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Chapter 3 Morphology Cao Ning 2007 Longdong University
Aims To get a general idea of some features of word； To understand word-formation processes To get a general idea of morphology and morphemes; To understand morphological description.
Basic Theories of Morphology, as a branch of linguistics, is thus the study of the internal structure, forms and classes of words.
The study of structure or form and the features comprised in the form and structure of an organism or any of its parts, in which a definite behavioral approach is employed and a specific methodology is used. —John Warfield
What is Word? Lexicon-----Vocanbulary----Word Lexicon in linguistics refers to vocabulary contrasted with grammar. Vocabulary is the total number of words that make up a language.
What is Word? a. Word is the smallest meaningful unit in the language which can be used independently. (戚雨村， 1999) b. Word is the unit that unifies the sound, sense and grammar. It is the basic structural unit of a sentence. (陆国强，1983) c. Word is a unit of expression that has universal intuitive recognition by native speakers, whether it is expressed in spoken or written form. (胡壮麟)
What is Word? Every word has a fixed sound form and a certain meaning. In other words, a word has two aspects: the external aspect (sound), the internal aspect (meaning). A word is a unity of sound and meaning. A word is a fundamental structure unit of a sentence. The relation between the meaning of a word and its sound is arbitrary or conventional.
What is Word? WORD is a unit of expression that has universal intuitive recognition by native-speakers, whether it is expressed in spoken or written form. This definition is, perhaps, a bit vague, as there are different criteria with regard to its identification and definition. It follows that it is hard to define “word” in the scientific sense. Nevertheless, it is agreed that three senses are involved in defining “word “.
Three Senses of “Word” WORD may be seen as a cluster of sound segments or letters between two pauses or blanks. (A physically definable unit) WORD is the common factor underlying a set of forms, a unit of vocabulary, a lexical item, or a lexeme. ( the common factor underlying a set of forms) WORD is a comparably abstract unit to be set up to show words work in the grammar of a language. ( a grammatical unit)
Identification of Words Stability Words are the most stable of all linguistics units, that is the constituent parts of a complex word have potential for rearrangement. Relative uninterruptibility By uninterruptibility, we mean new elements are not to be inserted a word even when there are several parts.
Identification of Words A minimum free form This was first suggested by Leonard Bloomfield. He advocated treating sentence as the maximum free form and word the minimum free form. Word is the smallest unit that can constitute, by itself, a complete utterance.
Classification of Words Variable and invariable words Words can be classified according to their variability. Variable words refer to those having different inflections, whereas invariable words refer to those having no inflective forms, e. g. care look before careful looks rarely careless looking always carefulness looked for carelessness since
Classification of Words Grammatical words and lexical words In terms of meaning expressed by words, they can be classified into grammatical words and lexical words. Grammatical words are those express grammatical meaning, such as conjunctions, prepositions, articles and pronouns. These words serve to link different parts together, so they are also known as functional words.
Classification of Words Lexical words are those have lexical meanings, those refer to substance, action and quality, such as nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. There words carry the main content of a language, so they are also known as content words.
Classification of Words Closed-class words and open-class words A closed-class word is one whose membership is fixed or limited. New members are not regularly added. Conjunctions, prepositions, articles and pronouns etc. , are all closed items.
Classification of Words An open-class word is one whose membership is in principle infinite or unlimited. With the emergence of new ideas, inventions, new expressions are continually and constantly being added to the lexicon. Nouns, verb, adjectives, adverbs are all open-class items.
Classification of Words Word Class (PARTS OF SPEECH in traditional grammar) PARTICLES: u the infinitive marker ”to”, u the negative marker “not”, u the subordinate unites in phrasal verb, such as “get by(to continue) ”do up(to fasten) ”. . .
Classification of Words AUXILIARIES used to be regarded as verbs because of their unique properties, nowadays, linguists tend to define them as separate word class. Negation inversion emphasis
Classification of Words PRO-FORM In order to refer collectively to the items in a sentence which substitute for other items or constructions, linguists define them as a separate word class. 1. Your pen is red. So is hers. (pro-adjective) 2. He knows English better than he did. (pro-verb) 3. She hopes her mother will win and I hope so. (proadverb) 4. Tom is hiding there, behind the door. (pro-locative)
Morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit of language for grammatical analysis is. A morpheme is the basic unit in the study of morphology. Every morpheme has meaning, either lexical or grammatical. A single word may consist of one or more morphemes.
