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Chapter 16 Designing Work for People Photo. Disc/Getty Images Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Chapter 16 Designing Work for People Photo. Disc/Getty Images Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 1

Module 1: Human Factors Engineering (HFE) • Importance & meaning of human factors – Module 1: Human Factors Engineering (HFE) • Importance & meaning of human factors – Uses knowledge of human capabilities to design jobs, machines/tools, & products for safe, efficient, & comfortable human use – Assumes that workers are a constant & that work needs to adapt to the worker – Early days of the factory marked by little concern for human capabilities & limitations Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2

Human Factors Models • Driving forces of major system design issues – Technology • Human Factors Models • Driving forces of major system design issues – Technology • Computerization, automation, task complexity/ speed, information display, & general – Society • Demography, skill/education trends, geopolitical change, & litigation/consumerism Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 3

Human Factors View of the Workplace Figure 16. 3 The Human Factors View of Human Factors View of the Workplace Figure 16. 3 The Human Factors View of the Workplace Source: Applied Ergonomics (1974). Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 4

Interaction of Worker & Equipment • Input component • Provides information to human or Interaction of Worker & Equipment • Input component • Provides information to human or computer • Output component • Receives information from human or computer & converts the information to action • Displays • Provides an individual with information • Controls • Permits an individual to take actions Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 5

Worker/Equipment Interaction Figure 16. 4 The Interaction of Worker and Equipment Source: Applied Ergonomics Worker/Equipment Interaction Figure 16. 4 The Interaction of Worker and Equipment Source: Applied Ergonomics (1974). Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 6

Modern Human Factors Challenge: Cell Phones & Driving • Next time you drive: – Modern Human Factors Challenge: Cell Phones & Driving • Next time you drive: – Observe how many drivers are talking on their cell phone… – Observe how they drive…an accident waiting to happen? • Recent laws ban use of handheld cell phones while driving in some states Royalty-Free/CORBIS Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 7

Module 2: Contemporary Work Design Challenges • Technology – Automation • Way of completing Module 2: Contemporary Work Design Challenges • Technology – Automation • Way of completing work through use of mechanical or electrical devices rather than through direct human action • Common motivation: Eliminate humans from the system – Issue of human error – But are humans ever really eliminated? Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 8

Valuable Roles of Automation Carrying out functions that humans can’t do Carrying out functions Valuable Roles of Automation Carrying out functions that humans can’t do Carrying out functions that humans can do but do poorly Assisting humans in areas where they have limitations Freeing humans to do more satisfying & valuable work Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 9

Costs of Automation • Complexity – Increase potential for system failure • Reliability – Costs of Automation • Complexity – Increase potential for system failure • Reliability – Operators may undertrust or overtrust an automated system • Communications – Critical to understand “conversation” between user & system when designing an automated system Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 10

Computers • Human-computer interaction (HCI) – No general statement can be made about the Computers • Human-computer interaction (HCI) – No general statement can be made about the effect of computerization • Some jobs may become more important, while others become less important • Must consider corresponding changes in employee status, satisfaction, & motivation Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 11

Computers (cont’d) • User-centered design – Focuses on user during system development – Usability Computers (cont’d) • User-centered design – Focuses on user during system development – Usability engineering • Participatory design Steve Cole/Getty Images • Concentration on usability represents shift from a technological focus to a strategic focus Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 12

Work Schedules • Shift work – Much research centered on the 24 -hour or Work Schedules • Shift work – Much research centered on the 24 -hour or circadian rhythm of humans – 2 different types • Fixed shift • Rotating shift – More likely to be associated with problems than fixed shifts Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 13

Flexible & Compressed Workweek Schedules • Flextime • Workers are given discretion over the Flexible & Compressed Workweek Schedules • Flextime • Workers are given discretion over the time they arrive at & leave work on a given day • Compressed workweek • Workers may work longer than 8 hours a day & fewer than 5 days a week • Consequences of flextime & compressed workweeks • Telecommuting Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 14

Approaches to Work Design & Redesign • Motivational approach – Used to increase worker Approaches to Work Design & Redesign • Motivational approach – Used to increase worker satisfaction & reduce turnover through modification of motivational levels • Mechanistic approach – Used to increase productive efficiency through modification of tasks or equipment Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 15

Approaches to Work Design & Redesign (cont’d) • Perceptual-motor approach – Used to reduce Approaches to Work Design & Redesign (cont’d) • Perceptual-motor approach – Used to reduce errors or accidents through knowledge of perceptual-motor skills & abilities • Biological approach – Used to reduce injuries & increase physical comfort through reduction of fatigue & discomfort Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 16

Work Design & Disabilities • Americans with Disabilities Act – Accommodation • If disabled Work Design & Disabilities • Americans with Disabilities Act – Accommodation • If disabled worker can perform essential function with an accommodation & the accommodation is reasonable & feasible, then employer is required to make that accommodation Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 17

