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Chapter 15 The Ferment of Reform and Culture
Liberalness in Religion The austere Calvinist rigor had long been seeping out of the American churches. Ø Thomas Paine wrote The Age of Reason which declared that all churches were “set up to terrify and enslave mankind and monopolize power and profit. ” Ø Jefferson and Franklin embraced the liberal doctrines of Deism. Ø Unitarian faith began to gather momentum Ø l l Believed that God existed in only one person and not the Trinity Stessed tha goodness of human nature rather than its vileness Proclaimed their belief in free will and the possibility of salvation through good works Pictured God as loving
Deism Ø Ø Ø Deists saw Christianity as a religious system originally based on the moral teachings of Jesus but now so encrusted with superstition, doctrine, and hierarchy that it had ceased to function. The rise of natural science, with its emphasis on rational systems, suggested that religion also was a system. Basic beliefs 1. 2. 3. Ø God exists and should be worshipped Service to humanity is the best form of worship There is an afterlife in which good will be rewarded and evil will be punished Best known Deist were Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin
Second Great Awakening Boiling reaction against the growing liberalness in religion Ø One of the most momentous episodes in the history of American religion. Ø Brought on a a new wave of reform Ø l Prison reform, temperance, women’s movement and abolition of slavery Ideas spread through camp meetings and revivals Ø Hellfire and Brimstone sermons Ø New York was nicknamed the “Burned-Over-District Ø
The “Burned-Over” District in Upstate New York
Camp Meeting Methodist camp meeting, March 1, 1819 Engraving Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress.
Peter Cartwright Ø Helping start the Second Great Awakening, he personally baptized twelve thousand people. He was a minister who preached for benevolence. Later, he settled in Illinois. He ran against Abraham Lincoln for a Congressional seat in 1846, but lost.
Charles Grandison Finney Ø Ø Ø Greatest of the revivalist preachers Former lawyer Held huge crowds spellbound with the power of his oratory and the pungency of his message Denounced both alcohol and slavery Served as resident of Oberlin College in Ohio
Effects of the Second Great Awakening Widened the lines between classes and regions 2. Brought on a wave of reform 3. Split denominations 1.
The Second Great Awakening “Spiritual Reform From Within” [Religious Revivalism] Social Reforms & Redefining the Ideal of Equality Temperance Education Abolitionism Asylum & Penal Reform Women’s Rights
Mormons Created out of the Burned-Over-District In 1830, Joseph Smith reported that he had received some golden plates from an angle. Became the Book of Mormon Ø Mormons ran into much opposition. Ø Ø l Ø Ø Ø Ohio – Missouri – Illinois - Utah Mormons aroused antagonism by voting as a unit, filling the militia for defensive purposes, and polygamy. Smith killed by an angry mob in Illinois Brigham Young led them to Salt Lake City Made a prosperous community Because of the practice of Polygamy statehood was delayed until 1882.
Mormon Leaders Joseph Smith Brigham Young
Mormon Trail Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston
Salt Lake City, Utah Salt Flats of Utah
Reform Period 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Education Colleges Prison Reform Treatment of the mentally ill Temperance Abolition
Public Education Ø Ø Ø Reformers stressed the necessity of education in a democracy Rich protested at first One room school house became the norm Stressed the 3 Rs Horace Mann, secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education campaigned effectively for more and better schoolhouses, longer school terms, higher pay for teachers and an expanded curriculum
Horace Mann (17961859)“Father of American Education” e children were clay in the hands of teachers and school officials e children should be “molded” into a state of perfection e discouraged corporal punishment e established state teachertraining programs R 3 -6
Colleges Better colleges were created Ø More state-supported universities Ø l l Ø Thomas Jefferson helped start University of Virginia a nondenominational college. University of North Carolina first state college Women also had more opportunities l l l Emma Willard established the Troy Female Seminary Oberlin College became the first coeducational college Mary Lyon established a women’s school Mount Holyoke Seminary in Massachusetts
Emma Willard and Troy Female Seminary
Mary Lyon and Mount Holyoke Seminary
Prison Reform/Mental Illness Reform Ø Dorothea Dix was a Nineteenth-century reformer who protested the practice of confining the mentally ill in prisons and whose labors led to the expansion and improvement of mental hospitals.
