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Chapter 12 B 2 B E-commerce: Supply Chain Management and Collaborative Commerce Copyright © Chapter 12 B 2 B E-commerce: Supply Chain Management and Collaborative Commerce Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Trends in B 2 B E-commerce Flexibility: growing emphasis on rapid-response and optimal supply Trends in B 2 B E-commerce Flexibility: growing emphasis on rapid-response and optimal supply chains n Supply chain visibility—real time n Social commerce and customer intimacy n v Social commerce is a subset of electronic commerce that involves social media, online media that supports social interaction, and user contributions to assist online buying and selling of products and services. Large firms splinter global B 2 B systems into productand region-centered systems n Big data and growing use of business analytics n Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -4

Trends in B 2 B E-commerce Influence of mobile, social, and cloud platforms n Trends in B 2 B E-commerce Influence of mobile, social, and cloud platforms n Sustainable supply chains n v There is a growing need for integrating environmentally sound choices into supply-chain management. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -5

Defining B 2 B Commerce n Before Internet: v B 2 B transactions called Defining B 2 B Commerce n Before Internet: v B 2 B transactions called trade or procurement process n Total inter-firm trade: v Total flow of value among firms n B 2 B commerce: v All types of computer-enabled inter-firm trade n B 2 B e-commerce: v The portion of B 2 B commerce enabled by the Internet Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -6

The Evolution of B 2 B Commerce n Automated order-entry systems 1970’s v Seller-side The Evolution of B 2 B Commerce n Automated order-entry systems 1970’s v Seller-side solution using tele modems to send digital orders to companies such as Baxter Healthcare n Electronic data interchange (EDI) v Buyer-side solution aimed at reducing buyer cost v Hub-and-spoke system with buyers in the center v Serve vertical markets that provide products/services for a specific industry such as auto industry n B 2 B electronic storefronts are online catalogs of products available to the public by a single supplier Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -7

The Evolution of B 2 B Commerce n Net marketplaces bring many suppliers and The Evolution of B 2 B Commerce n Net marketplaces bring many suppliers and buyers together into a single internet-based environment to do business n Private industrial networks enable buyer firms and their suppliers to share product design, development, marketing, inventory, product scheduling and communication Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -8

Evolution of the Use of Technology Platforms in B 2 B Commerce Figure 12. Evolution of the Use of Technology Platforms in B 2 B Commerce Figure 12. 1, Page 751 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -9

Growth of B 2 B Commerce 2000– 2016 Figure 12. 2, Page 753 SOURCES: Growth of B 2 B Commerce 2000– 2016 Figure 12. 2, Page 753 SOURCES: Based on data from U. S. Census Bureau, 2013 a; authors’ estimates. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -11

Potential Benefits of B 2 B E-commerce n Lower administrative costs n Lower search Potential Benefits of B 2 B E-commerce n Lower administrative costs n Lower search costs for buyers n Reduced inventory costs v Increasing competition among suppliers v Reducing inventory carried n Lower transaction costs: v Automation and elimination of paperwork n Increased production flexibility by ensuring just-in-time parts delivery Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -13

Potential Benefits of B 2 B E-commerce (cont. ) n Improved quality of products Potential Benefits of B 2 B E-commerce (cont. ) n Improved quality of products by increasing cooperation among buyers and sellers n Decreased product cycle time n Increased opportunities for collaboration n Greater price transparency n Increased visibility, real-time information sharing n However, some risk is posed by increased globalization and consolidation Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -14

The Procurement Process and the Supply Chain n Procurement process: v The way firms The Procurement Process and the Supply Chain n Procurement process: v The way firms purchase materials they need to make products n Steps in procurement process v Deciding who to buy from and what to pay v Completing transaction v Each step is composed of many business processes and subactivities requiring data to be recorded in seller, buyer, and shipper information systems Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -16

The Procurement Process Figure 12. 3, Page 758 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The Procurement Process Figure 12. 3, Page 758 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -17

Types of Procurement n Firms purchase two types of goods v Direct goods: Integrally Types of Procurement n Firms purchase two types of goods v Direct goods: Integrally involved in production process v Indirect goods: All goods not directly involved in production process (maintenance repair and ops (MRO) goods) n Firms use two methods to purchase v Contract purchasing: n Involves long-term written agreements to purchase specified products, with agreed-upon terms and quality v Spot purchasing: n Involves purchase of goods based on immediate needs in larger marketplaces that involve many suppliers Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -18