Accommodation (cont’d) • Examples accommodations: • Eliminating (or shifting) marginal tasks that pose challenges Accommodation (cont’d) • Examples accommodations: • Eliminating (or shifting) marginal tasks that pose challenges for the disabled worker • Redesigning work procedures • Altering work schedules • Providing technology or support for employees with reading or visual disabilities Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 18

Accommodation (cont’d) • Vanderheiden’s design & redesign approaches for accommodating various disabilities – Change Accommodation (cont’d) • Vanderheiden’s design & redesign approaches for accommodating various disabilities – Change the individual – Provide the individual with tools – Change the way the work is designed Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 19

Work Design & Disabilities (cont’d) • Cross-cultural issue in disability & design – Hofstede’s Work Design & Disabilities (cont’d) • Cross-cultural issue in disability & design – Hofstede’s individualism-collectivism dimension – Important for multinational organizations to examine extent to which spirit of “accommodation” requirement is met in non-U. S. facilities Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 20

Module 3: Safety in the Workplace Most frequent causes of workplace deaths & injuries Module 3: Safety in the Workplace Most frequent causes of workplace deaths & injuries • Injury • Death – – Overexertion Impact accidents Falls Bodily reaction to chemicals – Compression – Motor vehicle accidents – – – – Motor vehicle related Falls Electrical current Drowning Fire related Air transport related Poison Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 21

Safety Regulation • Occupational Safety & Health Act – Federal agencies that maintain & Safety Regulation • Occupational Safety & Health Act – Federal agencies that maintain & enforce the Act • Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) • National Institute of Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH) – While necessary, legislation is not a sufficient condition for worker safety Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 22

Traditional Approaches to Workplace Safety • Model of unsafe behavior – An accident requires Traditional Approaches to Workplace Safety • Model of unsafe behavior – An accident requires a hazard & a behavior (unsafe act) – There is never 1 cause of an accident but multiple factors that interact Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 23

Model of Factors Contributing to Workplace Accidents Figure 16. 6 A Model of Factors Model of Factors Contributing to Workplace Accidents Figure 16. 6 A Model of Factors Contributing to Workplace Accidents Source: Adapted from Sanders & Mc. Cormick (1993). Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 24

Traditional Approaches to Workplace Safety (cont’d) • Engineering approach – Assumes that individual will Traditional Approaches to Workplace Safety (cont’d) • Engineering approach – Assumes that individual will engage in an action that might lead to injury unless environment prevents that action – 3 levels of “prevention” • Design level • Safeguard level • “Warning” level Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 25

Examples of Pictorials Conveying Hazard Information Figure 16. 7 Examples of Pictorials Conveying Hazard Examples of Pictorials Conveying Hazard Information Figure 16. 7 Examples of Pictorials Conveying Hazard Information Source: Laughery & Wogalter (1997). Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 26

Engineering Approach (cont’d) • 4 characteristics of effective warning at the basic level • Engineering Approach (cont’d) • 4 characteristics of effective warning at the basic level • It must catch worker’s attention • It must identify the hazard • It must inform worker of consequences of not avoiding the hazard • It must tell worker how to avoid the hazard Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 27

Two Kinds of Hazard Warnings Figure 16. 8 Two Kinds of Hazard Warnings Source: Two Kinds of Hazard Warnings Figure 16. 8 Two Kinds of Hazard Warnings Source: Laughery & Wogalter (1997). Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 28

Engineering Approach Ergonomics • Close connections with the field of exercise physiology – Work Engineering Approach Ergonomics • Close connections with the field of exercise physiology – Work safety: most commonly studied injuries are lower back & upper extremity disorders • Another common injury: Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD; e. g. , Carpal tunnel syndrome) • Correct design of tools, keyboards, & motions can greatly reduce risk of CTDs Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 29

Traditional Approaches to Workplace Safety (cont’d) • Personnel approach – Assumes that “safe” individuals Traditional Approaches to Workplace Safety (cont’d) • Personnel approach – Assumes that “safe” individuals can be selected or trained – Myth of accident proneness • Certain demographic characteristics, abilities, & personality characteristics may be associated with unsafe behavior Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 30

Traditional Approaches to Workplace Safety (cont’d) • Motivational approach – Assumes worker is capable Traditional Approaches to Workplace Safety (cont’d) • Motivational approach – Assumes worker is capable of behaving safely, but may choose not to → worker must be motivated to behave safely Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 31

Newer Approaches to Safety • 3 levels play a role in safe behavior – Newer Approaches to Safety • 3 levels play a role in safe behavior – Individual level – Micro-organizational level – Macro-organizational level • Role of leaders in safety Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 32

Newer Approaches to Safety (cont’d) • Safety climate & culture – Safety culture ranges Newer Approaches to Safety (cont’d) • Safety climate & culture – Safety culture ranges along a continuum from a strong emphasis on safety to disregard for it – There must be commitment at every org. level – Group leader seems to be central to process by which culture is adopted by individual work groups Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 33

Module 4: Violence at Work Violent actions carried out by a non-employee against an Module 4: Violence at Work Violent actions carried out by a non-employee against an employee Vs. Violence perpetrated by employees & directed toward fellow employees • Many hypotheses for why workplace has become more violent since the early 1990 s Filename: OS 05005. JPG Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 34

