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Chapter 28 THE ONSET OF THE COLD WAR America Past and Present Chapter 28 THE ONSET OF THE COLD WAR America Past and Present

The Cold War Begins: Issues Dividing US & USSR • Control of Postwar Europe The Cold War Begins: Issues Dividing US & USSR • Control of Postwar Europe – • Economic Aid – • Fundamental disagreement Soviet economy devastated Nuclear Disarmament – Overshadowed all else p. 810

The Division of Europe • • 1945 ~ Russians occupied eastern Europe, American troops The Division of Europe • • 1945 ~ Russians occupied eastern Europe, American troops occupied western Europe ~ Germany was the key Soviet Union sought eastern European buffer US demanded national self-determination through free elections throughout Europe Stalin converted eastern Europe into a system of satellite nations – – Lowered the “Iron Curtain” from the Baltic to the Adriatic ~ Churchill’s term One by one, communist regimes replaced coalition govts in Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria p. 810 -811

Europe after World War II p. 811 Europe after World War II p. 811

Germany 1945 NIB Germany 1945 NIB

Withholding Economic Aid • Soviets devastated by World War II – – – • Withholding Economic Aid • Soviets devastated by World War II – – – • • • 15 to 20 M lives lost 30 k factories destroyed 40 k mi of railroad track destroyed Wartime ambassador, Averell Harriman, “Economic aid is one of our most effective weapons” 1945 ~ United States halted Lend. Lease shipments to the Soviets moved factories from captured territories p. 811 -812

The Atomic Dilemma • • 1943 ~ Nuclear race between US & USSR 1946 The Atomic Dilemma • • 1943 ~ Nuclear race between US & USSR 1946 ~ Bernard Baruch Plan – – – • Soviet Union – – • Rapid reduction of US military force Baruch Plan presented to the UN favored US atomic monopoly Would have preserved the status quo Larger conventional army than US Ambassador Andrei Gromyko plan to abolish atomic weapons • Favored the Soviets No agreements = Cold War presented p. 812 -813

Containment • 1947 ~ George C. Marshall appointed Secretary of State – • Undersecretary Containment • 1947 ~ George C. Marshall appointed Secretary of State – • Undersecretary Dean Acheson – – • Experienced Wash lawyer Wanted to see US take over as supreme arbiter of world affairs George Kennan headed newly created Policy Planning Staff – – • Appointed talented subordinates Soviet expert Fluent in Russian They set the course for containment p. 813

The Truman Doctrine • • • 1947 ~ Truman sought funds to keep Greece, The Truman Doctrine • • • 1947 ~ Truman sought funds to keep Greece, Turkey in Western sphere of influence Truman Doctrine ~ “Support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressure” Doctrine an informal declaration of cold war against the Soviet Union p. 813 -814

The Marshall Plan • • If US could not solve Western Europe’s economic problems, The Marshall Plan • • If US could not solve Western Europe’s economic problems, it was feared that it would drift into the communist orbit 1947 ~ George Marshall proposed aid for rebuilding European industries – • • • A massive infusion of American capital to finance the economic recovery of Europe (Soviets included) USSR refused aid ~ Didn’t want to lose control of Eastern Europe 1948 ~ Marshall Plan adopted by Congress Plan fostered western European prosperity p. 814 -815

Marshall Plan to Aid Europe, 1948– 1952 Massive infusion of US capital p. 815 Marshall Plan to Aid Europe, 1948– 1952 Massive infusion of US capital p. 815

Marshall Plan to Aid Europe, 1948– 1952 Massive infusion of US capital p. 815 Marshall Plan to Aid Europe, 1948– 1952 Massive infusion of US capital p. 815

Marshall Plan to Aid Europe, 1948– 1952 Massive infusion of US capital p. 815 Marshall Plan to Aid Europe, 1948– 1952 Massive infusion of US capital p. 815

The Western Military Alliance • 1949 ~ North Atlantic Treaty Organization – – – The Western Military Alliance • 1949 ~ North Atlantic Treaty Organization – – – • Military alliance included US, Canada, most of western Europe US troops stationed in Europe Represented a departure from traditional American isolationism NATO intensified USSR's fear of the West p. 815 -816

The Berlin Blockade • June 1948 ~ The main Soviet response to the US The Berlin Blockade • June 1948 ~ The main Soviet response to the US containment strategy was the blockade of Berlin – • Truman ordered airlift to supply the city – – – • • Cut off all rail & highway traffic 10 k troops & 2 M civilians in Berlin Soviets could have shot down cargo planes Sent 60 atomic capable B-29 s in England 1949 ~ Russians end blockade Tremendous US political victory p. 816 -817

