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Chapter 3 Computer Hardware Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2011 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Chapter 3 Computer Hardware Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2011 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Learning Objectives • Understand the history and evolution of computer hardware. • Identify the Learning Objectives • Understand the history and evolution of computer hardware. • Identify the major types and uses of microcomputer, midrange, and mainframe computer systems. • Outline the major technologies and uses of computer peripherals for input, output, and storage. 3 -2

Learning Objectives • Identify and give examples of the components and functions of a Learning Objectives • Identify and give examples of the components and functions of a computer system. • Identify the computer systems and peripherals you would acquire or recommend for a business of your choice, and explain the reasons for your selection. 3 -3

RWC 1: Do You Know What You’ve Got? • Astra Zeneca – Multiple acquisitions RWC 1: Do You Know What You’ve Got? • Astra Zeneca – Multiple acquisitions with non-standard IT systems – PS’Soft asset Management • Conducted life-cycle studies • Gained leverage with vendors • United Health Group – Unnecessary IT diversity – Hercules desktop management standardizes: • • • Procurement Configuration Installation Life-cycle Asset management 3 -4

Early Computing • 1880 s – Punched cards turned sensors On or Off • Early Computing • 1880 s – Punched cards turned sensors On or Off • 1946 – – ENIAC First Digital computer - programmable Used vacuum tubes Would fill room 39 ft by 39 ft • Late 1950 s – Transistors replaced vacuum tubes – Smaller, faster, cooler 3 -5

Waves of Computing • First Generation - Prior to 1950 – Vacuum tubes • Waves of Computing • First Generation - Prior to 1950 – Vacuum tubes • Second Generation - Late 1950 s – Transistors & integrated circuits – Jack Kilby – 200, 000 to 250, 000 calculations per second • Third Generation - Mid-1960 s – Integrated circuitry and miniaturization • Fourth Generation - 1971 – Further miniaturization – Multiprogramming and virtual storage • Fifth Generation - 1980 s – Millions of calculations per second 3 -6

Age of Microcomputers • 1975 – MITS introduced ALTAIR 8800. • 1977 – Commodore Age of Microcomputers • 1975 – MITS introduced ALTAIR 8800. • 1977 – Commodore and Radio Shack • 1979 – Apple computer, fastest selling – Steve Jobs & Steve Wozniak • 1982 – IBM introduced the PC – Changed the market 3 -7

Categories of Computer Systems 3 -8 Categories of Computer Systems 3 -8

Recommended PC Features 3 -9 Recommended PC Features 3 -9

Corporate PC Criteria • Solid performance, reasonable price • Operating system ready • Connectivity Corporate PC Criteria • Solid performance, reasonable price • Operating system ready • Connectivity – Network interface cards – Wireless capabilities 3 -10

Information Appliances • Hand-held microcomputer devices • Known as personal digital assistants (PDAs) – Information Appliances • Hand-held microcomputer devices • Known as personal digital assistants (PDAs) – – – Web-enabled Touch screens, handwriting recognition, keypads Access email or the Web Exchange data with desktop PCs or servers Latest entrant is the Black. Berry • PDAs include – Video-game consoles – Cellular and PCS phones – Telephone-based home email appliances • i. Phone 4 3 -11

Midrange Systems • High-end network servers – Large-scale processing of business applications • Not Midrange Systems • High-end network servers – Large-scale processing of business applications • Not as powerful as mainframes – Less expensive to buy, operate, and maintain • Often used to manage – Large Internet websites – Corporate intranets and extranets – Integrated, enterprise-wide applications • Used as front-end servers – Assist mainframes with telecommunications and networks 3 -12

Mainframe Computer Systems • Large, fast, powerful computer systems – Large primary storage capacity Mainframe Computer Systems • Large, fast, powerful computer systems – Large primary storage capacity – High transaction processing – Handles complex computations • Widely used as superservers for… – Large client/server networks – High-volume Internet websites • Becoming popular computing platform for… – Electronic commerce applications – Data mining and warehousing 3 -13

Supercomputer Systems • Extremely powerful systems – Scientific, engineering, and business applications – Massive Supercomputer Systems • Extremely powerful systems – Scientific, engineering, and business applications – Massive numeric computations • Markets include… – Government research agencies – Large universities – Major corporations • Uses parallel processing – Billions to trillions of operations per second • (gigaflops and teraflops) – Costs $5 to $50 million 3 -14

Computer System Concept 3 -15 Computer System Concept 3 -15

Computer Processing Speeds • Commonly called “clock speed” • Early computers – Milliseconds (thousandths Computer Processing Speeds • Commonly called “clock speed” • Early computers – Milliseconds (thousandths of a second) – Microseconds (millionths of a second) • Current computers – Nanoseconds (billionth of a second) – Picoseconds (trillionth of a second) • Program instruction processing speeds – Megahertz – Gigahertz (millions of cycles per second) (billions of cycles per second) 3 -16

Moore’s Law 3 -17 Moore’s Law 3 -17

RWC 2: Voice Recognition Tools • • • Doctors record to e-medical records Nurses RWC 2: Voice Recognition Tools • • • Doctors record to e-medical records Nurses receive instructions record actions Time cut by 75 percent Reduced mistakes ROI 12 to 18 months Transcription $500, 000 to zero 3 -18