Types of Procurement (cont. ) n Procurement is highly information intensive and labor intensive Types of Procurement (cont. ) n Procurement is highly information intensive and labor intensive v Requires managing information among many corporate systems v Involves 1. 2 million U. S. workers excluding those in transportation, finance, insurance, etc n Multi-tier supply chain v Complex series of transactions between firm and thousands of suppliers, supplying thousands of goods Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -19

Trends in Supply Chain Management n Supply chain management (SCM) v Activities used to Trends in Supply Chain Management n Supply chain management (SCM) v Activities used to coordinate key players in the procurement process n Major developments in SCM v v v Just-in-time and lean production that reduces waste in value chain Supply chain simplification Adaptive supply chains are single enterprise-wide SCM systems to achieve economies of scale, simplicity, and reduce cost Accountable supply chains are those where low wage labor conditions in developing countries are visible and morally acceptable to consumers in developed countries Sustainable supply chains are Lean, Mean and Green Electronic data interchange is a communication protocol for exchanging docs among company computers Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -22

Trends in Supply Chain Management n Major developments in SCM v Supply chain management Trends in Supply Chain Management n Major developments in SCM v Supply chain management systems n v http: //www. capterra. com/supply-chain-management-software/ Collaborative commerce is the use of digital technologies to permit orgs to collaborate on design, develop, build, and manage prods Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -23

Just-in-Time and Lean Production n Just-in-Time production v Method of inventory cost management where Just-in-Time and Lean Production n Just-in-Time production v Method of inventory cost management where prods are delivered just in time for production v Seeks to eliminate excess inventory to bare minimum n Lean production v Set of production methods and tools v Focuses on elimination of waste throughout customer value chain, not just inventory n eliminate non-value added processing from the customers’ perspective, enabling less inventory, less space, less resource, less time and less cost to produce more Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -24

Supply Chain Simplification n Reducing size of supply chain v Working with strategic group Supply Chain Simplification n Reducing size of supply chain v Working with strategic group of suppliers to reduce product and administrative costs and improving quality n May involve: v Joint product development and design v Integration of computer systems v Tight coupling n Ensuring precise delivery of ordered parts at specific times Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -25

Adaptive Supply Chains n Reducing centralization v They are agile, flexible, and responsive v Adaptive Supply Chains n Reducing centralization v They are agile, flexible, and responsive v Reduce risks caused by relying on single suppliers who are subject to local instability n For example: European financial crisis, Japanese earthquake n Creating regional or product-based supply chains v Allowing production to be moved to temporary safe harbors in case of local manufacturing disruptions v Focus on “optimal-cost”, distributed manufacturing, and flexible supply chains that can shift to low-risk areas Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -26

Accountable Supply Chains n Labor conditions in low-wage, under-developed producer countries are acceptable to Accountable Supply Chains n Labor conditions in low-wage, under-developed producer countries are acceptable to consumers v v v n Slave/forced and child labor Routine exposure to toxic substances More than 48 hrs/week Harassment, abuse, and sexual exploitation Adequate compensation Efforts to make global supply chains more accountable and transparent to reporters and citizens Fair Labor Organization v National Consumers League, Human Rights First, and more v Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -27

Sustainable Supply Chains n Taking social and ecological interests into account v For example: Sustainable Supply Chains n Taking social and ecological interests into account v For example: water usage, air pollution n Using most efficient environment for production, distribution, logistics v Good business, over long-term n Good risk management v Create value for consumers, investors, communities Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -28

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) n Broadly defined communications protocol for exchanging documents among computers Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) n Broadly defined communications protocol for exchanging documents among computers v Stage 1: 1970 s– 1980 s—Document automation v Stage 2: Early 1990 s—Document elimination v Stage 3: Mid-1990 s—Continuous replenishment/access model n Today: v EDI provides for exchange of critical business information between computer applications supporting wide variety of business processes Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -29

The Evolution of EDI as a B 2 B Medium Figure 12. 5, Page The Evolution of EDI as a B 2 B Medium Figure 12. 5, Page 766 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -30

