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Chapter 11 Intelligence
Points to Ponder § Think of some intelligent people. With these people in mind answer the following questions: 1. Do they share the same ways of thinking and mental qualities? 2. Would your friends all agree that these people are intelligent? Do you think some might disagree? 3. List behaviors you believe to be distinctly characteristic of either particularly intelligent or particularly unintelligent people. • Intelligent People • Unintelligent People 4. Can intelligence be measured using relatively simple tests?
What is Intelligence? l Intelligence: the possession of knowledge, the ability to efficiently use knowledge to reason about the world, and the ability to use that reasoning adaptively in different environments
What is Intelligence? § Sir Francis Galton Related to Charles Darwin l Success & eminence runs in families l Advocated Eugenics l Preached the natural superiority of white men l Coined the term nature vs. nurture l Galton’s legacy = quantitatively measuring intellectual ability l
General Intelligence § Factor Analysis l A statistical procedure that identifies cluster of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one’s total score. For example, a number of tests of mechanical ability might be intercorrelated to enable factor analysis to reduce them to a few factors, such as fine motor coordination, speed, and attention.
General Intelligence § General Intelligence (g): l A general intelligence factor that according to Spearman (and others) underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence task l (comparison…athleticism, if one is a good athlete, the person is probably good at several separate skills…speed, ability, hand-eye coordination, etc.
Contemporary Intelligence Theories § Multiple Intelligences (Howard Gardner): l Gardner argued that we don’t have an intelligence instead he believed we have multiple (9) intelligences
Contemporary Intelligence Theories These 3 are the only ones that IQ tests sample because they are the forms most valued in school § Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences l Linguistic l Mathematical l Spatial l Musical l Body-Kinesthetic l Intrapersonal l Interpersonal l Naturalistic l Existential
Contemporary Intelligence Theories § Linguistic/Verbal: l l Involves sensitivity to spoken and written language, the ability to learn languages, and the capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals Careers: author, journalist, speaker § Mathematical l l Consists of the capacity to analyze problems logically, carry out mathematical operations, and investigate issues scientifically Careers: scientist, engineer, accountant
Contemporary Intelligence Theories § Spatial l l Seen in understanding relationships between objects Careers: architect, artist, sailor § Musical l l Involves skill in the performance, composition, and appreciation of musical patterns Careers: composer, musician
Contemporary Intelligence Theories § Body-Kinesthetic l Entails the potential of using one’s whole body or parts of the body to solve problems l Career: surgeon, craftsperson, dancer, athlete § Intrapersonal l Involves the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate one’s feelings, fears, and motivations l Career: theologian, psychologist
Contemporary Intelligence Theories § Interpersonal: l l Is concerned with the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations, and desires of other people Career: teacher, mental health professional § Naturalistic l l Involves human being ability to recognize, categorize and draw upon certain features of the environment Career: farmer, botanist, ecologist, landscaper
Contemporary Intelligence Theories § Existentialist: l l The ability to grapple with the big questions of human existence, such as the meaning of life and death, with special sensitivity to issues of spirituality. Career: Gardner didn’t identify any, but… philosopher
Contemporary Intelligence Theories § Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (Robert Sternberg) l Analytical Intelligence l Creative Intelligence l Practical Intelligence
Contemporary Intelligence Theories § Analytical Intelligence l The type of intelligence measured by traditional intelligence tests which present well-defined problems having a single right answer
Contemporary Intelligence Theories § Creative Intelligence l Demonstrated in reacting adaptively to novel situations and creating novel ideas
Contemporary Intelligence Theories § Creativity There is a new mathematical operation called flix. It is defined as follows: A flix B = A + B, if A> B But… A flix B = A x B, if A< B And… A flix B = A/B, if A = B How much is 4 flix 7 answer = 28
Contemporary Intelligence Theories Colors are audible Flavor is to tongue as shade is to A. Ear B. Light C. Sound D. Hue Answer = A. Ear
Contemporary Intelligence Theories § Practical Intelligence l Often required for everyday tasks, which are frequently ill-defined, with multiple solutions
D: $5 (Rows 31 -100) C: $10 (Rows 21 -30) B: $15 (Rows 11 -20) A: $20 (Rows 1 - 10) Field Mike wants to buy two seats together and is told there are pairs of seats available only in Rows 8, 12, 49 and 95 -100. Which of the following is not one of his choices for the total price of the two tickets? A. $10 B. $20 C. $30 D. $40
Emotional Intelligence § Emotional Intelligence is comprised of four components l l The ability to perceive and appraise emotions accurately (to recognize them in faces, music, and stories) The ability to manage emotions (to know how to express them in varied situations to promote growth & well-being) l The ability to understand emotions (predict emotions and know how they change and blend) l The ability to use emotions to enable adaptive or creative thinking
Intelligence and Creativity § Creativity: the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
Intelligence and Creativity § Creativity l Convergent Thinking: The type of critical thinking in which an individual analyzes a number of already formulated solutions to a problem to determine the one that is most likely to be successful. (IQ tests generally test convergent thinking. Convergent Thinking is often associated with problem solving)
Intelligence and Creativity § Creativity l Divergent Thinking: the type of creative thinking in which an individual formulate new solutions to problems. The aim of such thinking is often to generate a variety of possible answers, which can then be analyzed and evaluated.
