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Chapter 12 Clickers Conceptual Integrated Science Second Edition Chemical Bonds and Mixtures © 2013 Chapter 12 Clickers Conceptual Integrated Science Second Edition Chemical Bonds and Mixtures © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

How many unpaired valence electrons are there in a nitrogen atom? a) b) c) How many unpaired valence electrons are there in a nitrogen atom? a) b) c) d) One. Two. Three. Five. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. N

How many unpaired valence electrons are there in a nitrogen atom? a) b) c) How many unpaired valence electrons are there in a nitrogen atom? a) b) c) d) One. Two. Three. Five. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. N

How many bonds is nitrogen able to make? a) b) c) d) One. Two. How many bonds is nitrogen able to make? a) b) c) d) One. Two. Three. Five. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. N

How many bonds is nitrogen able to make? a) b) c) d) One. Two. How many bonds is nitrogen able to make? a) b) c) d) One. Two. Three. Five. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. N

The neon atom tends NOT to gain any additional electrons because a) its nuclear The neon atom tends NOT to gain any additional electrons because a) its nuclear charge is not great enough. b) that would result in a positive ion. c) of the repulsions they would experience with electrons in the same shell. d) there is no more room available in its outermost occupied shell. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

The neon atom tends NOT to gain any additional electrons because a) its nuclear The neon atom tends NOT to gain any additional electrons because a) its nuclear charge is not great enough. b) that would result in a positive ion. c) of the repulsions they would experience with electrons in the same shell. d) there is no more room available in its outermost occupied shell. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Magnesium ions carry a 2+ charge, and chloride ions carry a 1– charge. What Magnesium ions carry a 2+ charge, and chloride ions carry a 1– charge. What is the chemical formula for the ionic compound magnesium chloride? a) b) c) d) Mg. Cl Mg 2 Cl Mg. Cl 2 Mg 2 Cl 2 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Magnesium ions carry a 2+ charge, and chloride ions carry a 1– charge. What Magnesium ions carry a 2+ charge, and chloride ions carry a 1– charge. What is the chemical formula for the ionic compound magnesium chloride? a) b) c) d) Mg. Cl Mg 2 Cl Mg. Cl 2 Mg 2 Cl 2 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

A hydrogen atom does not form more than one covalent bond, because it a) A hydrogen atom does not form more than one covalent bond, because it a) b) c) d) has only one shell of electrons. has only one electron to share. loses its valence electron so readily. has such a strong electronegativity. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

A hydrogen atom does not form more than one covalent bond, because it a) A hydrogen atom does not form more than one covalent bond, because it a) b) c) d) has only one shell of electrons. has only one electron to share. loses its valence electron so readily. has such a strong electronegativity. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

An atom loses an electron to another atom. Is this an example of a An atom loses an electron to another atom. Is this an example of a physical or a chemical change? a) Physical change involving the formation of negative ions. b) Chemical change involving the formation of negative ions. c) Physical change involving the formation of positive ions. d) Chemical change involving the formation of positive ions. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

An atom loses an electron to another atom. Is this an example of a An atom loses an electron to another atom. Is this an example of a physical or a chemical change? a) Physical change involving the formation of negative ions. b) Chemical change involving the formation of negative ions. c) Physical change involving the formation of positive ions. d) Chemical change involving the formation of positive ions. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Classify the following bond as ionic, covalent, or metallic (Na, atomic number 11; Cl, Classify the following bond as ionic, covalent, or metallic (Na, atomic number 11; Cl, atomic number 17) Na with Cl a) b) c) d) Na with Na metallic, covalent ionic, covalent, metallic, ionic © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Cl with Cl

Classify the following bond as ionic, covalent, or metallic (Na, atomic number 11; Cl, Classify the following bond as ionic, covalent, or metallic (Na, atomic number 11; Cl, atomic number 17) Na with Cl a) b) c) d) Na with Na metallic, covalent ionic, covalent, metallic, ionic © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Cl with Cl

In terms of the periodic table, is there an abrupt or gradual change between In terms of the periodic table, is there an abrupt or gradual change between ionic and covalent bonds? a) An abrupt change that occurs across the metalloids. b) Actually, any element of the periodic table can form a covalent bond. c) There is a gradual change: the farther apart, the more ionic. d) Whether an element forms one or the other depends on nuclear charge and not the relative positions in the periodic table. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

