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Chapter 10 • I. Christianity A. Mix of pagan & Christian beliefs • B. Christianity elimin magic but some polytheists remained • C. West Eur unified under R Cath Ch
Charlemagne Illiterate, but intelligent Conquered Sp, Germ, N Italy • 800: Charlemagne crowned by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day
Successor states to the Roman empire, ca. 500 C. E.
The Carolingian empire, 814 C. E.
The dissolution of the Carolingian empire (843 C. E. ) and the invasions of the early Middle Ages
II. Feudal Society • A. Power held by local authorities • B. Reduced local warfare, but made it difficult to create powerful centralized states • C. Most of literate popul lived in monasteries & copied manuscripts
Homage and fealty Although the rite of entering a feudal relationship varied widely across Europe and sometimes was entirely verbal, we have a few illustrations of it. Here the vassal kneels before the lord, places his clasped hands between those of the lord, and declares "I become your man. " Sometimes the lord handed over a clump of earth, representing the fief, and the ceremony concluded with a kiss, symbolizing peace between them. (Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Layout of a manor In 1440 Edmund Rede, lord of Boarstall Manor, Buckinghamshire, had a map made showing his ancestor receiving the title from King Edward I (lower field). Note the manor house, church, and peasants' cottages along the central road. In the common fields, divided by hedges, peasants cultivated on a three-year rotation cycle: winter wheat, spring oats, a year fallow. Peasants' pigs grazed freely in the woods, indicated by trees. (Buckinghamshire Record Office, Aylesbury) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
III. Economy • A. 400 -900: invasions (by Magyars, Vikings & Muslims) less production & trade • 1. Vikings • a. invaded rural, not urban areas • b. used long ships to travel in coastal & open waters & rivers • 2. Magyars invaded Hungary • 3. Muslims invaded Balkans & E Euro (furthest West: Vienna)
B. Agriculture & tools • 1. heavy plow for oxen more agric production • 2. 9 th cent: moldboard led to deeper turning of soil • 3. greater use of horses (collars, saddles & stirrups) • 4. limited by three field system (leave 1/3 fallow)
Iron stirrups The tomb of Li Shimin depicts the type of horse on which the Tang armies conquered China and Central Asia. The horses were equipped with saddles having high supports in front and back, breastplates, and cruppers, all indicating the importance of high speeds and quick maneuvering on the field of battle. Most significant were the iron stirrups, which were in general use in Central Asia from the time of the Huns (fifth century). The stirrups could support the weight of fully shielded and well-armed soldiers who rose in the saddle to shoot arrows, use lances, or simply urge the horse to greater speeds.
Most of Europe’s literate population was concentrated into these institutions and accomplished little more than copying old manuscripts Monasteries
Under this system, more land was used for production because only a third was left fallow at a time Three field system
European’s beliefs in magic and supernatural spirits coexisted with this faith Christianity
This economic system prevented the development of strong central states, but some kings were able to increase their power Feudalism
IV. 1075: Investiture Contest • A. Pope Gregory VII prohibits non-clergy (like an emperor) from making church appointments (ex. Priests, bishops) • B. Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV challenged pope & is excomm
Random & Useless Conflicts w/Pope • German princes rebel against emp • Henry asks pope to forgive him • 1122: Concordat of Worms (W/ new emp & pope), wk out deal where Ch appts clergy, & emp hires clergy • Pope Innocent III: believe pope was supreme in Europe • Made Fr king take wife back • Made Engl king accept Archbishop of Canterbury • Used “interdict” (priests could not dispense sacraments to ppl)
Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury was murdered in the cathedral by four knights
Random & Useless Thomas Becket • Born in 1118 in Normandy, son of a wealthy merchant • Educated in Paris, then worked for Archbishop of Canterbury • King Henry II apptd Becket chancellor • In 1161, Henry appted him Archbishop of Canterbury, but he had to be ordained • Becket was invested as a priest. • The next day he was ordained as a bishop, then he became the Archbishop of Canterbury • In 1163, a canon accused of murder was acquitted by the church court-- public outrage • Henry passed a law making it possible to try clergy in civil courts • Becket disagreed with the law, & excomm 2 bishops who suppt the king