Intelligence and Creativity § Five Components of Creativity l l l Expertise Imaginative thinking skills Adventuresome personality Intrinsic Motivation A creative environment
Is Intelligence Neurologically Measureable? § Brain Size and Complexity l Several studies report a positive correlation (+. 40) between brain size (adjusted for body size) and intelligence score. As adults age, brain size and nonverbal intelligence test scores fall in concert. Other studies suggest that highly educated people die with more synapses. The direction of the relationship between brain size & intelligence remains unclear. Larger brain size may enable greater intelligence but it is also possible that greater intelligence leads to experiences that exercise the brain & and build more connections, thus increase its size. Or some third factor may be at work. Some evidence suggests that highly intelligence people differ in neural plasticity (their ability to adapt and grow neural connection in response to their environment)
Brain Function § Perceptual Speed l People who score high on intelligence tests tend to retrieve information from memory more quickly. Research also suggests that the correlation between intelligence score and speed of taking in information tends to be about +. 40 to +. 50. Those who perceive quickly are especially likely to score higher on tests based on perceptual rather than verbal problem solving
Brain Function § Neurological Speed l The brain waves of highly intelligent people register a simple stimulus such as a flash of light more quickly and with greater complexity. The evoked brain response also tends to be slightly faster when people with high intelligence rather than low intelligence scores perform a simple task, such as pushing a button when an X appears on the screen. As yet, psychologists have no firm idea of why fast reactions on simples tasks should predict intelligence test performance.
Assessing Intelligence § The Origins of Intelligence Testing Alfred Binet: Predicting School Achievement Was charged to develop a test to identify children who would have difficulty succeeding in the regular classroom with the regular curriculum l Lewis Terman: The Innate IQ l • Stanford-Binet: A revision of Binet’s intelligence test. It measured IQ • Intelligence Quotient (IQ): IQ= (mental age/chronological age) x 100 A 4 year old child who passed the test items appropriate for a 5 -year-old, would have an IQ of 125 (5/4 x 100)
Assessing Intelligence § Why isn’t this equation used today? § How is an intelligence score derived today?
Modern Tests of Mental Abilities § Aptitude Tests: l Predicts the ability to learn a new skill. They predict FUTURE performance § Achievement Tests: l Reflects what you have learned § Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) l The most widely used intelligence test. It was developed by David Wechsler and it contains both verbal and performance subtests
Modern Tests of Mental Abilities § Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) l Verbal Scale • General Information (On what continent is France) • Similarities • Arithmetic Reasoning (If eggs cost 60 cents a dozen how much does one egg cost? ) • Vocabulary (What does audacity mean) • Comprehension (Why are children required to go to school? ) • Digit Span (Repeat the following numbers backward: 2, 4, 3, 5, 8, 9, 6)
Modern Tests of Mental Abilities § Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) l Performance Scale: • Picture Completion (What is missing from a picture) • Picture Arrangement (Put a series of pictures in chronological order) • Block Design (Assemble blocks to match a design) • Object Assembly (Assemble the pieces into a complete object). • Digit Symbol Substitution
Principle of Test Construction § Standardization: l l defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested standardization group standardization can also refer to the administration, scoring, and interpretation of the test. If a test is standardized that means that the testing conditions are the same, the directions are the same, etc. for everyone taking the test
Principle of Test Construction § Normal Curve l The symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and few scores lie near the extreme To keep a normal distribution with the average score near 100, intelligence test such as Wechsler’s & the Stanford-Binet need to be restandardized (renormed) periodically
Principle of Test Construction § Flynn Effect: l The gradual rise of IQ level that has been observed since the time when records of IQs were first kept. Although the average IQ remains 100 due to periodic renorming of IQ tests, raw scores have been rising. These increases have been roughly 9 points per generation (i. e. 30 years). The gains have been unequally distributed across the different kinds of abilities, with fluid abilities showing substantially greater gains than crystallized abilities.
