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CHAPTER 28 The Eisenhower Years, 1953 - 1960 Web
A New Direction n Dwight Eisenhower’s “New Republicanism” n Appointed business professionals to his cabinet n Left much of Democratic programs intact n Ike ends Korean conflict n Secretary of State John Foster Dulles n 38 th parallel n Stalin dies March 5, 1953 n Korean Truce July 1953 n 50, 000 American dead n 850, 000 South Korean troops dead
The Cold War at Home and Abroad n Mc. Carthy’s hunt for communists continues n J. Robert Oppenheimer n Fort Monmouth n Senate censured Mc. Carthy in 1954 n Died of alcoholism in 1957 n “New Look” changes American military n Ike cut defense spending 20% between 1953 -55 n CIA increases covert operations n Mohammad Mossadeph and the Shan of Iran n Vietnam threatens to become major problem n Ho Chi Minh
The Civil Rights Movement n Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1953) n Struck down Plessy v. Ferguson n Brown II guidelines for desegregation n South reacted unfavorably n Montgomery Bus Boycott n Rose parks n Boycott brings Martin Luther King, Jr. to national attention n November 1956, federal court stuck down Alabama segregation on public transportation law
The Age of Television n “Golden age of television” n Brings entertainment to American homes n Ed Sullivan, Milton Berle Allowed politicians to speak directly to public n Sitcoms reinforced stereotypes n n Quiz show scandals rock country and bring reforms to television industry n $64, 000 Question and Twenty-One rigged
Youth Culture n Teens defined by their music, especially rock ‘n’ roll n Alan Freed n Elvis Presley enthralls youth as he, and others, change face of music n Little Richard and Chuck Berry n Beat Generation charts different course, clearly showing their discontent
Crises and Celebration n Ike recovers form heart attack in September 1955 n Polio is defeated with Salk vaccine (1955) n March of Dimes n Federal Highway Act establishes plans for interstate system n Nikita Khrushchev becomes Russian Premier n Hungarian revolt crushed by Soviets in 1956 n Suez crisis n Gamel Abdel Nasser n Nasser blockaded Gulf of Arabia n Israel, France and Britain retook Suez n November 6, 1956 negotiation settled crisis
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Israel, the Middle East, and the Suez Crisis, 1956
A Second Term n South opposed to Brown decision n Southern Manifesto n Central High School refused to desegregate n Ike sent in national guard, Central High desegregated n Soviets shock Americans with launch of Sputnik n Summit meeting derailed by Soviets shooting down American U-2 spy plane n Francis Gary powers n Nixon runs for president in 1960, but Democrat John F. Kennedy (JFK) wins very close election n First televised presidential debates
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Discussion Questions n What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Eisenhower administration? Was Ike a good match for the America of his day? n Describe the rise and fall of Senator Joseph Mc. Carthy. Did he harm or help America? n How did Rose Parks impact the civil rights movement of the 1950 s? What were some of the effects of the Montgomery Boycott? n What was the U-2 Crisis, and how did it affect U. S. and USSR relations?