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Chapter 12: Digital Society, Ethics and Globalization Succeeding with Technology: Second Edition Succeeding with Chapter 12: Digital Society, Ethics and Globalization Succeeding with Technology: Second Edition Succeeding with Technology

Objectives n Describe how technology is affecting the definition of community, and list some Objectives n Describe how technology is affecting the definition of community, and list some physical and mental health dangers associated with excessive computer use n Describe the negative and positive impact of technology on freedom of speech, and list forms of speech and expression that are censored on the Web Succeeding with Technology 2

Objectives (continued) n Explain the ways in which technology is used to invade personal Objectives (continued) n Explain the ways in which technology is used to invade personal privacy, and provide examples of laws that protect citizens from privacy invasion n List ethical issues related to digital technology that confront individuals in personal and professional life, businesses, and governments n Explain what globalization is, what forces are behind it, and how it is affecting the United States and other nations Succeeding with Technology 3

Living Online n n Virtual space q An environment that exists in the mind Living Online n n Virtual space q An environment that exists in the mind rather than in physical space People find virtual space q In a daydream q In a book q In a movie q On a cell phone q On the Internet Succeeding with Technology 4

Computers and Community n Flash mob q Group of people who assemble suddenly in Computers and Community n Flash mob q Group of people who assemble suddenly in a public place, do something unusual, and then disperse q Participants n Given precise instructions on where to meet, how to act, and what to say if questioned Succeeding with Technology 5

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Health Issues: Keeping a Balance n n Repetitive stress injury (RSI) q Injury such Health Issues: Keeping a Balance n n Repetitive stress injury (RSI) q Injury such as tendonitis and tennis elbow, caused by a repetitive motion Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) q Aggravation of the pathway for nerves that travel through the wrist (the carpal tunnel) q Typically caused by long hours at the computer keyboard Succeeding with Technology 8

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Health Issues: Keeping a Balance (continued) n Internet addiction q May exist if people Health Issues: Keeping a Balance (continued) n Internet addiction q May exist if people are online for long periods of time n n Cannot control their online usage Jeopardize their career or family life from excessive Internet usage Lie to family, friends, and coworkers about excessive Internet usage Ergonomics q Designing and positioning work environment and computer equipment in a healthy manner Succeeding with Technology 10

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Freedom of Speech n n n First Amendment to the U. S. Constitution q Freedom of Speech n n n First Amendment to the U. S. Constitution q Guarantees citizens the right to free speech Internet q Used to espouse the views and beliefs of every religious and political group Web sites q May include points of view that many find offensive and even dangerous Succeeding with Technology 12

Challenging the Establishment and Traditional Institutions n n n Bloggers q Are becoming an Challenging the Establishment and Traditional Institutions n n n Bloggers q Are becoming an increasingly important component in journalism Proliferation of digital cameras and camera phones q Has led to many amateur photographers having their photos published Consumer-generated media (CGM) q Role of the public in capturing and reporting news Succeeding with Technology 13

Laws and Censorship n n n Libel q The deliberate act of defamation of Laws and Censorship n n n Libel q The deliberate act of defamation of character by making false statements of fact Censorship q Occurs when a government or authority controls speech and other forms of expression Content-filtering software q Works with Web browser to check each Web site for indecent materials Succeeding with Technology 14

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Privacy Issues n Being free from intrusion q The right to be left alone Privacy Issues n Being free from intrusion q The right to be left alone q Freedom from surveillance q Control over the information collected and kept about one’s self Succeeding with Technology 16

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Personal Information Privacy n n n Much of the information gathered about individuals q Personal Information Privacy n n n Much of the information gathered about individuals q Done without their knowledge Internet q Acts as a supercharged tool for invisible information gathering Choice. Point collects and combines information from n n n The three big credit bureaus Public records of numerous local, state, and federal government agencies Telephone records; liens; deeds; and other sources Succeeding with Technology 18

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Privacy and Government n n Privacy Act of 1974 q Primary law controlling what Privacy and Government n n Privacy Act of 1974 q Primary law controlling what many government agencies can and cannot do with information they hold PATRIOT Act q Gave federal government certain liberties regarding access to private information and the treatment of suspected terrorists Succeeding with Technology 20

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Surveillance Technologies n n n Surveillance q The close monitoring of behavior Wiretap requests Surveillance Technologies n n n Surveillance q The close monitoring of behavior Wiretap requests q Increased by 85 percent in the three years following the September 11 attacks FBI surveillance q Grew from telephone networks to broadband cable networks in 2004 q Extended to Vo. IP communications in 2005 Succeeding with Technology 23

