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Chapter 17 The Era of Progressive Reform 1890 -1920
Reform, Reform Big themes: Socialism Progressivism Helping Women
The Drive for Reform Origins of Progressivism Main Idea: The Progressive Movement was started to fight for a variety of political, social, and religious problems. Muckrakers Reveal the Need for Reform Main Idea: Journalists called muckrakers and fiction writers brought social problems to the public’s attention. Progressives Reform Society Main Idea: As Progressives gained support, they achieved reforms for the poor and children and improved the education system and working conditions for industrial workers. Reforming Government Main Idea: Progressives made changes to local governments and reformed election rules to give citizens more power. Progressive leaders were elected into offices in many states, making it easier for reforms to occur.
NOTE TAKING Reading Skill: Identify Details
MUCKRAKERS Coined by Teddy! Journalists that uncovered corruption or wrong doing in government and business. Brought legislative change! The Progressive movement used these stories to bring about “progress” in society. 1890 -1920 – progressive movement
Important MUCKRAKERS Lincoln Steffens He exposed political corruption in St. Louis and other cities. His work in exposing police corruption in New York helped to defeat the Tammany machine's candidate for mayor in 1894
Ida Tarbell Uncovered scandal of the power trust of the Standard Oil Co. through 18 installments in Mc. Clure’s Magazine Caused Congress to investigate Supreme Court ruled that the trust (really monopoly) must be broken up. She influenced many other progressives to make a difference with their writings.
Upton Sinclair Wrote The Jungle, published in 1906, described the horrors of the meatpacking industry. Publication of the book led to the creation of a federal meat inspection program. Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act passed in 1906!
Goals of Progressivism Prevent businesses from treating competing companies unfairly Improve safety and working conditions for workers Outlaw child labor Create programs to help the sick, unemployed, and elderly Reduce government corruption Give women the right to vote
Women Make Progressive Women Expand Reforms Main Idea: During the Progressive Movement many women took steps to gain reform for working conditions and family life. Women Fight for the Right to Vote Main Idea: Carrie Chapman Catt and Alice Paul were two Progressive leaders who helped reenergize the national suffrage movement. Eventually, they were successful when Congress approved the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920.
NOTE TAKING Reading Skill: Identify Main Ideas
Women’s Suffrage American women activists first formally demanded the right to vote in 1848 at a meeting in Seneca Falls, New York. The leaders were Susan B. Anthony, Cady Stanton, and Lucy Stone. Ratified in August 1920, the 19 th Amendment gave American women the right to vote just in time for the 1920 presidential election. Millions of new women voters helped elect Warren Harding.
TRANSPARENCY Political Cartoons: Women’s Suffrage
GRAPH Passages of Women’s Suffrage
The Struggle Against Discrimination Progressivism Presents Contradictions Main Idea: Although many reforms occurred during the Progressive Era, many nonwhites and immigrants also suffered as Protestants tried to force Americanization on them. Racism was prevalent even among Progressives, and segregation became the norm in many areas of the country. African Americans Demand Reforms Main Idea: African American leaders organized to gain reforms. Their efforts led to the formation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the Urban League. Reducing Prejudice and Protecting Rights Main Idea: Jews, Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Mexican Americans formed groups to help fight for their rights in the early 1900’s.
NOTE TAKING Reading Skill: Main Idea and Details
COMPARING VIEWPOINTS How should we respond to discrimination?
Deeper look… What’s going on in the South? Jim Crow Laws, discrimination, KKK, etc. What is the federal gov’t doing? Plessey v. Ferguson • Ruled separate but equal was constitutional
Don’t forget the problems with: city living and factory work… Overcrowded (tenements) Sanitation issues Poverty Lack of schools Lack of hospitals Dangerous Long hours Low pay No skills needed Child labor Jacob Riis “How the Unions helped some… Other Half Lives”
Images of children living in the cities and working in factories during this time. Check page 550 & 551.
CHART Children Enrolled in Public Schools and Employed, 1870 -1930
Jane Addams – the Hull House, Chicago To help the Urban Poor (community center) Nursery’s & kindergarten Adults – theater, art, dance Wanted immigrants and women to: Live in the community as an equal participant in the local issues of the day. Believe in the fundamental dignity of all individuals and accord every person with equal respect Believe that poverty & the lack of opportunity breed the problems of the ghetto.
