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Chapter 3 Hormones and Sexuality
The Endocrine System: It’s All About Hormones Pituitary gland under control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn. RH) Carried to other parts of body and influence other glands or target organs Gn. RH produced in brain’s hypothalamus and released directly into pituitary gland Hormones secreted by ductless glands directly into bloodstream
Reproduction Starts in Your Head! Pituitary gland hormones: • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) • Luteinizing hormone (LH) • Prolactin • Oxytocin
Pituitary Hormone Levels Throughout the Menstrual Cycle
Reproductive and Sexual Hormones of Gonads and Adrenal Glands • Testosterone • Estrogen • Progesterone • Inhibin
Brain Pituitary Gonad Feedback Loop in Women Hormones produced by gonads • Released into bloodstream • “Read” by pituitary gland • Altered its output of FSH and LH in response
The Menstrual Cycle: Which came first, the woman or the eggs? Each ovum (egg) surrounded by cells which form a protective “follicle” • At birth • Each month • At puberty
Cyclic Changes In uterus and ovaries
Menstruation Timing Cause
Myth of the 28 -Day Cycle • 28 days is statistically average length of adult human woman’s menstrual cycle • Variance between and within individuals • “Day 1” is first day of menstrual bleeding (menstruation), so menstruation is days 1 through 4 of menstrual cycle
Menstrual Cycle Days 14 – 28 (Postovulatory Phase) Days 5 – 13 (Preovulatory Phase) Days 1 – 4
Changes Within the Ovaries During the Menstrual Cycle
Personal Reflections Do you regard menstruation as a normal bodily process that is experienced by all women in good health (between puberty and menopause)? If your answer is “yes” but you answer “no” to either one of the next two Personal Reflections, examine your feelings more carefully.
Pheromones What are pheromones?
Menstrual Synchrony Women who live together and are regularly exposed to pheromones often experience synchronized menstrual cycles Women with abnormal cycles tend to develop more normal cycles when exposed to male sweat
Aphrodisiac Colognes? No evidence that human sexual desire and behavior affected by natural body odors
Menstrual versus Estrous Cycle • Monthly menstrual cycle allows opportunities for procreation • Regular menstruation allow body to rid itself of potentially harmful bacteria • Most animals experience estrous discharge and sexual/reproductive receptivity just once or twice a year
Historical Hebrew and Modern Jewish Attitudes • Menstruating women “impure” • All contact with men forbidden for 7 days • Ritual bath required
Personal Reflections How was menstruation first describe to you: as something positive (e. g. , “becoming a woman”), as just a fact of life, or as something negative? What effect do you think these early experiences have had on your present attitudes about menstruation. Are you able to talk about menstruation in your family today? If not, why not?
Current American Attitudes How would you describe American attitudes about menstruation?
Menstrual Taboos vs. Menstrual Celebrations • Taboos • Celebrations
Personal Reflections Women, would you feel comfortable asking your boyfriend or husband to buy you some tampons or sanitary napkins at the store? Men, if your girlfriend or wife asked you to do so, would you feel comfortable buying her some tampons or sanitary napkins at the store? Why or why not?
Menstrual Problems – Amenorrhea • Amenorrhea • Ogliomenorrhea
Menstrual Problems: Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) Prevalence Timing Physical symptoms Emotional symptoms
Menstrual Problems: PMS vs. PMDD PMS PMDD
Personal Reflections Do you or your partner suffer from premenstrual syndrome? If the answer is “yes, ” is it possible that any negativity that you or your partner have about menstruation may contribute to it? What do you do about PMS?
Menstrual Problems Prevalence and Symptoms and Causes • Dysmenorrhea • Endometriosis • Toxic Shock Syndrome
Menstrual Suppression: A Cure or More Negativity? • • Seasonale® and Lybrel ® Used for various menstrual disorders, female athletes and military personnel Is this a new lifestyle choice or the propagation of old attitudes of menstrual shame?
Regulation of Male Hormones Gn. RH causes release of FSH which causes sperm production. High levels of testosterone decreases Gn. RH production FSH production kept in check by hormones from the testicles Gn. RH causes release of LH which increases testosterone production
Brain Pituitary Gonad Feedback Loop in Men
Anabolic Steroids Derivatives of testosterone Synthetic drugs promote muscle growth and enhance muscle mass and strength Penis size is not enhanced by steroids Therapeutic value for use with certain illnesses
Misuse of Anabolic Steroids • Uses • Physical harm • Psychiatric harm
Hormones and Sexual Desire Testosterone: • related to sexual desire in both genders • linked to biological factors, levels of sexual activity, and exposure to nonsexual psychological arousal