firm’s ownership of a daily newspaper & at least one broadcast station in the same market. Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

Consolidation in Broadcasting Oligopoly: Control of an industry by a few firms. ¡ ¡ Consolidation in Broadcasting Oligopoly: Control of an industry by a few firms. ¡ ¡ The broadcast TV network industry has always been an oligopoly. From the ‘ 50 s & until 1996, radio station ownership had been spread among many firms. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 triggered consolidation in radio ownership. Group ownership of U. S. radio stations is consolidating. Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

Consolidation in Broadcasting Apparent diversity - many channels, many programs ¡ ¡ ¡ Generally Consolidation in Broadcasting Apparent diversity - many channels, many programs ¡ ¡ ¡ Generally the same messages geared at different, narrower audiences? While “diverse programs” exist (fishing, sewing, home repair), does diversity of opinion exist? Conservative/liberal; minority (Hispanic, African American); corporate/independent? Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

Technological Challenges Ahead Competition with computer time on cross-platform monitors ¡ TV series available Technological Challenges Ahead Competition with computer time on cross-platform monitors ¡ TV series available on DVD ¡ Digital recorders ¡ l l ¡ May cut down on advertising revenue Audience becomes the programmer TV incorporating new technology into audience activity l Respond on Internet, text messaging, Internet chat rooms, etc. Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

TV Station Organization • • • Management/sales News Production Copyright © 2005 by Allyn TV Station Organization • • • Management/sales News Production Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

TV Station Organization • • • Management/sales General Manager oversees station on strategic level TV Station Organization • • • Management/sales General Manager oversees station on strategic level Director of Engineering/Operations Manager - manages facility Sales Manager Traffic Manager - schedules programs & ads Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

TV Station Organization § § News Director - oversees news operation Executive producers - TV Station Organization § § News Director - oversees news operation Executive producers - day-to-day news manager Producers - coordinates a newscast Assignment editors, reporters, photogs, anchors, sports & weathercasters, (writers, editors) Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

TV Station Organization § § § Production Director (Program Development Manager [book]) Directors, technical TV Station Organization § § § Production Director (Program Development Manager [book]) Directors, technical directors, camera operators, graphics, editors Create news and non-news programming, staff the studio portion of the news, create commercials Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

Jobs/Careers Internships, experience = 1 st job ¡ Little concern for GPA ¡ Work Jobs/Careers Internships, experience = 1 st job ¡ Little concern for GPA ¡ Work ethic, willingness to learn and work hard ¡ Persistence ¡ Low pay to start “grad school” metaphor ¡ Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

Consolidation in Broadcasting & Other Video Systems Deregulation will permit firms to own more Consolidation in Broadcasting & Other Video Systems Deregulation will permit firms to own more stations & cable franchises. Audiences will be encouraged to participate in broadcasts through email & the Internet. Expanded bandwidth will permit firms to distribute several programs at the same time. Cable companies will try to become one-stop “shops, ” supplying all wired communication technologies to homes & offices. Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

A Wired Newsroom Source: Based on drawing from www. eznews. com/tour/tech. php Copyright © A Wired Newsroom Source: Based on drawing from www. eznews. com/tour/tech. php Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

TV Production Now & Future Cameras & other equipment will be smaller, more lightweight TV Production Now & Future Cameras & other equipment will be smaller, more lightweight & eventually less costly. Digitization will permit faster & more precise editing & multiple uses of audio & video recordings. Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

You Can be a TV Producer ¡ Desktop production l l l ¡ Computers You Can be a TV Producer ¡ Desktop production l l l ¡ Computers enable video editing Teenagers are making their own videos TV competes with home video for attention Can home video compete? l l Cost of equipment declining Digital environment may offer outlet for consumer videos Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

The Value of Television Vast Wasteland? ¡ ¡ ¡ Low Culture Crass Humor Anti-Intellectual The Value of Television Vast Wasteland? ¡ ¡ ¡ Low Culture Crass Humor Anti-Intellectual Promotes Violence Time waster Purely commercial, consumption oriented Promotes “shallow” values Not “democratic”, large corps. Newton Minnow, chair of FCC in 1964 Later “recanted” “Half vast wasteland” Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon

The Value of Television Live Coverage & News ¡ ¡ ¡ National unity in The Value of Television Live Coverage & News ¡ ¡ ¡ National unity in times of tragedy/crisis Live coverage of events (good & bad) Presidential Debates Covers Historical Milestones Can promote greater understanding of world - documentaries, C-SPAN, educational programming Copyright © 2005 by Allyn & Bacon