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Chapter 13: Tropical Africa and Asia 1200 -1500 Chapter 13: Tropical Africa and Asia 1200 -1500

The Tropical Environment • Falls between the Tropic of Cancer in north & Tropic The Tropical Environment • Falls between the Tropic of Cancer in north & Tropic of Capricorn in the south • Cycle of rainy & dry seasons dictated by the monsoons • Coastal W. Africa, west-central Africa & southern India get abundant rain • Arid zone-Sahara & northwest India, southwestern Africa • Altitude affects climate

Human Ecosystems • Different societies adopted different means of surviving to fit into the Human Ecosystems • Different societies adopted different means of surviving to fit into the different ecological zones found in the tropics • In some places such as Central Africa, the upper altitudes of the Himalayas & some seacoasts, wild food & fish was so abundant that human societies could thrive without developing agriculture or herding

Tropical Lands & Peoples: Human Ecosystems • Human communities in arid areas of tropics Tropical Lands & Peoples: Human Ecosystems • Human communities in arid areas of tropics relied on herding & supplemented their diets w/ grain & vegetables obtained through trade w/ settled agriculturalists • Most people were farmers who cultivated crops rice, wheat sorghum, millet, etc. depending on the conditions of soil, climate & water

Water Systems & Irrigation • South & SE Asia had ample water supplies; intensive Water Systems & Irrigation • South & SE Asia had ample water supplies; intensive agriculture transformed the environment & supported dense populations • In most parts of sub-Saharan Africa & parts of SE Asia, farmers abandoned their fields every few years & cleared new areas by cutting & burning vegetation (“slash & burn”)

Water Systems & Irrigation • Tropics have uneven distribution of rain so dams, irrigation Water Systems & Irrigation • Tropics have uneven distribution of rain so dams, irrigation canals, & reservoirs were necessary • Huge projects increased production but were vulnerable to natural disasters & political disruptions • Smaller irrigation systems were easier to construct & maintain so they provided consistent long-term stability

Mineral Resources • Tropical peoples used iron for agricultural implements, weapons, needles • Copper, Mineral Resources • Tropical peoples used iron for agricultural implements, weapons, needles • Copper, particularly important in Africa, was used to make wire & decorative objects • Africa also known for its production of gold • Metalworking & food-producing systems mobilized the labor of ordinary people to produce surpluses that in places supported powerful states & profitable commercial systems • Neither of those elite enterprises would have been possible without the work of ordinary people

New Islamic Empires: Mali • Islam spread to sub. Saharan Africa by gradual peaceful New Islamic Empires: Mali • Islam spread to sub. Saharan Africa by gradual peaceful conversion facilitated by commercial contacts • In 1240, Sundiata (Muslim leader of Malinke people) established kingdom of Mali • Mali’s economy rested on agriculture & was supplemented by control of regional & trans. Saharan trading routes & by control of gold mines of Niger headwaters

New Islamic Empires: Mali • Mansa Musa (1312– 1337) demonstrated fabulous wealth on hajii New Islamic Empires: Mali • Mansa Musa (1312– 1337) demonstrated fabulous wealth on hajii to Mecca • People came to Mali • mosques & Quranic schools built • declined/collapsed in mid-late 15 th c. -internal rebellions & external attacks • Intellectual life & trade moved to other African states, including Hausa states & Kanem-Bornu

Delhi Sultanate in India • Between 1206 -1236, divided states of NW India defeated Delhi Sultanate in India • Between 1206 -1236, divided states of NW India defeated by Muslim Turkish conquerors under Sultan Iltutmish • Muslim elite ruled India relatively peacefully but Hindus never forgave violence of conquest • Iltutmish passed throne on to his daughter, Raziya but driven out by men unwilling to accept female ruler • Ala-ud-din & Muhammad ibn Tughluq carried out aggressive territorial expansion accompanied (in the case of Tughluq) by policy of religious toleration toward Hindus but policy reversed by Tughluq’s successor • In general, Delhi sultans ruled by terror; burdened their subjects • In mid-14 th c, internal rivalries & external threats undermined stability of sultanate-destroyed when Timur sacked Delhi in 1398

Indian Ocean Trade: Monsoon Mariners • Indian Ocean trade increased between 1200 -1500, stimulated Indian Ocean Trade: Monsoon Mariners • Indian Ocean trade increased between 1200 -1500, stimulated by prosperity of Europe, Asia, & African & SE Asian states • Red & Arabian Seas, trade was carried on dhows • From India on to SE Asia, junks dominated trade routes. • Junks were technologically advanced, had watertight compartments & up to twelve sails, carried cargoes of up to 1, 000 tons • Junks developed in China, but during 15 th c, junks also built in Bengal & SE Asia & sailed w/ crews from those places • Indian Ocean trade was decentralized & cooperative; various regions supplied particular goods • Certain ports-entrepots-functioned as major emporiums for trade in which goods from smaller ports were stored, consolidated & shipped onward