The Cold War Expands • • 1947 ~ US vs. Soviet arms race accelerated The Cold War Expands • • 1947 ~ US vs. Soviet arms race accelerated The Superpowers sought to expand their influence in the Far East p. 817

The Military Dimension • 1947 ~ National Security Act – – – • • The Military Dimension • 1947 ~ National Security Act – – – • • Department of Defense established • Army – Navy – Air Force (new) Central Intelligence Agency coordinated intelligence-gathering National Security Council advised president Defense budget devoted to air power 1949 ~ First Russian atomic bomb exploded, US began hydrogen bomb development (1000 x) p. 817 -818

The Cold War in Asia • • • 1945 ~ US consolidates hold on The Cold War in Asia • • • 1945 ~ US consolidates hold on Japan, & former Japanese possessions in Pacific 1949 ~ Victory of Mao Tse-tung’s Communists over Chaing Kai-shek’s Nationals brings China into Soviet orbit Truman refused recognition of Communist China & began building up Japan p. 818 -819

The Korean War • • June 1950 ~ Communist North Korean forces, following Kim The Korean War • • June 1950 ~ Communist North Korean forces, following Kim il-Sung (backed by China backed by the Soviets), invaded USinfluenced South Korea Truman made South Korea’s defense a UN effort & sent in US troops – – – • US routed Korean forces in South Attempt to unify Korea drew in China With help from China, US pushed back to South & war became a stalemate Kim Jong-il Most significant result ~ Massive American rearmament – US Army expanded to 3. 5 M p. 819 -821

The Korean War, 1950– 1953 • Most significant result ~ Massive American rearmament p. The Korean War, 1950– 1953 • Most significant result ~ Massive American rearmament p. 820

The Cold War at Home • • • Truman tried to carry on the The Cold War at Home • • • Truman tried to carry on the New Deal reform tradition he had inherited from FDR, but American people more concerned about events abroad Fears of Communist subversion Republicans used anticommunism to revive their party p. 824

Truman's Troubles • Prices rose quickly following WWII when Congress ended wartime controls – Truman's Troubles • Prices rose quickly following WWII when Congress ended wartime controls – • Labor unrest swept the country culminating in critical strikes – • • Workers lost pay due to loss of overtime Truman asked Congress for power to draft striking railway workers into the Army Businesses raised wages, but passed the cost on to consumers 1946 ~ Republicans won majority in both houses of Congress – “To err is Truman” & “Had enough? ” p. 824

Truman Vindicated • 1948 election ~ Truman thought unelectable – – Northern liberals supported Truman Vindicated • 1948 election ~ Truman thought unelectable – – Northern liberals supported Henry Wallace’s Progressive candidacy Southern Democrats supported “Dixiecrat” Strom Thurmond (anti-civil rights, racist) Republican Thomas Dewey was overconfident & ran bland campaign, failed to challenge Truman on Cold War because of the Berlin Crisis Roosevelt coalition reelected Truman on domestic issues p. 824 -825

100 p. 825 100 p. 825

The Loyalty Issue • Growing paranoia over communist spies – – • Truman was The Loyalty Issue • Growing paranoia over communist spies – – • Truman was compelled to take action & initiated a loyalty program – • Canadians uncovered Soviet spy ring in 1946 US House Un-American Activities Committee held hearings regarding agents in the Depts of Agriculture & Treasury Required security checks; 1000 s of govt workers lost their jobs on suspicion Most famous disclosure in US govt came when Whittaker Chambers (a repentant communist) accused Alger Hiss, a former State Dept official, of having been a Soviet spy during the 1930 s p. 825 -826

The Loyalty Issue • Chambers led investigators to a hollowedout pumpkin on his Maryland The Loyalty Issue • Chambers led investigators to a hollowedout pumpkin on his Maryland farm in which were found microfilms of govt documents – • Chambers claimed Hiss had passed them to him in the late 1930 s Statute of limitations had passed, so Hiss escaped treason charges, but was convicted of perjury in 1950 & sentenced to a 5 yr prison sentence ’ 53 -’ 56 p. 825 -826

Klaus Fuchs Julius & Ethel Rosenberg • Soviets tested their first atomic bomb in Klaus Fuchs Julius & Ethel Rosenberg • Soviets tested their first atomic bomb in Sep 1949 – • In early 1950, Klaus Fuchs (fled Germany in the ’ 30 s), a British scientist who had worked on the Manhattan Project admitted passing A-bomb information to the Soviets – • Soviet espionage was very real Sentenced to 14 yrs 1951 ~ Jury found Julius & Ethel Rosenberg guilty of passing atomic secrets to the Soviets – Electrocuted in 1953 p. 827