Random & Useless • Becket went into exile for 6 yrs • In 1170, the king met Becket in Normandy & they resolved their dispute • Later, Becket refused to reinstate the excom clergy • Henry complained, “who will rid me of this meddlesome priest? ” • 4 knights crossed the channel from Normandy, hacked up Becket & split his skull in the cathedral • The knights were disgraced, Canterbury- a shrine to Becket • Henry had wear a sackcloth, & walk barefoot through Canterbury, then he was flogged by 80 monks. • He also had to spend a night in Becket’s crypt
V. Centralized govts • A. France: over centuries created powerful, central states: Fr gained territ through marriage, war • B. England: developed a powerful, centralized state quickly: 1066: Wm the Conqueror invaded England & defeated Anglo Saxons • C. Holy Roman Empire: too spread out, competing German princes; did not build a strong monarchy from regional (principality) foundations
Bayeux Tapestry The Bayeux Tapestry was commissioned by the brother of William the Conqueror. This detailed design of needlework is wool embroidery executed on eight bolts of natural linen cloth, employing only two types of stitches. It narrates the story of the Norman invasion of England in 1066 from the perspective of the Normans, depicting both the triumphs and brutality of war. Designed to run clockwise around the nave of the Cathedral of Bayeux in Normandy, the tapestry is 230 feet long and 20 inches high. Scholars assume that it was fashioned by the women of Queen Matilda's court. This scene portrays the death of the Anglo-Saxon king, Edward, and the coronation of Harold. The people on the left rejoice at the news of this event, whereas the people on the right view it as a portent of disaster. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
VI. Towns & Trade • A. Food surplus led to more trade & towns • B. Urban society grew • 1. Peas & serfs escape to towns • 2. Better econ less rigid social class structure
Hanseatic league merchants In the thirteenth century the merchants of Hamburg and other cities in northern Germany formed an association for the suppression of piracy and the acquisition of commercial privileges in foreign countries. Members of the Hansa traded in furs, fish, wax, and oriental luxury goods. This miniature depicts members of the Hansa at the port of Hamburg. Hanseatic League: Baltic & N Sea trade The Hansa: Russia to Engl: traded grain, fish, fur, timber Rhine & Danube link Hansa to Medit Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Battle of Crecy, 1346 Pitched battles were unusual in the Hundred Years' War. At the Battle of Crecy, the English (on the right with lions on their royal standard) scored a spectacular victory. The longbow proved a more effective weapon over the French crossbow, but characteristically the artist concentrated on the aristocratic knights.
C. Guilds • 1. Estab high standards, regulated prices & membership • 2. Emph group protection, not profits (not free mkt) • 3. regulated apprenticeship & guaranteed workmanship
Random & Useless The Crusades • 1095: Pope Urban II calls for a holy war for the holy land, promises remission from sin • Fewer Euro wars led knights to seek adventure elsewhere • Knights wanted to plunder & spread faith
D. The Crusades • 1. 1 st Crusade: knights take Jerusalem & hold it for 100 yrs th Crusade: • 2. 4 • a. Venetian merchants reroute crusaders to Christian Constantinople • b. They pillage & kill Christians in Constantinople
Eleanor of Acquitaine
Random & Useless Eleanor of Acquitaine • At age 15 she married Louis VII, King of France, bringing into the union her vast possessions from the River Loire to the Pyrenees. Only a few years later, at age 19, she offered thousands of her vassals for the Second Crusade. • While the church may have been pleased to receive her thousand fighting vassals, they were less happy when they learned that Eleanor, attended by 300 of her ladies, also planned to go to help "tend the wounded. "
Random & Useless • The presence of Eleanor, her ladies and wagons of female servants, was criticized throughout her adventure. Dressed in armor and carrying lances, the women never fought. • When they reached the city of Antioch, Eleanor found herself deep in a renewed “friendship” with Raymond, her uncle. • Only a few years older than Eleanor, Raymond was far more interesting and handsome than her husband King Louis. • On her way home, while resting in Sicily, Eleanor was brought the news that her uncle had been killed in battle, and his head delivered to the Caliph in Baghdad. • In 1152 her marriage to Louis was annulled and her vast estates reverted to her control. • Within a year, at age thirty, she married twenty year old Henry of England.
