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Chapter 14 The Nation Divided Chapter 14 The Nation Divided

CHAPTER 14 – THE NATION DIVIDED Section 1: Growing Tensions Over Slavery Section 2: CHAPTER 14 – THE NATION DIVIDED Section 1: Growing Tensions Over Slavery Section 2: Compromises Fail Section 3: The Crisis Deepens Section 4: The Coming of the Civil War

Section 1: Growing Tensions Over Slavery o Slavery and the Mexican – American War Section 1: Growing Tensions Over Slavery o Slavery and the Mexican – American War n Maintaining the balance o Between 1820 and 1848 – 8 new states were admitted n 4 slave and 4 free n Totals of 15 slave and 15 free states o Remember the Missouri Compromise? n It did not apply to the lands claimed after the Mexican. American War o Wilmot Proviso n David Wilmot of PA proposed this law n Congress ban slavery in all territory that might become part of the U. S. as a result of the M-A War. § It passed in the house (population) and failed in the senate (equal) n Wilmot Proviso never became law, but it was viewed as an attack on slavery by southerners

Section 1: Growing Tensions Over Slavery n An Anti-Slavery Party o Free Soil Party Section 1: Growing Tensions Over Slavery n An Anti-Slavery Party o Free Soil Party n Formed on the basis of the Wilmot Proviso – they wanted to stop the spread of slavery – especially in the newly acquired territory from Mexico o 3 candidates run in the election of 1848 n Democrats – Senator Lewis Cass of Michigan n Whigs – General Zachary Taylor (hero of the M-A War) n Free Soil – former president Martin Van Buren o Democrat votes are split between Van Buren and Cass n This allows Taylor to win

Section 1: Growing Tensions Over Slavery o A Bitter Debate n California’s Gold Rush Section 1: Growing Tensions Over Slavery o A Bitter Debate n California’s Gold Rush n With the inflow if gold seekers – California had enough people to become a state n Both sides realized that the admission of California would upset the balance between free and slave states n Northerners o Argued that CA become a free state because most of the land there was north of the Missouri Compromise line n Southerners o Knew that another free state would upset the balance in the senate n They would be unable to block laws like the Wilmot Proviso o Began threatening to secede from the union

Section 1: Growing Tensions Over Slavery n Other issues dividing the North and South Section 1: Growing Tensions Over Slavery n Other issues dividing the North and South o Northerners n Wanted the slave trade abolished in Washington D. C. o Southerners n Wanted fugitive slave laws § Would force the return of runaway slaves to their owners n Henry Clay o Presents a series of proposals to deal with the issue o This sparks one of the greatest debates in American history o John C. Calhoun n Argues against the compromise n The admission of CA as a free state leaves only 2 solutions for the South § § 1 – an amendment protecting states rights must be passed OR… 2 – The South would leave the Union

Section 1: Growing Tensions Over Slavery o Daniel Webster n Argues in support of Section 1: Growing Tensions Over Slavery o Daniel Webster n Argues in support of the compromise n He calls for an end to the sectionalism that divides the country § Argues for Clay’s proposal in order to preserve the union

Section 2: Compromises Fail o The Compromise of 1850 n In September 1850 Congress Section 2: Compromises Fail o The Compromise of 1850 n In September 1850 Congress passes 5 bills based on Clay’s Proposals n Zachary Taylor had opposed the compromise, but he died in 1850 n Millard Fillmore took over the presidency and signed the bills into law n To Please the North o CA would be admitted as a free state o Slave trade would be banned in Washington D. C. n To Please the South o Popular sovereignty would decide slave issues in other new states from the Mexican Cession o Southerners got a tough new Fugitive Slave Law

Section 2: Compromises Fail o Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 n n Allowed government Section 2: Compromises Fail o Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 n n Allowed government officials to arrest ANYONE accused of being a runaway slave The accused had no right to a trial – no way to defend themselves All that was required was a witness to swear that the individual “was a slave” Law also required northern citizens to help capture accused runaways if authorities requested assistance n Outrage in the North o Northerners were upset to see people accused of being fugitives lose their freedom n n Many African Americans fled to Canada to escape being accused Many Northerners resisted the laws

