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Chapter 21 Heian-kyo The Heart of Japan’s Golden Age
Agenda • • Hand back tests Introduce New Unit Key Vocabulary Reading Chapter 21 – Taking Notes: 2/3 Key Points • HW: Finish Reading and Note Taking
Key Vocabulary Heian Period – Period of Japanese history that lasted from 794 to 1185 CE. During this period, they experienced a Golden Age. Corruption – dishonest or illegal practice, especially involving money. Heian-kyo (kyo means city) - New capital of Japan in 794 CE by Emperor Kammu. Located near Yoda River. It was the 2 nd site after the building of capital city at Nagaoko was stopped. Easier to defend and lovelier than Nagaoko. Fujiwara Family – Most important noble family in Japan. Never were actual rulers. Fujiwara Michinaga Courtier – A member of a ruler’s court. • Kemari – Game played by courtiers. Involved kicking a leather ball back and forth in the air for as long as possible. Wore elegant robes. • Rango – Popular board game played by women. Involved balancing stones on one finger • Bugaku – Combined dance with music and drama. Mask worn. Yamato-e – Japanese painting. • Imagery – descriptive or imaginative language, especially when used to inspire mental “picture. ” • Katakana – Form of Kana. A more formal alphabet, mostly used by men. • Hiragama – Form of Kana. Easier and faster alphabet, mostly used by women. • Tale of Genji – Might be the world’s first novel, a masterpiece of Muraski Shikibu. Follows the love life of a fictional prince. Noh Theater – a classic form of Japanese drama involving heroic themes, a chorus, and dance.
Let’s Get Activated 10 minutes • Work on your Nara Pamphlet
Agenda • Activator • Paper Doll Activity ON A SHEET ATTACHED TO THE DOLL: – Reflect on the importance of the Japanese paper doll. – Be able to clearly explain all of the aspects of your paper doll as it pertains to Japanese culture. (Use book as a guide) – ONE PARAGRAPH (AT LEAST 5 SENTENCES) • HW: FINISH Pamphlet and Doll Projects Due TOMORROW • IW: Do Assessment 21 Assignment 9
Paper Doll Using all available resources 1. Cut out doll outline. 2. Fold available paper or color around doll outline. (Need to create a robe) 3. Cut out hair. 4. Decorate face and robe. 5. ON A SHEET ATTACHED TO THE DOLL: – Reflect on the importance of the Japanese paper doll. – Be able to clearly explain all of the aspects of your paper doll as it pertains to Japanese culture. (Use book as a guide) – ONE PARAGRAPH (AT LEAST 5 SENTENCES) You will be graded on doll detail and accuracy
Let’s Get Activated Peer edit your partner’s rough draft. • Difference between Katakana and Hiragama? • Who were the Fujiwara Family
Agenda • Activator • Tanka Poem • HW: FINISH Tanka Poem • IW: Do Assessment 21 Assignment 9
Tanka Poem Create one tanka poem that expresses your feelings about: – A favorite memory – Feeling right now – Feelings towards high school – Memory from middle school You will need a picture to represent the poem (maybe as the background)
Let’s Get Activated • Three important aspects of the Heian Period? • What is Noh Theater?
Agenda • Activator • Last Chance to hand in Dolls and Tanka Poems for full credit • Introduce new project and hand out rubric • Work on Scroll Project • HW: Work on Project over the weekend – Due Wednesday (You will get a little time on class Monday to work on it)
Scroll Project • Use the template provided to design your own scroll painting to tell the tale of life for an aristocrat in Heian Japan. Provide detailed explanations of the Heian period and the unique Japanese cultural elements that were created. For each, include a picture that illustrates your ideas. Include: (check off when completed) • ____ Title (Ex. “The Tale of Genji”) • Social Position ____ Explanation ____ Picture • Beauty & Fashion ____ Explanation ____ Picture • Entertainment ____ Explanation ____ Picture • Sculpture & Painting ____ Explanation ____ Picture • Writing & Literature ____ Explanation ____ Picture
Agenda • Go through Power. Point (creating a study guide) • Remaining Time: Work on scrolls • HW: Scrolls due Wednesday
What’s a Golden Age? • In your own words- Write the definition for a golden age • How does your definition compare to the Golden Age period in China?
21. 1 Introduction • When: 794 -1185 • Where: In 794, Emperor Kammu moved the capital from Nara to Heian-kyo (in Japanese “Kyo” means city) • What: During this time aristocrats led a great flourishing of Japanese cultures. Over time they developed new forms of literature and art, painters and sculptors develop new styles of art, and performers entertained the court with new kinds of music, dance, and drama. This brilliant culture of the Heian period still influences Japan today.
21. 2 A New Capital • In 784, Kammu decided to move his capital away from Nara for two reasons: 1. he felt the priests’ power was damaging to the government. 2. the emperor also wanted a larger, grander capital city. • The first site Kammu chose was Nagaoka, about 30 miles from Nara. • In 794, the emperor again ordered the capital to be moved. This time Kammu chose a site on the Yodo River. This site was easier to protect from attacks. He called this city Heiankyo “The capital of peace and Tranquility”
Heian-kyo • Heian-kyo became the first truly Japanese city. Today it is called Kyoto. • Like Nara, it was laid out in a checkerboard pattern like the Chinese city of Chang’an. • Heian-kyo’s crisscrossing streets were modeled after those of Chang’an, but the city’s architecture was Japanese. • In the center of the city were palaces and government offices.