In terms of the periodic table, is there an abrupt or gradual change between In terms of the periodic table, is there an abrupt or gradual change between ionic and covalent bonds? a) An abrupt change that occurs across the metalloids. b) Actually, any element of the periodic table can form a covalent bond. c) There is a gradual change: the farther apart, the more ionic. d) Whether an element forms one or the other depends on nuclear charge and not the relative positions in the periodic table. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Which bond is most polar? a) b) c) d) H-N N-C C-C O-H © Which bond is most polar? a) b) c) d) H-N N-C C-C O-H © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Which bond is most polar? a) b) c) d) H-N N-C C-C O-H © Which bond is most polar? a) b) c) d) H-N N-C C-C O-H © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Hydrogen chloride, HCl, is a gas at room temperature. Would you expect this material Hydrogen chloride, HCl, is a gas at room temperature. Would you expect this material to be very soluble or not very soluble in water? a) Very soluble in water by because it is polar. b) Not very soluble in water because it is a gas. c) Very soluble in water, because it is such a small molecule. d) Not very soluble, because it is nonpolar. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Hydrogen chloride, HCl, is a gas at room temperature. Would you expect this material Hydrogen chloride, HCl, is a gas at room temperature. Would you expect this material to be very soluble or not very soluble in water? a) Very soluble in water by because it is polar. b) Not very soluble in water because it is a gas. c) Very soluble in water, because it is such a small molecule. d) Not very soluble, because it is nonpolar. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Atoms of metallic elements can form ionic bonds, but they are not very good Atoms of metallic elements can form ionic bonds, but they are not very good at forming covalent bonds. Why? a) These atoms are too large to be able to come in close contact with other atoms. b) They have a great tendency to lose electrons. c) They are on the wrong side of the periodic table. d) Their valence shells are already filled with electrons. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Atoms of metallic elements can form ionic bonds, but they are not very good Atoms of metallic elements can form ionic bonds, but they are not very good at forming covalent bonds. Why? a) These atoms are too large to be able to come in close contact with other atoms. b) They have a great tendency to lose electrons. c) They are on the wrong side of the periodic table. d) Their valence shells are already filled with electrons. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

How many electrons are used to draw the electron -dot structure for hydrogen peroxide, How many electrons are used to draw the electron -dot structure for hydrogen peroxide, a covalent compound with the formula H 2 O 2? a) b) c) d) 14 8 7 4 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

How many electrons are used to draw the electron -dot structure for hydrogen peroxide, How many electrons are used to draw the electron -dot structure for hydrogen peroxide, a covalent compound with the formula H 2 O 2? a) b) c) d) 14 8 7 4 H O O H [There are two electrons per bond] © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

The source of an atom's electronegativity is the a) kinetic energy which electrons orbiting The source of an atom's electronegativity is the a) kinetic energy which electrons orbiting the nucleus have. b) repulsive force occurring among electrons within the same shell. c) repulsive force occurring between electrons within neighboring shells. d) effective nuclear charge. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

