- Количество слайдов: 18
Chapter 2: INTRODUCTION TO CORRELATES OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY THINGS THAT MIGHT BE RELATED TO BEING ACTIVE
Chapter 2: AIMS • • to define motivation and its subcomponents to put psychological constructs into the wider context of different types of correlates of physical activity To understand descriptive approaches to motivation, including participation motives and reasons for ceasing participation, and barriers to physical activity to describe and comment on early approaches to the study of exercise and physical activity correlates.
What is motivation? • • Direction (choice) Persistence Continuing motivation Intensity Maehr & Braskamp (1986)
Descriptive approaches to the study of physical activity motivation • Motives for participation • Barriers to participation
Percentage reporting selected motivating factors for participation from the EU Note: Data show average of 15 countries (including the UK), and the UK separately (Zunft et al. , 1999).
Motives for children’s physical activity • Children aged 5 -11 years are often physically active and are enthusiastic about activity • They are motivated by enjoyment and social elements of participation • For those aged 11 -15 years, enjoyment is important • This is enhanced when an element of choice is evident. • Motives for weight control start to emerge in girls at this age.
Barriers assessment in National Fitness Survey for England (1992) • • Barrier: PHYSICAL EMOTIONAL MOTIVATIONAL • TIME • AVAILABILITY • • Example: I’m too old I’m not the sporty type I haven’t got the energy • I haven’t got the time • I can’t afford it
English men and women reporting selected physical activity barriers Data from Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey, 1992
Selected physical activity barriers for English women: Age differences Data from Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey, 1992
Selected physical activity barriers for English men: Age differences Data from Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey, 1992
Barriers: Young people • The decision to participate in PA is influenced by: üperceptions of competence üby external constraints, such as money and opposite sex friends üdegree of support from significant others üpast experiences, including school PE.
Barriers: Young people • The decision to participate in PA is influenced by: üNegative memories of school PE include feelings of boredom and incompetence, lack of choice, and negative evaluation from peers. üFeelings of embarrassment in sport settings. These may be due to perceived incompetence or concerns over self-presentation associated with their physique during puberty.
Barriers: Children • Time has been reported as a barrier for 5 -11 year olds • This may reflect less discretionary time being allowed by parents • Environmental barriers, such as road traffic and fear of safety may be inter-related with such barriers
Barriers: Adolescent girls • Time barriers • School work • Perceived effort required to be active.
Correlates of one sedentary behaviour in children: TV viewing • positive associations with TV viewing: Pnon-white ethnicity Pbody weight Pbetween-meal snacking Pparents’ TV viewing habits PWeekend Phaving a TV in the bedroom. Gorely et al. , 2004
Correlates of one sedentary behaviour in children: TV viewing • negative associations with TV viewing: Pparental income and education Pnumber of parents in the house. Gorely et al. , 2004
Chapter 2: Conclusions 1 • • only a minority of people in industrialised countries are sufficiently physically active to have a beneficial effect on their health This necessitates a greater understanding of the determinants (correlates) of involvement in exercise and physical activity, including motivation involves different behaviours, including choice, persistence, continuing motivation, and intensity For children and youth common motives are fun, skill development, affiliation, fitness, success and challenge For adults, motives change across stages of the lifecycle. Younger adults are motivated more by challenge, skill development and fitness Older adults are more interested in participation for reasons of health, relaxation and enjoyment.
Chapter 2: Conclusions 2 • • key barriers are lack of time and, for young people, issues of safety and feelings of incompetence. correlates of sedentary behaviour in the form of TV viewing can be identified, but they are largely non-modifiable. TV viewing may be better studied alongside other sedentary and active behaviours rather than in isolation