Reliability § Reliability l The ability of a measurement instrument to measure an attribute consistently. The higher the reliability of a test, the less likely it is that its scores will be affected by temperature, hunger, or other irrelevant changes in the environment or the test taker
Reliability § Test-Retest Reliability: l A check of a test’s consistency determined by correlating the results of a test taken by the same subject at two different times § Split-Half Reliability: l A check of a test’s consistency determined by correlating a person’s score on two comparable halves of the test (odds vs. evens, 1 st half vs. 2 nd half) § Alternate Form Reliability: l A check of a test’s consistency determined by correlating two different forms of the test
Validity § Validity: l The degree to which a test or measurement accurately measures or reflects what is purports to measure
Validity § Content Validity l The degree to which the content of a test is related to what the test is supposed to measure. Content validity is evaluated with logic more than with statistics
Validity § Criterion Validity l This is estimated by correlating subjects’ scores on a test with their scores on an independent criterion (another measure) of the trait assessed by the test. For example, if you believe that possessing good organizational skills is the most important criterion for being a good teacher, then a person who scores high on a test for organization should also be a good teacher if the organization test has good criterion validity
Validity § Predictive Validity l l The success with which a test predict the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the behavior it is supposed to predict. Is the predictive validity of general aptitude tests as high as the reliability
The Dynamics of Intelligence § Stability or Change? l The stability of intelligence test scores increases with age. By age 4, children’s performance on intelligence test begins to predict their adolescent and adult scores. After about age 7, intelligence scores, though certainly not fixed, stabilize
Extremes of Intelligence § The Low Extreme Mental Retardation (Cognitively Disabled): To be labeled as cognitively disabled a person must have both a low test scores and difficulty adapting to the normal demands of living independently. This accounts for less than 1% of the total population with males outnumbering females by 50% l
Extremes of Intelligence § The Low Extreme Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder characterized by an extra chromosome 21. IQs are in the 40 to 55 range. This type of mental retardation accounts for no more than 4% of the population of cognitively disabled l
Extremes of Intelligence § The High Extreme l Gifted is the other extreme. Contrary to the popular myth that they are frequently maladjusted, research suggests that highscoring children are healthy, well-adjusted and unusually academically successful
Extremes of Intelligence Identifying The Gifted § § § § Einstein was four years old before he could speak and seven before he could read. Isaac Newton did poorly in grade school. When Thomas Edison was a boy, his teachers told him he was too stupid to learn anything. F. W. Woolworth got a job in a dry goods store when he was 21. But his employers would not let him wait on a customer because he "Didn't have enough sense. " A newspaper editor fired Walt Disney because he had "No good ideas" Caruso's music teacher told him "You can't sing, you have no voice at all. " Leo Tolstoy flunked out of college. Verner Von Braun flunked 9 th grade algebra. Admiral Richard E. Byrd had been retired from the navy, as, "Unfit for service" Until he flew over both poles. Louis Pasteur was rated as mediocre in chemistry when he attended the Royal College Abraham Lincoln entered The Black Hawk War as a captain and came out a private Fred Waring was once rejected from high school chorus. Winston Churchill failed the sixth grade.
Extremes of Intelligence What are some characteristics of gifted children § Many gifted children learn to read early, with better comprehension of the nuances of language. As much as half the gifted and talented population has learned to read before entering school. § Gifted children often read widely, quickly, and intensely and have large vocabularies. § Gifted children commonly learn basic skills better, more quickly, and with less practice. § They are better able to construct and handle abstractions. § They often pick up and interpret nonverbal cues and can draw inferences that other children need to have spelled out for them. § They take less for granted, seeking the "hows" and "whys. " § They can work independently at an earlier age and can concentrate for longer periods. § Their interests are both wildly eclectic and intensely focused. § · They often have seemingly boundless energy, which sometimes leads to a misdiagnosis of hyperactivity.
Extremes of Intelligence § Should gifted students be segregated from the regular classroom? Controversy surrounds “gifted child” programs in which the “gifted” are segregated and given academic enrichment not available to the masses. Critics mote that tracking by aptitude sometimes creates a self-fulfilling prophecy: those implicitly labeled “ungifted” can be influenced to become so. Denying lower-ability students opportunities for enriched education can widen the achievement gap between ability groups and increase their social isolation from one another.
Genetic Influences § Studies of twins, family members, and adopted children together point to a significant genetic contribution to intelligence scores. For example, the test scores of identical twins reared together are virtually the same as those of the same person taking the same test twice. Identical twins reared separately are similar enough to lead one researcher to estimate that about 70% of intelligence score variation can be attributed to genetic variation.
Genetic Influences § Heritability refers to the extent to which differences among people are attributable to genes. To say that the heritability of intelligence is 50% does NOT mean that half of an individual’s intelligence is inherited. Rather it means that we can attribute to heredity 50% of the variation of intelligence among those we studied. So the heritability of intelligence for identical twins is 0%, meaning that we can attribute the 0% of the differences in intelligence for identical twins to genes (since they have the exact same hereditary makeup)
Environmental Influences § Early Intervention Effects: l Fraternal Twins l Identical Twins raised apart l Children raised in neglectful or enriched environments
Environmental Influences § Schooling Effects Research indicates that schooling and intelligence are related. Intelligence scores rise during the school year and fall over the summer. The Flynn effect is probably partly due to increasing years of school over the last half-century.