Random & Useless • Eleanor left her two daughters by Louis to be raised in the French court. • Henry was eleven years younger than she. • Henry became king of England in 1154. • For the next thirteen years Eleanor constantly bore Henry children: five sons and three daughters. • In 1173 she led her three of her sons in a rebellion against Henry. • The rebellion was put down, and fifty-year-old Eleanor was imprisoned by Henry in various fortified buildings for the next fifteen years. • In 1189, Henry died. On the accession of her son Richard I to kingship, • Eleanor died in 1204 at her favorite religious house, the abbey of Fontevrault.
Random & Useless King Henry II • Married Eleanor of • Three of his five sons, Acquitaine at 20 Geoffrey, John & • Appointed Thomas Richard rebelled Becket Archbishop of against him Canterbury in 1162 • Three sons, Wm, • Becket was murdered & Geoffrey & Henry did penance predeceased him • Established Justices of • He was succeeded by the Peace & formalized his least favorite son English common law & Richard trial by jury
Random & Useless King Richard the Lionheart • Richard Plantagenet reigned from 1189 -1199. He was in England for only 6 mos during those 10 yrs. • He was the 2 nd & favorite son of Eleanor of Acquitaine • As the 2 nd son, he was the heir to Acquitaine (Fr) • His 1 st language was French & he spoke little English • Richard & his 3 bros, encouraged by their mother, revolted against their father Henry II. • 1183: Richard’s oldest brother Henry died, making him heir to the throne & his father’s lands • 1189: Richard was crowned after his father’s death. He promptly freed his 65 yr old mother. • 1194: Returning from the 3 rd Crusade, he is captured by Leopold of Austria & ransomed for 3 tons of silver (3 yrs annual income in England) • 1199: He was struck by an arrow while laying seige to a French village. His brother John (Magna Carta, 1205) succeeded him.
The regional states of medieval Europe, 1000 -1300 C. E.
The medieval expansion of Europe, 1000 -1250 C. E.
Random & Useless English Peasant Revolt • The king raised tripled • Ball & Tyler attacked property & killed the Lord the poll tax from 4 pence to 12 Chancellor & Archbishop of Canterbury • King Richard II was 14 yrs old & unpopular • Wat Tyler was stabbed ministers ruled for him but king told the rebels he • The govt ordered had been knighted & peas wages reduced would meet them later to pre-plague levels & • King captured & executed restricted the rebel leaders movement of peas
The Death of Wat Tyler
King Richard II meet rebels in London
During the High Middle Ages, there were many conflicts between these two groups (not pope & king) Landlords and peasants
These groups emphasized group protection over a free market economy Guilds
After the European economy improved after the tenth century, this structure was less rigid Social
The education system in this country was tied to the bureaucracy, unlike in West Europe China
Growth of towns, new agric techniques, more political stability & the end of these led to a stronger Western Europe by 1100 Viking raids
The practice of the king appointing bishops was called this Investiture
When Germanic kings converted to Christianity, this religious leader thought he had separate & superior power over them The pope
After 500, the pope had the power to give orders to & excom kings, sponsor missionary activity & appoint these Clergy or Bishops
These emperors did not build a solid monarchy from regional foundations Holy Roman
The monarchy here was established quickly after the Norman conquest in 1066 England