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Video and Audio Surveillance n n n Video cameras in public places q Are Video and Audio Surveillance n n n Video cameras in public places q Are assisting in capturing criminals who may otherwise escape Chicago q Has the most advanced video surveillance system High-resolution cameras attached to satellites and trained on the earth q Are providing us with amazing new mapping technologies Succeeding with Technology 25

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GPS and RFID Surveillance n n n Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Radio Frequency GPS and RFID Surveillance n n n Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) q Are useful, but can be used to invade privacy q Are being used to track ex-cons US privacy laws control who can be monitored q Lack of funding limits ability to monitor Three scenarios q Full privacy q Full trust q Full transparency Succeeding with Technology 28

Ethics and Social Responsibility n n Ethics q Deals with what is generally considered Ethics and Social Responsibility n n Ethics q Deals with what is generally considered right or wrong Computer ethics q Issues that deal with computer use Succeeding with Technology 29

Personal Ethical Considerations n n n Personal computer ethics q The responsible use of Personal Ethical Considerations n n n Personal computer ethics q The responsible use of computers outside of professional environments Feeling of social responsibility q May guide a computer user to treat others online with respect A person’s own sense of morality q May keep him/her from becoming involved with Web content that has a negative impact Succeeding with Technology 30

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Professional Ethical Considerations n Associations that have developed a code of ethical conduct q Professional Ethical Considerations n Associations that have developed a code of ethical conduct q Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR) q Association of Information Technology Professionals (AITP) q The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) q The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) q The British Computer Society (BCS) Succeeding with Technology 32

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Governmental Ethical Considerations n n n The digital divide q The social and economic Governmental Ethical Considerations n n n The digital divide q The social and economic gap between those who have access to computers and the Internet and those who do not Economic digital divide in the United States q Has been shrinking since the turn of the millennium Global digital divide q Provides a greater social and ethical challenge Succeeding with Technology 34

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Globalization n n Changes in societies and the world economy resulting from dramatically increased Globalization n n Changes in societies and the world economy resulting from dramatically increased international trade and cultural exchange Largest contributors to globalization q Computers q A global telecommunication infrastructure q The Internet Succeeding with Technology 37

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Outsourcing n n Use of an outside company to take over portions of the Outsourcing n n Use of an outside company to take over portions of the business workload Bangalore q Has become known as the Silicon Valley of India q Major presence n Microsoft, IBM, Texas Instruments, HP, GE, and many others Succeeding with Technology 39

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Offshoring n n n Business practice that relocates an entire production line to another Offshoring n n n Business practice that relocates an entire production line to another location, typically in another country, Beijing (China) q The global center of offshoring When China joined the World Trade Organization and agreed to follow international trade laws q It opened a floodgate for trade and innovation Succeeding with Technology 41

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Business Challenges in Globalization n n n Culture Language Time and distance Infrastructure Currency Business Challenges in Globalization n n n Culture Language Time and distance Infrastructure Currency State, regional, and national laws Succeeding with Technology 43

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Conclusion n n Positive effects of technology on society q Finding cures for deadly Conclusion n n Positive effects of technology on society q Finding cures for deadly diseases q Eroding the power of totalitarian governments and dictators q Developing alternate environmentally friendly energy source Widespread access to information q Is building a more transparent society Succeeding with Technology 45

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Summary n n n The Internet q Provides an entire virtual world of information, Summary n n n The Internet q Provides an entire virtual world of information, people, and groups in which you can literally lose yourself The First Amendment to the U. S. Constitution q Guarantees citizens the right to free speech Libel and direct, specific threats q Not protected under the First Amendment Succeeding with Technology 47

Summary (continued) n n n Privacy issues that concern most people q Being free Summary (continued) n n n Privacy issues that concern most people q Being free from intrusion Computer profiling q Primary service provided by private information service companies such as Choice. Point The field of ethics q Deals with what is generally considered right or wrong Succeeding with Technology 48

Summary (continued) n n Professional computer ethics q Involve the ethical issues faced by Summary (continued) n n Professional computer ethics q Involve the ethical issues faced by professionals in their use of computer systems as part of their jobs Globalization q Changes in societies and the world economy resulting from dramatically increased international trade and cultural exchange Succeeding with Technology 49