The source of an atom's electronegativity is the a) kinetic energy which electrons orbiting The source of an atom's electronegativity is the a) kinetic energy which electrons orbiting the nucleus have. b) repulsive force occurring among electrons within the same shell. c) repulsive force occurring between electrons within neighboring shells. d) effective nuclear charge. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Two molecules have very different physical properties. Molecule Two molecules have very different physical properties. Molecule "A" boils at 80°C and freezes at – 30°C. Molecule "B" boils at 35°C and freezes at – 100°C. Which molecule is likely to have the largest dipole? a) b) c) d) e) Molecule A Molecule B Not enough information was given. Both have similar dipoles. Molecule A and molecule B are the same, but each has different properties. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Two molecules have very different physical properties. Molecule Two molecules have very different physical properties. Molecule "A" boils at 80°C and freezes at – 30°C. Molecule "B" boils at 35°C and freezes at – 100°C. Which molecule is likely to have the largest dipole? a) b) c) d) e) Molecule A Molecule B Not enough information was given. Both have similar dipoles. Molecule A and molecule B are the same, but each has different properties. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Magnesium chloride, Mg. Cl 2, crystals are composed of a) a two-dimensional array of Magnesium chloride, Mg. Cl 2, crystals are composed of a) a two-dimensional array of [-Mg-Cl-Cl-] units. b) a multitude of Mg 2+ ions and Cl– ions grouped together in a three-dimensional array with a 1: 2 ratio of Mg 2+ to Cl–. c) units of Mg. Cl 2 molecules held together by dipole interactions. d) groups of Mg 2+ ions and Cl 2 molecules. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Magnesium chloride, Mg. Cl 2, crystals are composed of a) a two-dimensional array of Magnesium chloride, Mg. Cl 2, crystals are composed of a) a two-dimensional array of [-Mg-Cl-Cl-] units. b) a multitude of Mg 2+ ions and Cl– ions grouped together in a three-dimensional array with a 1: 2 ratio of Mg 2+ to Cl–. c) units of Mg. Cl 2 molecules held together by dipole interactions. d) groups of Mg 2+ ions and Cl 2 molecules. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

When nitrogen and fluorine combine to form a molecule, the most likely chemical formula When nitrogen and fluorine combine to form a molecule, the most likely chemical formula is a) b) c) d) e) N 3 F N 2 F NF 4 NF NF 3 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

When nitrogen and fluorine combine to form a molecule, the most likely chemical formula When nitrogen and fluorine combine to form a molecule, the most likely chemical formula is a) b) c) d) e) N 3 F N 2 F NF 4 NF NF 3 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. F N F F

The charges with sodium chloride are all balanced —for every positive sodium ion, there The charges with sodium chloride are all balanced —for every positive sodium ion, there is a corresponding negative chloride ion. Because its charges are balanced, how can sodium chloride be attracted to water, and vice versa? a) Dispersion forces come into play. b) Hydrogen bonding. c) Sodium chloride dissolves in water because water provides a medium in which the individual sodium and chloride ions can disperse. d) As a water molecule gets close to the sodium chloride, it can distinguish the various ions. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