Dorothea Dix Asylum - 1849
Temperance Ø Ø Ø Attempt to reduce the amount of alcohol consumed Drinking decreased the efficiency of labor, increased the danger of accidents at work and threatened the spiritual welfare and physical safety of women and children. American Temperance Society – Formed in Boston in 1826. Neal Dow – “The Father of Prohibition” – sponsored the Maine Law of 1851 which prohibited the manufacture oand sale of intoxicating liquor. Forerunner to 18 th Amendment Neal Dow – “Father of Prohibition”
Women’s Rights Ø Lucretia Mott l Ø Elizabeth Cady Stanton l Ø Militant lecturer for women’s rights Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell l Ø Advocated suffrage for women Susan B. Anthony l Ø Led the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848 First female graduate of a medical college Grimke Sisters l Championed aboliton
Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 “We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal. . . ” —Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Declaration of Sentiments Ø More than 300 women and men attend, including Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Frederick Douglass. Ø Mrs. Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815 -1902) Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division
New Harmony, Indiana Started by Robert Owen who established a communistic colony in New Harmony, Indiana that gained prominence as a cultural and scientific center and attracted many noted scientists, educators, and writers. Ø Dissension arose, and in 1828 and the community ceased to exist as a distinct enterprise, although the town remained an intellectual center. Ø
Brook Farm, Massachusetts Ø Ø Founded in 1841– 47, as an experimental farm at West Roxbury, Mass. , based on cooperative living. Founded by George Ripley, a Unitarian minister Intellectual life was stimulating, with such members as Nathaniel Hawthorne, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Margaret Fuller, Horace Greeley. Brook Farm was mainly an outgrowth of Unitarianism, although most of the members had left that church and were advocates of the literary and philosophical movement known as transcendentalism.
Oneida Community Oneida, founded by John H. Noyes, was one of the most successful utopian communes in history. For approximately 30 years, they lived in a gigantic group marriage (over 200 people at the end) with shared property. Ø The joint-stock corporation is still in existence as of 2005 and is a major producer of cutlery under the brand name Oneida Limited. Ø
Shakers The Shakers are an offshoot of the Religious Society of Friends (or Quakers) that originated in Manchester, England in the early 18 th century. Ø Strict believers in celibacy, Shakers maintained their numbers through conversion and adoption. Once boasting thousands of adherents, today the Shakers number less than a handful of people living in Maine. Ø Shakers near Lebanon, New York
Asa Gray Ø A noted plant collector, Harvard University professor, and author of a series of botany textbooks, Gray helped found the study of plant geography. He noted similarities in plants of eastern Asia and eastern North America, theorizing that the plants were descendants of a single species that had lived across the Northern Hemisphere prior to the Ice Age
John Audubon Ø Created The Birds of America, containing life-sized portraits of 1, 065 individual birds, was published in four volumes between 1827 and 1838, and Audubon relentlessly promoted it. The self-taught artist and naturalist was initially scorned by ornithologists, but has since become legendary for his paintings, which for the first time depicted birds in natural habitats and poses. In 1886 a bird preservation organization took his name and eventually evolved into the National Audubon Society.
Jefferson’s Architecture University of Virginia
Gilbert Stuart Paintings Thomas Jefferson Martha Washington
Charles Willson Peale Paintings Washington, Lafayette, and Tilghman at Yorktown
Louis Daguerre Ø In 1837 he perfected the daguerreotype. This method of photography, which used metal plates, was the earliest widely-practiced form of photography. Daguerreotype: Horseshoe Falls (Niagara) by H. L. Pattinson
Literary Accomplishments Ø Washington Irving l l l Knickerbocker’s History of New York Rip Van Winkle The Legend of Sleepy Hollow Ø James Fenimore Cooper l l l The Spy Leatherstocking Tales The Last of the Mohicans
Transcendentalism The beliefs that God is immanent in each person and in nature and that individual intuition is the highest source of knowledge led to an optimistic emphasis on individualism, self-reliance, and rejection of traditional authority. Ø The ideas of transcendentalism were most eloquently expressed by Ralph Waldo Emerson in such essays as “Nature” (1836), “Self. Reliance, ” and “The Over-Soul” (both 1841), and by Henry David Thoreau in his book Walden (1854). Ø
Transcendentalists Ralph Waldo Emerson Walt Whitman
Transcendentalist Intellectuals/Writers Concord, MA Ralph Waldo Emerson Nature (1832) Self-Reliance (1841) Henry David Thoreau Walden (1854) Resistance to Civil Disobedience (1849) “The American Scholar” (1837) R 3 -1/3/4/5
Ralph Waldo Emerson Ø Through his essays, poems, and lectures, the “Sage of Concord” established himself as a leading spokesman of transcendentalism and as a major figure in American literature. Ø Heavily influenced Henry David Thoreau who became his most famous disciple.
Henry David Thoreau A supreme individualist, he championed the human spirit against materialism and social conformity. His most famous book, Walden (1854), is an eloquent account of his experiment in near-solitary living in close harmony with nature; it is also an expression of his transcendentalist philosophy Ø In 1845 Thoreau built himself a small cabin on the shore of Walden Pond, near Concord; there he remained for more than two years. Ø One of Thoreau’s most important works, the essay “Civil Disobedience” (1849), grew out of an overnight stay in prison as a result of his conscientious refusal to pay a poll tax that supported the Mexican War, which to Thoreau represented an effort to extend slavery. Ø
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Ø Most famous works: l l l Evangeline The Song of Hiawatha The Courtship of Miles Standish
Literary Giants Ø Louisa May Alcott l Ø Edgar Allan Poe l l Ø The Raven The Fall of the House of Usher Nathaniel Hawthorne l l Ø Little Women The Scarlet Letter The Marble Faun Herman Melville l Moby Dick
Named after Poe’s Raven