Section 2: Compromises Fail o Calhoun had hoped that the law would force northerners Section 2: Compromises Fail o Calhoun had hoped that the law would force northerners to admit that slave owners had rights to their property n Calhoun was wrong – it convinced more northerners that slavery was evil o Uncle Tom’s Cabin n Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe o Daughter of an abolitionist minister n Book was written to show the nation what a horrible thing slavery was o Focused on a fictional tale of Uncle Tom – a kind slave who suffers cruelty from his owner Simon Legree n Book was a best-seller in the North o Southerners called it Propaganda n False or misleading information to spread or further a cause o They claimed it did not give an accurate portrayal of the lives of slaves

Section 2: Compromises Fail o The Kansas-Nebraska Act n Nation moved closer to war Section 2: Compromises Fail o The Kansas-Nebraska Act n Nation moved closer to war after Congress passes the KS-NE Act in 1854 o Proposed by Stephen Douglas n Wanted to form two new territories – Kansas and Nebraska o Southerners objected n n The two new territories were in areas closed to slavery When they became states they would be free o To win southern support, Douglas proposed popular sovereignty in the territories o Because of this proposal, the act passed in Congress o It was signed into law by Franklin Pierce, (D – 1852) n According to Pierce ‘the question of slavery would be forever banished from the halls of Congress’

Section 2: Compromises Fail o Bleeding Kansas n Both pro and anti slavery settlers Section 2: Compromises Fail o Bleeding Kansas n Both pro and anti slavery settlers flooded into the new territory of Kansas o Each side was determined to hold a majority when it was time to vote n Thousands of MO residents entered Kansas on election day n KS only had 3, 000 residents but 8, 000 votes were cast to elect a legislature § In that legislature, 36 of the 39 elected were pro-slavery o Anti-Slavery settlers refused to accept the results n They held a second election n KS now had 2 governments each claiming a right to impose their government on the territory

Section 2: Compromises Fail n Growing Violence o In April 1855 a pro-slavery sheriff Section 2: Compromises Fail n Growing Violence o In April 1855 a pro-slavery sheriff was shot when he tried to arrest some anti-slavery settlers in Lawrence n A month later he returned with 800 men and attacked the town o Three days after the attack on Lawrence more violence occurred n John Brown led 7 men to a pro-slavery settlement near Pottawatomie Creek and murdered 5 men and children o These incidents set off widespread violence throughout the territory

Section 2: Compromises Fail n Bloodshed in the Senate o Charles Sumner – Abolitionist Section 2: Compromises Fail n Bloodshed in the Senate o Charles Sumner – Abolitionist senator from MA n Denounced the proslavery legislature in Kansas § Then went on to attack southerners singling out Andrew Butler from SC n Butler’s nephew – a congressman, Preston Brooks marched into the senate chamber and beat Sumner with a cane – Sumner never fully recovered § Many southerners felt he got what he deserved and sent canes to Brooks to show their support

Section 3: The Crisis Deepens o A New Anti-Slavery Party n In 1854 the Section 3: The Crisis Deepens o A New Anti-Slavery Party n In 1854 the Whig party split apart o Many northern Whigs joined the Republican Party n Main goal was to stop the spread of slavery in the western territories o Republican Victories n In the 1854 elections, republicans won 105 of the available 245 seats in congress n They also gained control of most free state legislatures o First Republican presidential candidate n John C. Fremont (leader of revolution in California) § He won 11 of the nations 16 free states n Defeated by James Buchanan

Section 3: The Crisis Deepens o Dred Scott Decision n Decision was made by Section 3: The Crisis Deepens o Dred Scott Decision n Decision was made by the U. S. Supreme Court o Facts of the Case n Dred Scott was a slave owned by a U. S. Army Doctor. The doctor and Scott lived in Illinois and later in Wisconsin, both were places where slavery was illegal. Later the Doctor and Scott settled in Missouri. n Scott, with the help of abolitionist lawyers sued for his freedom claiming that since he lived where slavery was banned, that he should be free. n The Court Decides o Opinion written by Chief Justice Roger B. Taney n Scott was not a free man for 2 reasons § § First, he had no right to sue in federal court because he was not a citizen Second, merely living in a free territory did not make a slave free, slaves were property, and property rights were protected by the Constitution.