The charges with sodium chloride are all balanced —for every positive sodium ion, there The charges with sodium chloride are all balanced —for every positive sodium ion, there is a corresponding negative chloride ion. Because its charges are balanced, how can sodium chloride be attracted to water, and vice versa? a) Dispersion forces come into play. b) Hydrogen bonding. c) Sodium chloride dissolves in water because water provides a medium in which the individual sodium and chloride ions can disperse. d) As a water molecule gets close to the sodium chloride, it can distinguish the various ions. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Why are ion–dipole attractions stronger than dipole–dipole attractions? a) The chemical bond in an Why are ion–dipole attractions stronger than dipole–dipole attractions? a) The chemical bond in an ion–dipole molecule is similar to a covalent bond. b) Like charge (dipole) does not attract like charge (another dipole). c) Dipole areas are subject to changing from positive to negative regions on the molecule. d) The magnitude of the electric charge associated with an ion is much greater. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Why are ion–dipole attractions stronger than dipole–dipole attractions? a) The chemical bond in an Why are ion–dipole attractions stronger than dipole–dipole attractions? a) The chemical bond in an ion–dipole molecule is similar to a covalent bond. b) Like charge (dipole) does not attract like charge (another dipole). c) Dipole areas are subject to changing from positive to negative regions on the molecule. d) The magnitude of the electric charge associated with an ion is much greater. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Which of the following compounds might best help to make water and gasoline mix Which of the following compounds might best help to make water and gasoline mix into a single liquid phase? a) b) c) d) The molecule in the middle—because when the salts mix into the water, it will help separate the water and decrease the attraction for itself. The molecule on the far left—because the O-H bond is polar, and the carbon and hydrogen bonds are nonpolar. The molecule on the right will form attractions with the polar ends of the water, allowing the gasoline a chance to mix with the water. All of these molecules would be equally effective at increasing the mixing of gasoline and water. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Which of the following compounds might best help to make water and gasoline mix Which of the following compounds might best help to make water and gasoline mix into a single liquid phase? a) The molecule in the middle—because when the salts mix into the water, it will help separate the water and decrease the attraction for itself. b) The molecule on the far left—because the O-H bond is polar, and the carbon and hydrogen bonds are nonpolar. c) The molecule on the right will form attractions with the polar ends of the water, allowing the gasoline a chance to mix with the water. d) All of these molecules would be equally effective at increasing the mixing of gasoline and water. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Which of the following intermolecular forces best describes why nonpolar molecules like gasoline (C Which of the following intermolecular forces best describes why nonpolar molecules like gasoline (C 8 H 18) have only limited solubility in water? a) b) c) d) Dipole–dipole. Induced dipole–induced dipole. Ion-dipole. Dipole–induced dipole. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Which of the following intermolecular forces best describes why nonpolar molecules like gasoline (C Which of the following intermolecular forces best describes why nonpolar molecules like gasoline (C 8 H 18) have only limited solubility in water? a) b) c) d) Dipole–dipole. Induced dipole–induced dipole. Ion-dipole. Dipole–induced dipole. Explanation: The strong dipole-dipole attractions among water molecules keep the water molecules from interacting significantly with the nonpolar gasoline molecules. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Is the air in your house a homogeneous or a heterogeneous mixture? a) Homogeneous, Is the air in your house a homogeneous or a heterogeneous mixture? a) Homogeneous, because it is mixed very well. b) Heterogeneous, because of the dust particles it contains. c) Homogeneous, because it is all at the same temperature. d) Heterogeneous, because it consists of different types of molecules. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Is the air in your house a homogeneous or a heterogeneous mixture? a) Homogeneous, Is the air in your house a homogeneous or a heterogeneous mixture? a) Homogeneous, because it is mixed very well. b) Heterogeneous, because of the dust particles it contains. c) Homogeneous, because it is all at the same temperature. d) Heterogeneous, because it consists of different types of molecules. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Many dry cereals are fortified with iron, which is added in the form of Many dry cereals are fortified with iron, which is added in the form of small iron particles. How might these particles be separated from the cereal? a) Add water, and the iron particles will float to the top. b) Blend the cereal to a fine consistency and pass through a filter. c) Collect the iron filings with a magnet. d) Heat the cereal so that the iron particles melt and thereby coalesce. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Many dry cereals are fortified with iron, which is added in the form of Many dry cereals are fortified with iron, which is added in the form of small iron particles. How might these particles be separated from the cereal? a) Add water, and the iron particles will float to the top. b) Blend the cereal to a fine consistency and pass through a filter. c) Collect the iron filings with a magnet. d) Heat the cereal so that the iron particles melt and thereby coalesce. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Would you expect to find more dissolved oxygen in cold polar or warm tropical Would you expect to find more dissolved oxygen in cold polar or warm tropical ocean waters? a) Tropical oceans, because intense tropical storms mix up the atmospheric oxygen into the ocean water. b) Polar oceans, because the colder oxygen would "sink" and dissolve into the water. c) Tropical oceans, because the heated oxygen molecules in the air would collide with and mix into the water. d) Polar oceans, because the solubility of oxygen in water decreases with increasing temperature. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Would you expect to find more dissolved oxygen in cold polar or warm tropical Would you expect to find more dissolved oxygen in cold polar or warm tropical ocean waters? a) Tropical oceans, because intense tropical storms mix up the atmospheric oxygen into the ocean water. b) Polar oceans, because the colder oxygen would "sink" and dissolve into the water. c) Tropical oceans, because the heated oxygen molecules in the air would collide with and mix into the water. d) Polar oceans, because the solubility of oxygen in water decreases with increasing temperature. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Fish don't live very long in water that has just been boiled and brought Fish don't live very long in water that has just been boiled and brought back to room temperature. Suggest why. a) There is now a higher concentration of dissolved CO 2 in the water. b) The nutrients in the water have been destroyed. c) Because some of the water was evaporated while boiling, the salts in the water are now more concentrated. This has a negative effect on the fish. d) The boiling process removes the air that was dissolved in the water. Upon cooling, the water is void of its usual air content; hence, the fish drown. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Fish don't live very long in water that has just been boiled and brought Fish don't live very long in water that has just been boiled and brought back to room temperature. Suggest why. a) There is now a higher concentration of dissolved CO 2 in the water. b) The nutrients in the water have been destroyed. c) Because some of the water was evaporated while boiling, the salts in the water are now more concentrated. This has a negative effect on the fish. d) The boiling process removes the air that was dissolved in the water. Upon cooling, the water is void of its usual air content; hence, the fish drown. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

