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Chapter 19 North Africa 7 th Grade Social Studies
CHAPTER 19 North Africa Section 1: Physical Geography Section 2: History and Culture Section 3: Egypt Today Section 4: Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco
Section 1: Physical Geography l l l Red Sea Mediterranean Sea Sahara Nile River Sinai Peninsula Ahaggar Mts. x x X
Section 1: Physical Geography l l l Atlas Mts. Qattara Depression Nile Delta Lake Nassar Suez Canal x
Physical Map (p. 429) 1. The Eastern region of Africa has the highest mountains. Algeria, Egypt, and Ethiopia appear to have areas below sea level. X X X
Physical Map – Analyzing Information (p. 429) 3. The Atlas Mountains creates a rain shadow effect.
Physical/Climate Maps – Comparing (p. 429) 1. Areas with humid tropical climates such as the Congo Basin, the east coast of Madagascar, and the coasts of Sierra Leone and Liberia have tropical rain forests.
Political Map (p. 430) 1. 2. 3. Lesotho is completely surrounded by another country. (South Africa) Equatorial Guinea lies mostly on the mainland but has its capital on an island. Madagascar is the largest island country. Cape Verde, Sao Tome, Principe, Mauritius, Comoros, and Seychelles are the other island countries.
Political/Climate Map (p. 430 431) 4. The capitals of Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya all lie on the Mediterranean Sea because it makes trade and communication easier.
Climate Map (p. 431) 1. Humid tropical climates are found in parts of Central Africa, small parts of coastal western Africa, and east coast of Madagascar.
Climate/Population Map (p. 431 432) 2. The desert climate region has limited economic activity.
Climate/Population/ Resource Maps (p. 431 432 433) 3. The eastern part of South Africa is more densely populated because it has a more pleasant climate and plentiful resources.
Population/Physical Maps (p. 429 432) 1. Egypt has the most cities with more than 2 million people. The Nile River runs through or near these cities.
Population Map (p. 432) 2. Kinshasa and Johannesburg are the two largest African cities.
Resource Map (p. 433) 1. 2. The southeastern region of Africa has the most resources. Subsistence farming is the most common in Africa.
Main Ideas l l l The U. S. has generally good relations with Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia. These countries help maintain peace in the region. Events in the oil-producing region of North Africa can affect the price of gasoline and heating oil in the U. S. North African countries have produced beautiful architecture, textiles, and other goods as well as music, literature, and foods that many Americans enjoy.
Main Ideas (continued) l l The ancient Egyptians produced many magnificent monuments, cultural artifacts, and technological achievements. Many ancient Egyptian artifacts can be viewed in museums across the U. S. and in other countries. The two mountain ranges found in North Africa are the Ahaggar and the Atlas Mountains.
Main Idea l The Sinai Peninsula is east of the Suez Canal. l The Nile flooded and left deposits of fertile soil.
Vocabulary l fellahin (fel-uh-HEEN) Egyptian farmers who own very small plots of land
Vocabulary l l Casbah The old fortress and central part of some North African cities souks Marketplaces in North Africa free port A city in which almost no taxes are placed on goods sold there dictators People who rule a country with complete authority
Vocabulary l l ergs Great "seas" of sand dunes in the Sahara regs Broad, windswept gravel plains in the Sahara depressions Low areas silt Finely ground soil
Vocabulary l l l pharaohs Ancient Egyptian kings hieroglyphs (HY-ruh-glifs) Pictures and symbols used to record information in ancient Egypt Bedouins Nomadic herders in the deserts of Egypt and Southwest Asia
SECTION 1 Physical Geography Major Resources of North Africa wheat, barley, olives, grapes, citrus fruits, and cotton common to region coastal areas good soil and river or rainwater Nile River valley Sahara oil and natural gas Algeria Egypt copper, gold, and silver Libya good fishing waters Morocco various countries iron ore and minerals for fertilizer
Section 2: History and Culture
Main Ideas l l In about 3200 B. C. the Egyptians thrived along the northern Nile River. Arabic armies brought Islam and the Arabic language to North Africa.
SECTION 2 History and Culture History of North Africa Ancient North Africa Egyptian kingdom united c. 3200 B. C. ; Egyptians farmed, built pyramids, developed trade, used hieroglyphs; Berbers lived west of Egypt, herded livestock, grew wheat and barley Invaders Greeks, Romans; Alexander the Great—founded Alexandria; Arabs beginning in A. D. 600 s—brought Arabic and Islam European Control Modern North Africa control began in 1800 s, completed by 1912; Italy— Libya; Spain— northern Morocco; France—rest of Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria; Great Britain—Egypt; all independent by 1962 building strong ties with other Arab countries; several wars against Israel; 1979, Egypt became first Arab nation to sign peace treaty with Israel; 1976, Morocco took over Western Sahara
Section 3: Egypt Today
Main Ideas l l Some people want an Islamic government, which would mean fewer freedoms. Textiles, tourism, oil, shipping through the Suez Canal, cotton, vegetables, grain and fruit are important to Egypt’s economy.
SECTION 3 Egypt Today Aspects of Modern Egypt People More than half of all Egyptians live in small villages; most fellahin, or farmers, work large family-owned farms; many people work in Europe or Southwest Asia. Cities Cairo—largest city, problems include traffic, pollution, and crowding; Alexandria—second-largest city, major seaport Economic Activities textiles, tourism, oil, tolls from Suez Canal, farming (cotton, vegetables, grain, fruit) Today’s Challenges need to fertilize heavily and import food, growing population, deciding role of Egypt in world affairs and role of Islam in government, health and literacy issues
Section 4: Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco
Main Ideas section 4 l l The Sahara covers most of the region so settlement is limited to the coastal areas. These nations have had command economies and governments have moved to loosen their control.
CHAPTER 19 Chapter Wrap-Up 1. How does geography affect settlement patterns in North Africa? 2. What are North Africa’s main climates? 3. What are some important challenges facing Egypt today? 4. What are the most important industries in North Africa? 5. Which is the most urbanized country in North Africa?
SECTION 4 Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco Features of the Maghreb People most people live in the narrow coastal region between Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts in north and Sahara and Atlas Mountains farther inland Cities cities located in narrow coastal region; Libya most urbanized; largest cities are Algiers (Algeria), Tripoli and Benghazi (Libya), Casablanca and Rabat (Morocco), Tunis (Tunisia); Tangier (Morocco) is a free port Economic Activities oil, mining, tourism, natural gas, iron ore, lead, fertilizer, farming, trade Today’s Challenges need for more economic and political freedom; dictatorship in Libya; deciding role of Islam in government