Africa: The Swahili Coast & Zimbabwe • By 1500, there were thirty or forty Africa: The Swahili Coast & Zimbabwe • By 1500, there were thirty or forty separate city-states along East African coast participating in Indian Ocean trade. • People of these coastal cities-Swahili people-spoke African language enriched w/ Arabic & Persian • Swahili cities-Kilwa-famous exported gold mined in or around inland kingdom-capital was Great Zimbabwe • Great Zimbabwe’s economy rested on agriculture, cattle herding, & trade. • City declined due to ecological crisis from deforestation & overgrazing

Arabia: Aden & Red Sea • Aden had enough rainfall to produce wheat for Arabia: Aden & Red Sea • Aden had enough rainfall to produce wheat for export & was a central transit point for trade from Persian Gulf, East Africa, & Egypt • Aden’s merchants prospered on this trade & built a wealthy & impressive city • In general, a common interest in trade allowed various peoples & religions of Indian Ocean Basin to live in peace • Violence did sometimes break out, as when Christian Ethiopia fought w/ Muslims of Red Sea coast over control of trade

India: Gujarat & Malabar Coast • Gujarat prospered from Indian Ocean trade; exported cotton India: Gujarat & Malabar Coast • Gujarat prospered from Indian Ocean trade; exported cotton textiles, indigo in return for gold & silver • Gujarat not only commercial center-also manufacturing center that produced textiles, leather goods, carpets, silk, & other commodities • Gujarat’s overseas trade dominated by Muslims, but Hindus benefited • Calicut & other cities of Malabar Coast exported cotton textiles & spices & served as clearing-house for longdistance trade • Cities of Malabar Coast unified in loose confederation-rulers tolerant of other religious & ethnic groups

Southeast Asia: The Rise of Malacca • Strait of Malacca is principal passage from Southeast Asia: The Rise of Malacca • Strait of Malacca is principal passage from Indian Ocean to South China Sea. • In 14 th c. Chinese pirates preyed upon ships • In 1407, forces of Ming dynasty crushed pirates • Muslim ruler of Malacca used this to exert control over strait & make Malacca into major port & center of trade

Social & Cultural Change: Architecture, Learning, & Religion • Commercial contacts & spread of Social & Cultural Change: Architecture, Learning, & Religion • Commercial contacts & spread of Islam led to variety of social & cultural changes • African & Indian mosques are good examples of synthesis of Middle Eastern & local architectural styles • Spread of Islam brought literacy to African peoples who first learned Arabic & then used Arabic script to write their own languages • In India, literacy already established, but spread of Islam brought development of new Persian-influenced language (Urdu) & papermaking technology

Social & Cultural Change: Architecture, Learning, & Religion • As it spread to Africa, Social & Cultural Change: Architecture, Learning, & Religion • As it spread to Africa, India, & SE Asia, Islam brought Islamic law & administration & Greek science, mathematics, & medicine • Timbuktu, Delhi, & Malacca were 2 new centers of Islamic learning • Islam spread peacefully; forced conversions rare. Muslim domination of trade contributed to spread of Islam as merchants attracted by common moral code & laws converted & as Muslim merchants in foreign lands established households & converted local wives & servants. • Islamic destruction of last center of Buddhism in India contributed to spread of Islam in India • Islam brought social & cultural changes to communities that converted, but Islam itself was changed, developing differently in African, Indian, & Indonesian societies

Social & Gender Distinctions • Gap between elites & common people widened in tropical Social & Gender Distinctions • Gap between elites & common people widened in tropical societies as wealthy urban elites prospered from increased Indian Ocean trade • Slavery increased in Africa & India • 2. 5 million African slaves exported across Sahara & Red Sea between 1200 -1500 -more shipped from cities of Swahili coast • Most slaves trained in specific skills; hereditary military slaves could become rich & powerful • Other slaves worked at hard menial jobs like copper mining, • Female slaves mostly household servants & entertainers. • Large number of slaves meant price of slaves was low

Social & Gender Distinctions • Not much information on possible changes in status of Social & Gender Distinctions • Not much information on possible changes in status of women in tropics • some scholars speculate that restrictions on women eased somewhat in Hindu societies • Early arranged marriage was typical for Indian women, expected to obey strict rules of fidelity & chastity • Women’s status was generally determined by status of male masters. • Women practiced certain skills other than child rearing; cooking, spinning, pottery making, & clothing production • Difficult to tell what effect spread of Islam had on women; encouraged to read the Quran, but local customs dictated the behavior & degree of public participation • In some places, such as Mali, Muslims did not adopt Arab practice of veiling & secluding women

Conclusion: Political • Mali empire of western Sudan arose among African natives who had Conclusion: Political • Mali empire of western Sudan arose among African natives who had earlier converted to Islam voluntarily • Dehli Sultanate of India, though providing political unity to northern India, arose through invasion, conquest, and violence, and was intolerant of native religions.

Conclusion: Economic & Cultural Comparisons • Ships in Arabian Sea to west of India Conclusion: Economic & Cultural Comparisons • Ships in Arabian Sea to west of India were the dhows, carrying up to 400 tons • Ships to east, traveling to Southeast Asia, were larger junks, carrying over 1, 000 tons • Life in urban trading centers included more cultural diversity than was experienced close to centers of imperial power • To one contemporary observer, citizens of Mali experienced greater social justice than Indians living under the rule of Muhammad ibn Tughluq of the Dehli Sultanate.