How would you respond in defense of water's purity if it contained thousands of How would you respond in defense of water's purity if it contained thousands of molecules of some impurity per glass? a) Impurities aren't necessarily bad; in fact, they may be good for you. b) The water contains water molecules, and each water molecule is pure. c) There's no defense. If the water contains impurities, it should not be drunk. d) Compared to the billions and billions of water molecules, a thousand molecules of something else is practically nothing. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

How would you respond in defense of water's purity if it contained thousands of How would you respond in defense of water's purity if it contained thousands of molecules of some impurity per glass? a) Impurities aren't necessarily bad; in fact, they may be good for you. b) The water contains water molecules, and each water molecule is pure. c) There's no defense. If the water contains impurities, it should not be drunk. d) Compared to the billions and billions of water molecules, a thousand molecules of something else is practically nothing. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

The boiling point of 1, 4 -butanediol is 230°C. Would you expect this compound The boiling point of 1, 4 -butanediol is 230°C. Would you expect this compound to be soluble or insoluble in room-temperature water? a) Insoluble because there are no polar areas on this molecule. b) Insoluble because a high boiling point means that the substance interacts with itself quite strongly c) Insoluble because there are polar areas on this molecule. d) Soluble because there are polar areas on this molecule. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. 1, 4 -butanediol

The boiling point of 1, 4 -butanediol is 230°C. Would you expect this compound The boiling point of 1, 4 -butanediol is 230°C. Would you expect this compound to be soluble or insoluble in room-temperature water? a) Insoluble because there are no polar areas on this molecule. b) Insoluble because a high boiling point means that the substance interacts with itself quite strongly c) Insoluble because there are polar areas on this molecule. d) Soluble because there are polar areas on this molecule. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. 1, 4 -butanediol

What is the molarity of 0. 5 liters of a solution with five moles What is the molarity of 0. 5 liters of a solution with five moles of sucrose in it? a) b) c) d) e) 0. 5 molar 2. 5 molar 10 molar 1 molar 5 molar © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

What is the molarity of 0. 5 liters of a solution with five moles What is the molarity of 0. 5 liters of a solution with five moles of sucrose in it? a) b) c) d) e) 0. 5 molar 2. 5 molar 10 molar 1 molar 5 molar © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Account for the observation that ethanol, C 2 H 5 OH, mixes readily in Account for the observation that ethanol, C 2 H 5 OH, mixes readily in water but dimethyl ether, CH 3 OCH 3, which has the same number and kinds of atoms, does not. a) The structure of ethanol is less complex. b) The ethanol contains a polar O-H bond. c) The hydrogens of dimethyl ether shield the inner oxygen from interacting with the water. d) Dimethyl ether is a gas and gases do not mix in water. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. (mixes with water) (does NOT mix with water)

Account for the observation that ethanol, C 2 H 5 OH, mixes readily in Account for the observation that ethanol, C 2 H 5 OH, mixes readily in water but dimethyl ether, CH 3 OCH 3, which has the same number and kinds of atoms, does not. a) The structure of ethanol is less complex. b) The ethanol contains a polar O-H bond. c) The hydrogens of dimethyl ether shield the inner oxygen from interacting with the water. d) Dimethyl ether is a gas and gases do not mix in water. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. (mixes with water) (does NOT mix with water)

Which of the following substances should be most soluble in hexane, CH 3 CH Which of the following substances should be most soluble in hexane, CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3? a) b) c) d) e) I 2 CH 3 CH 2 OH H 2 O HF Na. Cl © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

Which of the following substances should be most soluble in hexane, CH 3 CH Which of the following substances should be most soluble in hexane, CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3? a) b) c) d) e) I 2 CH 3 CH 2 OH H 2 O HF Na. Cl © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.