Heian-kyo cont. • Simplicity was considered beautiful, so there were few objects on the wooden floors of people’s houses. Only straw mats and cushions. The Japanese did not use chairs. • Daily life was very formal, and correct manners were extremely important. Ex. A Heian lady sat behind a portable screen that hid her from view while she talked and took part in life around the house.
21. 3 The Rise of the Fujiwara Family • During much of the Heian period, aristocrats were the political and cultural leaders of Japan. By the mid-9 th century, real power in the imperial court shifted from the emperor to the aristocratic families. • The most important of these noble families were the Fujiwara, who controlled Japan for nearly 300 years. • Although never actually rulers, the Japanese believed all emperors were decedent of the sun goddess, the Fujiwara had other ways of exercising their power.
Power of the Fujiwara (3 examples) • Example 1: In 858, the Fujiwara married many of their young daughters into the royal families • Example 2: The Fujiwara acted as advisors to the emperor • Example 3: Often coaxed older emperors to retire, so that child or youth could take throne, they would rule as regents in the young emperor’s name.
Fujiwara Michinaga • The most successful Fujiwara leaders- who led Japan from 995 -1028 • Never had an official role in the government, but is one of the best known people in Japanese history. During his time in power, the Fujiwara family became even richer, they also built palaces, mansions, and temples.
Legacy of the Fujiwara The Fujiwara family used their power to better their own lives. However, they also kept peace in Japan for nearly three centuries. This peace helped Japanese culture blossom during the Heian period. Phoenix Hall – Michinaga’s son built after his fathers death.
21. 4 - Social Position of the Heian Court • A person’s rank was determined almost completely by what family he or she came from. • Being born into a high-ranking family mattered more than personal qualities or skills. • There were nine main ranks in the Heian court hierarchy.
21. 4 Heian Rank System • The nine ranks were further divided into classes such as senior and junior, upper and lower. In all, there were some 30 sub ranks • Each rank brought with it specific privileges and detailed rules about conduct. • Members of each rank had different types of houses and carriages. • Rank also determined the number of servants people had and even the number of folds in the fans they carried.
Ranking System cont. • This precise ranking system also determined such matters as what color clothing a noble could wear, and the height of the gatepost in front of the family’s home. • In addition, if a person was found guilty of a crime, rank determined how harsh the sentence would be.
The Fans of Japan • Men of the first, second, and third ranks used fans with 25 folds • Men of the fourth, and fifth ranks used fans with 23 folds • The fans of the lower ranks had 12 folds.
21. 5 Beauty and Fashion During the Heian Period • Heian society prized beauty, elegance, and fashion. • To be described as yoki (good), people had to come from an important family and they also had to look nice, and be sensitive to beauty in nature, poetry, and art. • The ability to recognize beauty was valued over qualities like generosity and honesty.
Men vs. Women • Men and women both groomed themselves with great care. • Small pointed beards were considered attractive on male members of a ruler’s court. • For women, long hair was an important beauty feature.
Fashion and Beauty cont. • The Japanese of this time considered white teeth to be unattractive, so both men and women blackened their teeth with a dye made from iron soaked in tea or vinegar. • How one smelled was also very significant, so both men and women wore scents.
Japanese Women • For women, makeup was also important. Women used white face powder to make themselves look very pale. Touches of red on her cheeks and lips. Also, women used to pluck out their eyebrows and paint on a set. • A woman’s clothing needed to be beautiful. • An aristocratic woman might wear as many as 12 silk under-robes at a time.
21. 6 Entertainment • Heian-kyo’s aristocrats had plenty of leisure time for sporting events, games, and contests. • Men enjoyed watching horse races, archery contents, and sumo wrestling. • Groups of courtiers played a game called kemari, where they kicked a leather ball back and forth, keeping it in the air for as long as possible. The game is played in elegant robes.
21. 6 Entertainment • Women played a game called Rango. The object was to balance as many stones as possible on one finger. • Dancing was an important skill for Heiankyo’s nobles, since dance was part of nearly every festival. • Bagaku combined dance with music and drama. Dancers wore masks and acted out a simple story.
21. 7 Sculpture and Painting • Early Heian sculptors commonly made an entire work from one piece of wood. • An artist named Jocho, who worked for Fujiwara Michinaga, made perhaps the greatest masterpiece of Heian sculpture - the Amida Buddha. • It is said to be Japan’s second most photographed icon. Do you know the first?
21. 8 Writing and Literature • Writing was the most valued form of expression and poetry part of daily life. • Two forms of Kana: – Hiragama – faster and easier (women) – Katakana – more formal (men) • Women led the rise of literature during the Heian Period • Best known Heian writer was Murasaki Shikibu of the Fujiwara Family. She wrote the world’s first novel. • Famous works include the Tale of Genji (first novel) and the Pillow Book
21. 9 End of the Heian Period • Heian Period = peace. • Aristocrats lived well, but most people were poor and lived in rural areas. This caused problems – People who owned estates did not have to pay taxes. – This caused a money shortage • When the emperor lost control, bandit attacks increased. • By the 12 th century, local lords power equaled that of the weakened imperial government. • By 1180, civil war broke out in Japan • In 1185, Minamoto Yoritomo seized power. – Head of military family • It began an era in which military leaders controlled Japan
21. 10 Effects of the Heian Period • Tale of Genji and Pillow Book are as basic to Japan as Shakespeare to the English speakers. • Tanka is still popular today. • Bugaku led to Noh theater, dramas with heroic themes.