A morpheme is a minimal unit of meaning or grammatical function. Ex. Tourists: -tour (one minimal unit) -ist (meaning “person who does something”) -s (a third unit of grammatical function indicating plurality)
Example: boyish boy: a young, male human being -ish: having the quality of boyish: having the quality of a young, male human being a word over 5 morphemes Antdisestablishmentarianism Anti+dis+establish+ment+ari+an+ism (国家对教会不予承认论, 国教废除论)
Some morphemes can stand alone as words. Such morphemes are called free morphemes.
A word must contain an element that can stand by itself, that is, a free morpheme, such s talk. Such an element is called a root. When they are used with bound morphemes, the basic word-form involved is technically known as the stem.
lexical morphemes are called an open class of words because we can create new lexical morphemes. functional morphemes are called a closed class of words.
Bound morphemes Prefixes Suffixes infixes
Bound morphemes can be classified into two categories: Derivational morphemes Inflectional morphemes
Eight inflectional morphemes (i) –‘s (possessive) (ii) –s (plural) (iii) –s (3 rd person present singular) (iv) –ing (present participle) (v) –ed (past tense) (vi) –ed (past participle) (vii) –en (past participle) (viii) –est and –er (superlative and comparative degree)
The chart of the different categories of morphemes Lexical morphemes (work, house, kind) Free morphemes Functional morphemes (and, if, or, but) Derivational morphemes (-er, -ness, -ly) Bound morphemes Inflectional morphemes (-ed, -er, -est)
Morphological rules of word formation The ways words are formed are called morphological rules. Ex: un + inhabit + able (un + adj = not – adjective) un + decided (un + adj form derived from a verb) Some morphological rules can be productive but some are less.
Compounds: stringing words together n Same category: landlady, blue-black, icy-cold n Category changed keeping the grammatical category of the final word: head-strong, pickpocket n Compounds have different stress patterns from the noncompounded word sequence, `redcoat, `greenhouse; red `coat, green `house
The meaning of a compound is not always the sum of the meanings of its parts. For example, redcoat (在美国独立战争中服役的英国士兵), bigwig (有重大影响的人), highbrow, jack-in-abox (a tropical tree), turncoat (a tractor) Compounding is then a very common and frequent process for enlarging the vocabulary of the English language.
Lexical Change Lexical change proper（特有词汇变化） Phonological change Morpho-syntactical change Semantic change
Lexical Change Invention With the development of economy and science and technology, new words spring up like mushrooms, e. g. clone, e-mail, plasma television, VCD, DVD, DJ, skyscraper, dry-wash, shampoo, digital watch, digital television, broad band, modem, basic language, multimedia resource centers, computer support services, disk, UFO etc.
Lexical Change Blending（拼缀法） Blending is a relatively complex form of compounding, in which two words are blended by joining the initial part of the first word and the final part of the second word, or by joining the initial parts of the two words, e. g. smog = smoke+ fog, modem =modulator +demodulator), brunch =breakfast + lunch Pedlock = pedestrian + gridlock. Glamazon: glamour + Amazon
Lexical Change Abbreviation: also called clipping, a new word is created by cutting the final part. advertisement ad bicycle bike brassiere bra delicatessen deli professor prof television telly
cutting the initial part areoplane helicopter caravan omnibus telephone cutting both the initial and final part influenza flu refrigerator fridge detective tec
Lexical Change Acronym（缩略语） Acronym is made up from the first letters of the name of an organization, which has a heavily modified headword. e. g. BBC: British Broadcasting Corporation VOA: Voice of America GMT: Greenwich Mean time IOC: International Olympic Committee ISBN: International Standard Book Number UN: the United Nations OPEC: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
Lexical Change n back-formation: an abnormal type of wordformation where a shorter word is derived by deleting an imagined affix from a longer form already in the language, e. g. 1) from nouns swindler > swindle burglar> bugle beggar> beg editor> edit author> auth emotion> emote donation> donate aggression> aggress
Lexical Change 2) from adjectives, e. g. peevish> peeve（气恼）gloomy> gloom cosy> cose/ coze lazy> laze greedy> greed gruesome> grue（因害怕而发抖） 3) from words ending in –ling, e. g. sidling> sidle（侧身而行） darkling> darkle（变阴暗） groveling> grovel（匍匐）
Lexical Change Borrowing Greek: Latin: French: Spanish: Italian: German: Chinese: Japanese: flokati, apocynthion, electricity, atom cancer, tumor, injunction, alibi, i. e. , e. g. , etc government, country, mortgage, entail macho, flotilla, grandee, embargo autostrada, cica, fresco, sonsta gemutlich, hamburger, dock, thick-milk taji, chow mien, wok, kung-fu Jodo
Lexical Change Borrowing Loanwords The borrowing of LOANWORDS is a process in which both form and meaning are borrowed with only a slight adoption to the phonological system of the new language. (tea from Chinese ) Loanblend This is a process in which part of the form is native and part is borrowed, but the meaning is fully borrowed. (coconut from Spanish, Chinatown from Chinese)