Gov’t corruption reform: Problems Solutions 1. ) Political machines 2. ) Utilities owned by private businesses, $$ 3. ) People don’t vote for senators, little gov’t involvement 4. ) Politicians do their own bidding, not the people’s 1. ) Muckrakers exposed 1. ) City gov’ts established, commissioned 2. ) Gov’t owned so people pay fair price 3. ) Election reform: direct primaries & 17 th amend 4. ) Initiative, referendum and recall
Progressive Legislation She was arrested in 1872 for civil disobedience. She was convicted and fined $100. (she never paid it!) Tons of legislation during this time. Know: • Sherman Anti-Trust Act • Pure Food and Drug • Amendments 16 -19
CHART Progressive Era Legislation and Constitutional Amendments
The Progressive Era goals vs. achievements: 1. Improve city life 2. No more alcohol 3. End child labor 4. Improve laborer conditions 5. Stop gov’t corruption 6. Rights for women 7. Fair business competition 8. Political power for people 1. Jacob Riis, settlement houses 2. 18 th amendment 3. Lessened, laws 4. 8 hour work day, unions 5. Political machines taken down 6. 19 th amendment 7. Stanford Oil broken up 8. Initiative, recall, referendum, 17 th amend
Presidents thus far… 1 -10? 11 – Polk 12 – Taylor 13 – Fillmore 14 – Pierce 15 – Buchanan 16 – Lincoln 17 – Johnson 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 – – – – – Grant Hayes Garfield Arthur Cleveland Harrison Cleveland Mc. Kinley Roosevelt
Roosevelt’s Square Deal Roosevelt Shapes the Modern Presidency Main Idea: When Theodore Roosevelt became President in 1901, he expanded the powers of the President and shaped the modern presidency. He fought for reform proposals that would keep the wealthy and powerful from taking advantage of the poor. Trustbusting and Regulating Industry Main Idea: During Roosevelt’s presidency, the government enacted many reforms involving labor unions, control of shipping costs, antitrusts, and the food and drug industries. The Government Manages the Environment Main Idea: Following the advice of naturalists, Roosevelt closed off land pushed for laws that would conserve water. Roosevelt and Taft Differ Main Idea: When Taft was elected President, he changed many of Roosevelt’s policies, including relaxing control of trusts. His policies encouraged Roosevelt to seek another term in office.
NOTE TAKING Reading Skill: Identify Main Ideas
NOTE TAKING Reading Skill: Compare and Contrast
Wilson’s New Freedom Wilson and the Democrats Prevail Main Idea: In the 1912 presidential election, the Republican Party was divided between Taft and Roosevelt, leading the way for Woodrow Wilson to be elected. Once in office, Wilson developed a Progressive plan that placed strong government control on corporations. Wilson Regulates the Economy Main Idea: Wilson worked to give the government more control of the economy. Some of the laws passed during his term included lowering tariffs, reforming the banking system, strengthening antitrust regulation, and supporting labor unions and workers’ rights. Progressivism Leaves a Lasting Legacy Main Idea: Changes in the American economy and the government’s role in managing natural resources still have an impact on society today. Continued. . .
Election of 1912 – Wilson wins! Under Presidents Taft and Wilson, progressive reforms continued until 1916. The Progressive party, led by TR, at times was called the “Bull Moose” party. (TR at one time said he felt as strong as a bull moose!)
TRANSPARENCY The Election of 1912
CHART Presidential Election of 1912
Woodrow Wilson – 28 th President 1913 -1921 Federal Reserve System Prohibition The Birth of a Nation Women’s Suffrage World War I “Eight Men Out” – gambling scandal on the World Series!
NOTE TAKING Reading Skill: Identify Main Ideas
Events during Wilson’s terms Federal Reserve System – Reorganized the federal banking system in 1913. Created 8 -12 regional Federal Reserve Banks Supervised by a Federal Reserve Board Each Regional bank allowed other banks to borrow from them; hope to end bank runs Created a new national currency, known as Federal Reserve notes – still in use today!
Prohibition By the time the 18 th Amendment was ratified in January 1919, most southern and western states already had prohibition laws. In Oct, 1919, Congress passed a nation law (over Wilson’s veto) to enforce the 18 th Amendment. The Prohibition Enforcement, or Volstead Act est. specific penalties for the manufacture, transportation, and sale of alcohol, beginning Jan. 1920. It would be repealed in 1933 with the 21 st amendment!
The Birth of a Nation This was the first feature film ever shown at the White House. It was a “Reconstruction” saga that premiered in 1915. D. W. Griffith’s film told a story that dramatically portrayed the threat he believed black men posed to white womanhood. This film sparked the rise of the second KKK.
ØThe domestic melodrama/epic originally premiered with the title The Clansman in January, 1915 in California, but three months later was retitled with the present title at its world premiere in New York, to emphasize the birthing process of the US. ØThe film was based on former North Carolina Baptist minister Rev. Thomas Dixon Jr. 's antiblack, 1905 bigoted play, The Clansman.
KKK – 2 nd Time Around • A second distinct group using the same name was started near Atlanta in 1915 by William Simmons. • This second group existed as a money-making fraternal organization and fought to maintain the ways of the past against increasing numbers of Roman Catholics, Jews, blacks and immigrants into the United States. • This group, although preaching racism, was a mainstream organization with 4 million members at its peak in the 1920 s.
Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920 s.
KKK parade in Washington Demonstrating their political power, Klansmen triumphantly parade down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D. C. , on September 13, 1926, in full regalia. (Courtesy of Library of Congress)
§Its collapse thereafter was largely due to state laws that forbade masks and eliminated the secret element, to the bad publicity the organization received through its thugs and swindlers, and apparently from the declining interest of the members. §With the depression of the 1930 s, dues-paying membership of the Klan shrank to almost nothing. §Meanwhile, many of its leaders had done extremely well financially from the dues and the sale of Klan paraphernalia.
Eight Men Out! Eight Chicago White Sox players receive payments from gamblers to throw the World Series in 1919. Those banished from baseball for life as a result of the Black Sox scandal include “Shoeless” Joe Jackson!
World War I We will fight this war in Chapter 20!!!!!