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Chapter 12, Section 2 The Battle Over Reconstruction p. 426 -431 Disagreements over Reconstruction lead to conflict in the government and in the South
A Growing Conflict Main Idea: Andrew Johnson’s lenient Reconstruction plan is rejected by Congress. • Democrat from Tennessee, former slave owner, but… – Only Southern senator to NOT join the Confederacy • Extreme racist: – “This is a country for white men and by God, while I’m president, it will be a government for white men. ” • Talks about being hard on Confederates but… – Puts his own soft plan into effect while Congress is away • “Radical Republicans” reject Johnson’s lenient plan Andrew Johnson Lincoln’s 2 nd Vice President
Johnson’s Plan • Very lenient: - Broad amnesty to Confederates - Southern states can form new governments & hold new elections - Requires all states to abolish slavery – Must Ratify 13 th Amendment • 13 th Amendment – formally abolishes slavery (and forced labor) – Also grants Congress power to make laws to enforce the Amendment – Passed by Senate April 8, 1864, by House Jan. 31, 1865, officially adopted Dec. 6, 1865 – Last state to ratify: Mississippi, in 2013 • Dec. 1865: Confederates can rejoin Andrew Johnson President #17 Congress! • White southerners send former Confederates back to the House & Senate!
Radical Republican Opposition • Opposition to Johnson is led by Stevens & Sumner • Congress rejects Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan Thaddeus Stevens – Refuses to seat former Confederates in Congress • Begin public hearings on the black codes – new laws used by southern states to control or restrict the rights of African Americans • Radical Goals: 1. Prevent Confederates return to power 2. Protect freedmen & guarantee them the right to vote Charles Sumner See “Opposing Plans for Reconstruction” p. 428
The 14 th Amendment Main Idea: Alarmed by violence against African Americans in the South, Congress approves the Fourteenth Amendment. • Civil Rights Act of 1866: grants citizenship & civil rights to all American males – Except Native Americans • Johnson VETOes this & extension of Freedmen’s Bureau – Congress overturns the VETOes with 2/3 majority vote • 14 th Amendment: all persons born or naturalized are U. S. citizens AND states can’t take away their rights – Protects U. S. citizens’ right to vote Original Copy of the 14 th Amendment Passed by 3/4 ths of the states in 1868 • Unfortunately, it wasn’t really enforced until the 1970 s!
Radical Reconstruction Main Idea: During “Radical Reconstruction”, African Americans play an active part in the political life of the South. • Violence against Black voters breaks out in the South. Where? • Radical Republicans in Congress take charge of Reconstruction • Pass Reconstruction Act of 1867: 1. Divide South into five military districts 2. Only Southerners loyal to Union can vote 3. State constitutions must support black suffrage 4. No former Confederates in state government 5. Apply to Congress for re-admission into the Union African Americans voting for the first time, during Reconstruction
Time of Hope and Advancement • Hiram Revels becomes 1 st African American elected to the U. S. Senate 1870: – finishes Jefferson Davis’ term • Blanche Bruce also elected to U. S. Senate • Key Southern Republicans: 1. scalawags - southern Blanche Bruce 1 st African Americans in the U. S. Senate whites who had opposed the Confederacy 2. Freedmen 3. carpetbaggers - northern whites who went south to start businesses or pursue political careers
Johnson vs. Radical Republicans • Radicals pass laws that restrict Johnson’s power. – Tenure of Office Act: forbids president from dismissing any cabinet official without Senate approval • Johnson fires Secretary of War Stanton - Congress impeaches Johnson – Avoids impeachment by one vote in the Senate – bringing formal charges against a public official Impeachment of President Johnson: 1 st Impeachment of a U. S. President
Election of 1868 • Grant wins election as war hero general – Wins 26 out of 34 states • Moderate Republican wants to rebuild the South – Build public schools & hospitals – Expand women’s property rights – Pass laws against child abuse – Rebuild roads, bridges, & railways • 15 th Amendment: bars states from denying former slaves the right to vote Ulysses S. Grant President #18 • Passed in 1870
Terror in the Night! • Established to oppose Federal government’s policies in the South… – Ku Klux Klan (KKK) – Knights of the White Camellia – Knights of the Golden Circle …with the goal of resisting Reconstruction and limiting freedoms of former slaves. Early Uniforms of the Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan • Use hoods & robes to hide their identities • Harass & intimidate freedmen – Keep freedmen from voting through fear • Use intimidation, violence, and murder. – Burning a wooden cross in front of someone’s home or church – Includes beatings, whippings, and lynching – Between 1892 -1903 reported over 2, 000 blacks lynched in the South Ku Klux Klan members in Mississippi