Lexical Change Loanshift（转移借词）: a process in which the meaning is borrowed, but the form is native. bridge (Italian: ponte: a card game); artificial satellite (Russian : sputnik) Loan translation（翻译借词）: a special type of borrowing, in which each morpheme or word is translated in the equivalent morpheme or word in another language. This is also called Calque, which may be a word, a phrase, or even a short sentence. free verse (Latin: verse libre); black humour( French: humour noir); found object (French: objet trouve)
Lexical Change Analogical creation: the principle of Analogical creation can account for the coexistence of two form, regular and irregular in the conjugation of some English verbs. Hardware: software, shareware, vaporware, liveware, dreamware'. `men's wear, ladies' wear, underwear, sleepwear, eyewear, legwear, sportswear, skiwear
Lexical Change Phonological change It is related to language variation in the phonological system of language. It refers to changes in sound leading to changes in form. a. Loss（脱落）: the disappearance of the very sound as a phoneme in the phonological system, p. 103 b. Addition（添加）: sounds may also be added to the original sound sequence. c. Metathesis（ 移 位 ） : a process involving an alternation in the sequence of sounds. It had been originally a performance error, which was overlooked and accepted by the speech community.
Lexical Change d. Assimilation（同化）: the change of a sound as a result of the influence of an adjacent sound, which is more specifically called “contact” or “contiguous” assimilation. e. Dissimilation（ 异 化 ） : the influence exercised by one sound segment upon the articulation of another, so that the sounds become less alike, or different.
Lexical Change Morpho-syntactical change a. morphological change: it is concerned with the formation of new words on the derivational side, and the change in the form of inflectional affixes.
Lexical Change b. Syntactical change: changes in syntactical features of words In the fifteenth century, there were double comparative: more lower, most shamefulest In O. E. , negation was expressed by particles such as “ne” and “na”. In Shakespeare’s times, negation was expressed by putting the negative particle “not” at the end of the sentence, such as “He saw you not”. Split infinitive Postponed preposition Objective case of relative pronoun
Semantic Change There are 3 kinds of semantic changes. Broadening is a process to extend or elevate the meaning from its original specific sense to a relatively general one. Word used to be now means holiday holy day a day for rest bird young bird any kind of bird task tax imposed a piece of work
(1) Broadening offend to strike against bird young bird quarantine forty days companion a person with whom you share bread pile heap of stone task tax imposed to create or excite anger any kind of bird a period of time under enforced isolation a person who accompanies you a quantity of objects stacked and thrown together a piece of work
Semantic Change Narrowing: The original meaning of a word can be narrowed or restricted to specific sense. ”Meat” in 17 th century means “food’, now it refers to “the edible flesh of mammals. ” Word used to be now means girl young person of either sex young woman deer beast a particular kind of animal knight youth a medieval gentleman-soldier
(2) Narrowing camp open field a place where a body of men are temporarily lodged in tents girl young person of either sex young woman liquid an alcoholic beverage by distillation orator one who speaks hound dog a person skilled in the art of public address a special kind of dog
Semantic Change Meaning shift All semantic changes involves meaning shift. Here it means the departure from its original domain as a result of its metaphorical usage. Class shift By shifting the word class one can change the meaning of a word from a concrete entity or notion to a process or attribution. This process of word formation is known as zero-derivation, or conversion. engineer N. a person trained in a branch of engineering. V. to act as an engineer
Semantic Change Folk etymology refers to a change in form of a word or phrase, resulting from an incorrect popular notion of the origin or meaning of the term or from the influence of more familiar terms mistakenly taken to be analogous.
ENGLISH IDIOMS What is idiom? An idiom is an element of a language that possesses a unique way of expression based on its time-honored use. Classifications of idioms------proverbs English idioms are an important part of the English lexicon. Proverbs are one kind of special idioms. Every dog has his day ( A time of good fortune comes at least once to everyone. ) Don't troubles until troubles you. You may lead a horse to water, but you cannot make him drink.
ENGLISH IDIOMS Classifications of idioms------as+adj. +as… as like as two beans, as cool as cucumber, as dark as pitch Classifications of idioms------vt+prep He will run to a new car. (have enough money to pay for) Jean took to Paul as soon as they met. (like) Money burns a hole in his pocket(to be likely to spent ) It is another pair of shoes. (a totally different matter)