Peripherals Advice 3 -19 Peripherals Advice 3 -19

Input Technologies • Keyboard • Graphical User Interface (GUI) • Electronic Mouse • Trackball Input Technologies • Keyboard • Graphical User Interface (GUI) • Electronic Mouse • Trackball • Pointing stick • Touchpad • Touch screen 3 -20

Pen-Based Computing • Used in Tablet PCs and PDAs – Pressure-sensitive layer, similar to Pen-Based Computing • Used in Tablet PCs and PDAs – Pressure-sensitive layer, similar to touch screen, under liquid crystal display screen – Software digitizes handwriting, hand printing, and hand drawing 3 -21

Speech Recognition Software • Digitize, analyze, and classify speech and sound patterns – Compares Speech Recognition Software • Digitize, analyze, and classify speech and sound patterns – Compares to sound patterns in its vocabulary – Passes recognized words to the application software • Speaker-independent voice recognition systems – Recognizes words from never heard voice – Voice-messaging computers 3 -22

Optical Scanning • Converts text or graphics to digital • Document management library system Optical Scanning • Converts text or graphics to digital • Document management library system • Scanners • Optical Character Recognition (OCR) – Reads characters and codes – Optical scanning wands 3 -23

Other Input Technologies • • Magnetic Stripe on credit cards Smart Cards Digital Cameras Other Input Technologies • • Magnetic Stripe on credit cards Smart Cards Digital Cameras Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) 3 -24

Output Technologies • Video Displays – Cathode-ray tube (CRT) – Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) Output Technologies • Video Displays – Cathode-ray tube (CRT) – Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) – Plasma displays • Printed Output – – Dot matrix Character printers Inkjet printers spray ink Laser printers • Electrostatic process • Similar to a photocopying machine 3 -25

Storage Tradeoffs 3 -26 Storage Tradeoffs 3 -26

Representing Characters in Bytes 3 -27 Representing Characters in Bytes 3 -27

Using Binary Code to Calculate 3 -28 Using Binary Code to Calculate 3 -28

Storage Capacity Measurement • • • Kilobyte (KB): one thousand bytes Megabyte (MB): one Storage Capacity Measurement • • • Kilobyte (KB): one thousand bytes Megabyte (MB): one million bytes Gigabyte (GB): one billion bytes Terabyte (TB): one trillion bytes Petabyte (PB): one quadrillion bytes 3 -29

Direct and Sequential Access 3 -30 Direct and Sequential Access 3 -30

Types of Semiconductor Memory • Random Access Memory (RAM) – Most widely used primary Types of Semiconductor Memory • Random Access Memory (RAM) – Most widely used primary storage medium – Volatile memory – Read/write memory • Read-Only Memory (ROM) – Permanent storage – Can be read, but not overwritten – Frequently used programs burnt into chips during manufacturing process – Called firmware • Flash Drive 3 -31

Flash Drives • Jump drive, travel drive, etc. – Small chips thousands of transistors Flash Drives • Jump drive, travel drive, etc. – Small chips thousands of transistors – Stores data virtually unlimited periods without power – Easily transported and highly durable – Storage capacity of up to 20 GB • New 1 TB – Plugs into any USB port 3 -32

Direct Access – Magnetic Disk • Used for secondary storage – Fast access and Direct Access – Magnetic Disk • Used for secondary storage – Fast access and high capacity – Reasonable cost 3 -33

RAID Storage • Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks – Arrays of hard disk drives RAID Storage • Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks – Arrays of hard disk drives – Virtually unlimited online storage – 6 to more than 100 small hard disk drives in a single unit – Data are accessed in parallel over multiple paths from many disks – Redundant storage of data on several disks provides fault-tolerant capacity – Storage area networks can interconnect many RAID units 3 -34

Magnetic Tape • Secondary storage – Tape reels, cassettes, and cartridges – Used in Magnetic Tape • Secondary storage – Tape reels, cassettes, and cartridges – Used in robotic, automated drive assemblies – Archival and backup storage – Lower-cost storage solution 3 -35

Optical Disks 3 -36 Optical Disks 3 -36

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) • One of the newest and fastest growing storage technologies Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) • One of the newest and fastest growing storage technologies – System for tagging and identifying moving objects • Merchandise, postal packages, casino chips, pets – Tag 1 inch square – Chips half the size of a grain of sand • Passive chips derive power from reader signal • Active chips are self-powered • Privacy Issues 3 -37

Predictions for the Future • • • Biological memories Health remedies Longer life spans Predictions for the Future • • • Biological memories Health remedies Longer life spans Virtual activities Memory recall 3 -38

RWC 3: Grid Computing • Grid computing – Tapping into available computer power on RWC 3: Grid Computing • Grid computing – Tapping into available computer power on other systems – Better use of underutilized hardware – Avoid dedicated hardware costs • Cancer Institute in New Jersey – Convert hundreds of thousands of images of cancerous tissues and cells into digital images. – Check accuracy – Diagnose and treat cancer patients faster and with more success. 3 -39

RWC 4: Touch Screen Comes of Age • The WIMP - Windows, Icons, Menus, RWC 4: Touch Screen Comes of Age • The WIMP - Windows, Icons, Menus, and Pointing devices dominated for 15 years. • New human interface technologies revolutionize interaction with computers. • Microsoft and Starwood Hotels & Resorts introduce surface computing • Gesture recognition is logical extension of touch technology 3 -40