Supply Chain Management Systems n Continuously link activities of buying, making, and moving products Supply Chain Management Systems n Continuously link activities of buying, making, and moving products from suppliers to buyers v SAP and Oracle Mobile apps for smartphones, tablets Integrates demand side of business equation by including order entry system in the process n With SCM system and continuous replenishment, inventory is eliminated and production begins only when order is received n Hewlett Packard’s SCM system: Elapsed time from order entry to shipping PC is 48 hours n Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -31

Supply Chain Management Systems Figure 12. 6, Page 768 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Supply Chain Management Systems Figure 12. 6, Page 768 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -32

Collaborative Commerce Use of digital technologies for organizations to collaboratively design, produce, and manage Collaborative Commerce Use of digital technologies for organizations to collaboratively design, produce, and manage products through life cycles n Moves focus from transactions to relationships among supply chain participants n Unlike EDI, more like an interactive teleconference among members of supply chain n Use of Internet technologies for rich communications environment n n Sharing designs, documents, messages, network meetings, videconferencing Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -34

Elements of a Collaborative Commerce System Figure 12. 7, Page 772 Copyright © 2014 Elements of a Collaborative Commerce System Figure 12. 7, Page 772 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -35

Social Networks and B 2 B Social networks can provide personal connections that can Social Networks and B 2 B Social networks can provide personal connections that can help decision making in supply chain n Conversations and sharing of ideas by SCM workers are more unstructured and personal and involve the use of social media n Example: Trade. Space, UK based, allows business people to share ideas and experiences v Example: Dell’s You. Tube channel v Example: Cisco’s Facebook pages for product campaigns for business clients v Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -36

2 Main Types of Internet-Based B 2 B Commerce 1. Net marketplaces: v v 2 Main Types of Internet-Based B 2 B Commerce 1. Net marketplaces: v v v 2. Bring together potentially thousands of sellers and buyers in single digital marketplace operated over Internet Transaction-based Support many-to-many as well as one-to-many relationships Private industrial networks v v (e. g. , Ace, Walmart, Chrysler) Bring together small number of strategic business partner firms that collaborate to develop highly efficient supply chains Relationship-based Support many-to-one and many-to-few relationships Largest form of B 2 B e-commerce, account for > 10 times revenue of net marketplaces Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -37

Two Main Types of Internet-Based B 2 B Commerce Figure 12. 8, Page 774 Two Main Types of Internet-Based B 2 B Commerce Figure 12. 8, Page 774 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -38

Net Marketplaces n Ways to classify Net marketplaces: v Pricing mechanism: bid/ask, auction, negotiated Net Marketplaces n Ways to classify Net marketplaces: v Pricing mechanism: bid/ask, auction, negotiated price, fixed prices v Type of market served: horizontal vs vertical v Ownership: industry owned, independent 3 rd-party n By business functionality v What businesses buy (direct vs. indirect goods) v How businesses buy (spot purchasing vs. long-term sourcing) Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -39

Net Marketplaces n By business functionality v Four main types E-distributor market place provides Net Marketplaces n By business functionality v Four main types E-distributor market place provides e-catalog that represents the products of thousands of direct manufacturers n E-procurement market place is independently owned and connects hundreds of online suppliers offering millions of MRO’s to business that pay a fee to join the market n Exchange market place is an independently owned online marketplace that connects hundreds/thousands of suppliers and buyers in a dynamic real-time environment; they are generally created for vertical markets that focus on spot purchasing of large firms in a single industry; they make money by charging a commission on each transaction n Industry consortia is industry-owned vertical market that enables buyers to purchase goods/services from a set of invited participants n Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -40

Table 12. 2, p. 775 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Table 12. 2, p. 775 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -41

Pure Types of Net Marketplaces Figure 12. 9, Page 776 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Pure Types of Net Marketplaces Figure 12. 9, Page 776 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -42

E-distributors n n n n Most common type of Net marketplace Electronic catalogs representing E-distributors n n n n Most common type of Net marketplace Electronic catalogs representing products of thousands of direct manufacturers Typically, independently owned intermediaries Offer industrial customers single source to purchase indirect goods on spot basis Typically, horizontal Usually, fixed price—discounts for large customers Example: W. W. Grainger Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -43

E-distributors Figure 12. 10, Page 777 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as E-distributors Figure 12. 10, Page 777 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -44