Section 3: The Crisis Deepens o Taney’s decision went further…. n Taney said that Section 3: The Crisis Deepens o Taney’s decision went further…. n Taney said that Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in any territory § This meant that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional n Reaction o Supporters of slavery rejoiced. n Decision meant that slavery was legal everywhere o Northerners were stunned n The decision brought out many abolitionists because of outrage n One key player was an attorney from Illinois n Abraham Lincoln § Said that the idea that African Americans could not be citizens was based on a false view of American History

Section 3: The Crisis Deepens o The Lincoln Douglas Debates n Lincoln had a Section 3: The Crisis Deepens o The Lincoln Douglas Debates n Lincoln had a brief beginning in politics o Served one term as a representative for IL n Then returned to his law practice n Lincoln was a long time rival of Stephen Douglas o Both politically and personally n Both men had courted Mary Todd, who married Lincoln n A House Divided o In 1858 the Republican party chose Lincoln to run against Douglas for the Senate n In his nomination acceptance speech, Lincoln claimed that a nation divided by issues such as slavery cannot continue to stand

Section 3: The Crisis Deepens n Debating Slavery n Douglas held firm to his Section 3: The Crisis Deepens n Debating Slavery n Douglas held firm to his position on Popular Sovereignty § n States had a right to decide what was and was not legal within their borders Lincoln claimed that ‘if slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong’ o Douglas won the election, but the 2 would face off again n Both ran for the presidency later o John Brown’s Raid n Brown had a plan o Lead abolitionists on a raid at Harpers Ferry n n Goal was to acquire guns the military had stored there Blacks would join in his uprising, and he would form an army to lead the enslaved to freedom o Brown’s plan fell short n While he took over Harpers Ferry, he and his men were soon surrounded by Col. Robert E. Lee

Section 3: The Crisis Deepens n John Brown’s Trial o Brown sat quietly as Section 3: The Crisis Deepens n John Brown’s Trial o Brown sat quietly as he was convicted of treason at his trial o He received a death sentence and was hung in Virginia n December 2, 1859 o That day, church bells across the North rang out n Many considered him a hero o Southerners were stunned n How could the north support a man convicted of treason

Section 4: The Coming of the Civil War o The Nation Divides n Election Section 4: The Coming of the Civil War o The Nation Divides n Election of 1860 o Republicans nominate Abraham Lincoln o The Democratic party splits n Southern Democrats nominate Vice President John Breckenridge n Northern Democrats nominate Stephen Douglas n A third party was formed by Southerners hoping to heal the split between North and South, they form the Constitutional Union and nominate John Bell o Douglas felt that Lincoln would win and pleaded with southern voters to stay with the Union no matter what happened n He was pelted with eggs and garbage as a result of his efforts n The election showed the division of the country o Look at the map on page 500

Section 4: The Coming of the Civil War n Southern States Secede o Lincoln’s Section 4: The Coming of the Civil War n Southern States Secede o Lincoln’s election shocked the south o They felt that a government would move to take away their ‘rights’ o On December 20, 1860 n South Carolina passed a declaration n In that document was stated n “The union now subsisting between South Carolina and the other states, under the name of the United States of America, is hereby dissolved”

Section 4: The Coming of the Civil War n The Confederate States of America Section 4: The Coming of the Civil War n The Confederate States of America o Six more states followed SC out of the union n Some moderates in Tennessee and Texas opposed § Sam Houston and Andrew Johnson o The 7 seceding states met in Montgomery Alabama to form a new nation o By the time Lincoln took office, they had written a constitution and appointed a president – Jefferson Davis of Mississippi

Section 4: The Coming of the Civil War o The Civil War Begins n Section 4: The Coming of the Civil War o The Civil War Begins n On March 4, 1861 Abraham Lincoln became President o He had to face the greatest crisis in the short history of the U. S. n Lincoln tried to give assurance to the seceded states o He said that: n I have no intention of interfering with slavery where it exists n Warned the southern states about continuing on their present course § Read the quote on page 501 o The south rejected Lincoln’s proposal n They took over forts, post offices, and other federal lands o Lincoln now had to decide how to respond

Section 4: The Coming of the Civil War n Fort Sumter o The commander Section 4: The Coming of the Civil War n Fort Sumter o The commander of Fort Sumter refused to surrender and turn his post over to the southern states n The southern states had cut the fort off from supplies since December n They knew that the men inside would starve and be forced to give up o Lincoln did not want to give up the fort either n He announced that the north was sending unarmed supply ships to the fort o The southern states did not give them a chance to arrive o On April 12, 1861 Confederate artillery opened fire on Fort Sumter n This was the beginning of a Civil War § War between opposing groups of citizens of the same country