Mc. Carthyism in Action • 1950 s ~ Senator Joseph Mc. Carthy launched a Mc. Carthyism in Action • 1950 s ~ Senator Joseph Mc. Carthy launched a 4½ yr anticommunist campaign ~ the Red Scare – – – • • Accused 100 s of govt officials of being communists Kept up a continuous onslaught, truth was lost among the latest blasts He failed to unearth a single confirmed communist in govt He exploited the press/media w/ great skill His accusations contributed heavily to the Republican victory in 1952 p. 826 -828

The Republicans in Power • • 1952 ~ Eisenhower captures White House for Republican The Republicans in Power • • 1952 ~ Eisenhower captures White House for Republican Party July 1953 ~ Stalemate accepted in Korea Eisenhower dealt passively with Mc. Carthy – Refused to directly attack him – “I refuse to get into a p***ing contest with a skunk” 1954 ~ Attack on Army discredited Mc. Carthy who is then censured – Career ruined – “Have you no decency, sir? ” p. 828 -830

The Election of 1952 Had promised to bring the Korean War to an early The Election of 1952 Had promised to bring the Korean War to an early & honorable end p. 829

Eisenhower Wages the Cold War • • • Eisenhower prefers to work behind-the scenes Eisenhower Wages the Cold War • • • Eisenhower prefers to work behind-the scenes Eisenhower wanted to relax tensions with Soviets – Concerned about defense budget (went >$50 B under Truman) – Cut back Army & Navy & relied on Air Force nuclear striking power, brought budget <$40 B Eisenhower’s “new look” policy relied on massive retaliation to deter Soviet attacks p. 830 -831

Entanglement in Indochina • Since 1950, US had been providing military economic aid to Entanglement in Indochina • Since 1950, US had been providing military economic aid to the French in their war w/ communist guerrillas led by Ho Chi Minh – – • French were surrounded at Dien Bien Phu Ike did not provide assistance, French defeated Viet Nam divided between North & South at an international convention in Geneva – • & Ho would control the North & the French the South US gradually took over from the French & established a puppet govt – Concerned about spread of communism, but didn’t want to fight them in the jungle p. 831 -832

Containing China • • Believing the communist govt in Peking posed a serious threat, Containing China • • Believing the communist govt in Peking posed a serious threat, Ike took a strong stance against China – The object was to drive a wedge between China & the USSR Chinese threaten to invade Formosa, an island group off their coast where Chaing Kai -shek’s Nationalists had settled – US spted these “Nationalists, ” & China backed down when Soviets would not help p. 832

Turmoil in the Middle East • 1956 ~ Egyptian leader Gamal Nasser seized the Turmoil in the Middle East • 1956 ~ Egyptian leader Gamal Nasser seized the Suez Canal – • France & England invaded Egypt – – • Ike was opposed, wanted a diplomatic soln Soviets announced they would spt Egypt Ike’s most serious foreign policy crisis – • Problem: Owned by English & French citizens Gained Middle East trust by pressuring English & French withdrawal 1958 ~ Lebanon asked for US help to maintain order ~ Another “Cold War” arena – – Political problems between Christians & Muslims Peace maintained p. 832 -833

Covert Actions • • • Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) used to achieve covert objectives Covert Actions • • • Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) used to achieve covert objectives Iran ~ CIA restored the Shah to power – American oil companies rewarded w/ lucrative concessions – A country on Soviet border Guatemala ~ CIA ousts leftist govt Eastern Europe ~ Refused to help 1953 East German protesters or 1956 Hungarian freedom fighters Ike used a mixture of techniques (diplomacy, threats, covert). He seemed to believe that the ends justify the means p. 833

Waging Peace • • • Nuclear test ban treaty – US & USSR agreed Waging Peace • • • Nuclear test ban treaty – US & USSR agreed to suspend nuclear testing in the atmosphere – Ike wanted “Open skies” ~ Nikita Khrushchev (followed Stalin) did not agree October 1957 ~ Russians launched Sputnik May 1960, U-2 Crisis ~ Soviets shot down spy plane ~ Peace talks cancelled “We will bury you” p. 833 -835

The Continuing Cold War • • Jan 1961 ~ Eisenhower warned against growing military-industrial The Continuing Cold War • • Jan 1961 ~ Eisenhower warned against growing military-industrial complex Post-war era marked by Cold War rather than peace & tranquility p. 835

Chapter 28 THE ONSET OF THE COLD WAR America Past and Present End Chapter 28 THE ONSET OF THE COLD WAR America Past and Present End