E-procurement Net Marketplaces n n n n Independently owned intermediaries Connect hundreds of suppliers E-procurement Net Marketplaces n n n n Independently owned intermediaries Connect hundreds of suppliers of indirect goods Firms pay fees to join market Long-term contractual purchasing of indirect goods Revenues from transaction fees, licensing consultation services and software, network fees Many-to-many market Example: Ariba Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -45

E-procurement Net Marketplaces Figure 12. 11, Page 779 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. E-procurement Net Marketplaces Figure 12. 11, Page 779 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -46

Exchanges n n n n Independently owned online marketplaces Connect hundreds to thousands of Exchanges n n n n Independently owned online marketplaces Connect hundreds to thousands of suppliers and buyers in dynamic, real-time environment Vertical markets, spot purchasing in single industry Charge commission fees on transaction Variety of pricing models Tend to be buyer-biased Suppliers disadvantaged by competition Many have failed due to low liquidity Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -47

Exchanges Figure 12. 12, Page 780 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Exchanges Figure 12. 12, Page 780 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -48

Industry Consortia Industry-owned vertical markets Purchase of direct inputs from set of invited participants Industry Consortia Industry-owned vertical markets Purchase of direct inputs from set of invited participants n Emphasize long-term contractual purchasing, stable relationships, creation of data standards n Ultimate objective: n n v n Revenue from transaction and subscription fees v n Unification of supply chains within entire industries through common network and computing platform Many different pricing mechanisms Can force suppliers to use consortia’s networks Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -49

Industry Consortia Figure 12. 13, Page 782 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing Industry Consortia Figure 12. 13, Page 782 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -50

The Long-Term Dynamics of Net Marketplaces Pure Net marketplaces moving from “electronic marketplace” vision The Long-Term Dynamics of Net Marketplaces Pure Net marketplaces moving from “electronic marketplace” vision toward more central role in changing procurement process n Consortia and exchanges beginning to work together in selected markets n E-distributors joining large e-procurement systems and industry consortia as suppliers n Movement from simple transactions for spot purchasing to longer-term contractual relationships involving both direct and indirect goods n Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -51

Net Marketplace Trends Figure 12. 14, Page 785 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Net Marketplace Trends Figure 12. 14, Page 785 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -52

Private Industrial Networks Originate in and involve manufacturing and related support industries n Web-enabled Private Industrial Networks Originate in and involve manufacturing and related support industries n Web-enabled networks for coordination of transorganizational business processes (collaborative commerce) n v Direct descendant of EDI; closely tied to ERP systems v Manufacturing and support industries v Single, large manufacturing firm sponsors network Range in scope from single firm to entire industry n Example: Procter & Gamble n Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -53

P&G’s Private Industrial Network Figure 12. 15, Page 787 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, P&G’s Private Industrial Network Figure 12. 15, Page 787 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -54

Characteristics of Private Industrial Networks n Objectives include: v v v Efficient purchasing and Characteristics of Private Industrial Networks n Objectives include: v v v Efficient purchasing and selling industry-wide Industry-wide resource planning to supplement enterprise-wide resource planning Increasing supply chain visibility Enabling closer buyer–supplier relationships Global scale operations Reducing industry risk by preventing imbalances of supply and demand Focus on continuous business process coordination n Typically, focus on single sponsoring company that “owns” the network n Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -55

Private Industrial Networks and Collaborative Commerce n Forms of collaboration: v Collaborative resource planning, Private Industrial Networks and Collaborative Commerce n Forms of collaboration: v Collaborative resource planning, forecasting, and replenishment (CPFR): n Working with network members to forecast demand, develop production plans, and coordinate shipping, warehousing, and stocking activities to ensure that retail and wholesale shelf space is replenished with just the right amount of goods v Demand chain visibility enables manufacturers to know what is happening on the demand side of retailers v Marketing coordination and product design enable suppliers and retailers to collaborate on design and marketing to ensure products fulfill marketing claims Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -57

Pieces of the Collaborative Commerce Puzzle Figure 12. 16, Page 791 Copyright © 2014 Pieces of the Collaborative Commerce Puzzle Figure 12. 16, Page 791 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -58

Implementation Barriers n Concerns about sharing of proprietary, sensitive data n Integration of private Implementation Barriers n Concerns about sharing of proprietary, sensitive data n Integration of private industrial networks into existing ERP systems and EDI networks difficult, expensive n Requires change in mindset and behavior of employees and suppliers v All participants lose some independence Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Slide 12 -59