3 Levels of Violence • Level 1 • Spreads rumors & gossip to harm 3 Levels of Violence • Level 1 • Spreads rumors & gossip to harm others, consistently argues with co-workers • Level 2 • Refuses to obey company policies & procedures, verbalizes wishes to hurt co-workers or management • Level 3 • Recurrent physical fights, destruction of property Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 35

Experiential Sequence of Violence Perpetrators Figure 16. 12 Routine Experiential Sequence of Violence Perpetrators Experiential Sequence of Violence Perpetrators Figure 16. 12 Routine Experiential Sequence of Violence Perpetrators Source: Based on Kinney (1995). Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 36

“Typical” Violent Worker • Most cases of workplace violence involve some feeling of being “Typical” Violent Worker • Most cases of workplace violence involve some feeling of being treated unfairly, & perpetrator has some real or imaginary grievance against organization or a person in the organization • Characteristics of a violent worker – May include: Abuses alcohol, has a history of violence, has difficult accepting authority, is a white male 25 -30 years of age Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 37

Theories of Workplace Violence • Frustration-aggression hypothesis – Argues that frustration leads to aggression Theories of Workplace Violence • Frustration-aggression hypothesis – Argues that frustration leads to aggression – Ultimately found to be too broad • Not all frustrated individuals act aggressively & not all aggressive acts are a result of frustration – Modern view: Frustration leads to stress reaction & individual expends energy to relieve this stress – High self-esteem is associated with violence Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 38

Employee Behavior as a Result of Frustration & Employee Control Figure 16. 13 Constructive Employee Behavior as a Result of Frustration & Employee Control Figure 16. 13 Constructive and Destructive Employee Behavior as a Result of Frustration and Employee Control Source: Spector (2000). Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 39

Theories of Workplace Violence (cont’d) • “Justice” hypothesis – Proposes that some violent acts Theories of Workplace Violence (cont’d) • “Justice” hypothesis – Proposes that some violent acts can be understood as reactions by an employee against perceived injustice – Relevance to the 3 types of justice • Layoffs & firings • Performance appraisals Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 40

Special Type of Violence: Bullying • Bullying - Harassing, offending, socially excluding, or assigning Special Type of Violence: Bullying • Bullying - Harassing, offending, socially excluding, or assigning humiliating tasks to subordinate repeatedly & over long period of time – 4 steps in escalation • • A critical incident Bullying & stigmatizing Organizational intervention Expulsion of the victim Royalty-Free/CORBIS Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 41

Conclusions About Workplace Violence • Employees need avenues for communicating concerns about the fairness Conclusions About Workplace Violence • Employees need avenues for communicating concerns about the fairness of organizational decisions that affect them • Managers need to be sensitive to signs of potential trouble in form of individual worker behaviors Copyright © The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. 42

Permissions Slide 1: Mc. Graw-Hill Education Digital Image Library, Photo. Disc/Getty Images, Source Image Permissions Slide 1: Mc. Graw-Hill Education Digital Image Library, Photo. Disc/Getty Images, Source Image ID: BU 009512, Filename: OS 40098. JPG Slides 4 & 6: Figures 16. 3 & 16. 4 from Applied Ergonomics (1974). Applied ergonomics handbook, pp. 10, 12. Surrey, UK: IPC Science and Technology Press. Used by permission of Elsevier Science/Harcourt. Slide 7: Mc. Graw-Hill Education Digital Image Library, Royalty-Free/CORBIS, Source Image ID: CB 004939, Filename: BOM 0054. JPG Slide 12: Mc. Graw-Hill Education Digital Image Library, Steve Cole/Getty Images, Source Image ID: AA 047639, Filename: 127027. JPG Slide 24: Figure 16. 6 adapted from Sanders, M. S. , & Mc. Cormick, E. J. (1993). Human factors in engineering and design, 7 th ed. , p. 321. New York: Mc. Graw-Hill. Used by permission of The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies. Slides 26 & 28: Figures 16. 7 & 16. 8 from Laughery, K. R. Sr. , & Wogalter, M. S. (1997). Warnings and risk perception. In G. Salvendy, Handbook of human factors and ergonomics, 2 nd ed. , pp. 1184, 1188. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Copyright © 1997. This material is used by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Slide 34: Mc. Graw-Hill Education Digital Image Library, Filename: OS 05005. JPG Slide 36: Figure 16. 12: Routine Experiential Sequence of Violence Perpetrators Source: Based on Kinney (1995). Violence at work: How to make your company safer for employees and customers. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Slide 39: Figure 16. 13 from Spector, P. E. (2000). Industrial and organizational psychology: Research and practice, 2 nd ed. , p. 242. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Reproduced with permission. Slide 41: Mc. Graw-Hill Education Digital Image Library, Royalty-Free/CORBIS, Source Image ID: CB 034206, Filename: CIM 0014. JPG 43