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Chapter 1 Variables in the Web Design Environment Principles of Web Design 2 nd Chapter 1 Variables in the Web Design Environment Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Objectives • Describe the current state of HTML Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Objectives • Describe the current state of HTML • Understand XML, an open standard for structuring data • Understand XHTML, the future of HTML • Describe how Web browsers display your work • Code for multiple screen resolutions • Understand bandwidth concerns Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 2

Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design HTML: Then and Now • HTML is an Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design HTML: Then and Now • HTML is an application of the Standard Generalized Markup Language • Intended to represent simple document structure • Uses hypertext to link related topics • Designed for use over the Internet • The Web has outgrown the capabilities of HTML Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 3

Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design HTML as a Markup Language • A markup Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design HTML as a Markup Language • A markup language is a structured language that lets you identify common sections of a document such as headings, paragraphs, and lists • An HTML file includes text and HTML markup elements • The browser interprets the HTML markup elements and displays the results, hiding the actual markup tags from the user Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 4

Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design HTML as a Markup Language • HTML is Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design HTML as a Markup Language • HTML is an open, non-proprietary, crossplatform compatible language • HTML is not a What You See Is What You Get (WYSIWYG) layout tool • HTML was intended only to express logical document structure, not display characteristics Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 5

Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design The Need for Style Sheets • Style sheets Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design The Need for Style Sheets • Style sheets let you separate display information from content • Separating display information lets you repurpose your content for multiple destinations Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 6

Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design • Figure 1 -1 Principles of Web Design Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design • Figure 1 -1 Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 7

Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Cascading Style Sheets • Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Cascading Style Sheets • Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a powerful display language for HTML • CSS lets you state style rules in an external style sheet that is linked to every page on a Web site • CSS lets you easily control the display characteristics of your Web site • Newer browsers offer more complete CSS support Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 8

Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design XML: An Open Standard • XML is the Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design XML: An Open Standard • XML is the Extensible Markup Language • XML is a meta-language; not a language itself, but a language that lets you describe other languages • XML describes data, not presentation • XML allows better access to data • XML lends itself to customized information Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 9

Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design XML Syntax Rules • • • Documents must Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design XML Syntax Rules • • • Documents must be well-formed Elements must nest correctly XML is case-sensitive End tags are required Empty elements are signified by a closing slash • Attribute values must be quoted Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 10

Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design XHTML: The Future of HTML • XHTML is Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design XHTML: The Future of HTML • XHTML is a reformulation of HTML 4. 01 in XML • Brings data-handling benefits of XML to HTML • Style sheets are required • Stricter syntax rules Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 11

Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Deprecated Elements • Deprecated elements are elements that Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Deprecated Elements • Deprecated elements are elements that the W 3 C has identified as obsolete. They will not be included in future releases of HTML. • Some examples of these elements are and

Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 12

Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design How Browsers Affect Your Work • One of Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design How Browsers Affect Your Work • One of the greatest challenges facing HTML authors is designing pages that display properly in multiple browsers • Every browser contains a program called a parser that interprets the markup tags in an HTML file and displays the results in the canvas area of the browser interface Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 13

Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 14 Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 14

Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design How Browsers Affect Your Work • The logic Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design How Browsers Affect Your Work • The logic for interpreting the HTML tags is different in every browser, resulting in varying interpretations of the way the HTML file is displayed • Although it’s a good idea to test with the latest browsers, it’s also prudent to test your work in older browsers as well Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 15

Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Creating Compatible Pages • Lowest common denominator coding Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Creating Compatible Pages • Lowest common denominator coding - use an older version of HTML to ensure portability • Cutting-edge coding - push the medium forward by coding to the latest standard and using the latest enhancements • Browser-specific coding - specify a particular brand version of browser to access the site Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 16

Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Solving the Browser Dilemma • You must test Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Solving the Browser Dilemma • You must test your work in as many browsers as possible during and at the end of the development process to make sure that your pages will render properly Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 17

Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Coding for Multiple Resolutions • A computer monitor’s Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Coding for Multiple Resolutions • A computer monitor’s screen resolution is the horizontal and vertical width and height of the computer screen in pixels • The three most common screen resolutions (traditionally expressed as width x height) are 640 x 480, 800 x 600, 1024 x 768 • User screen resolution is a factor over which you have no control Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 18

Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Fixed Resolution Design • As the screen resolution Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Fixed Resolution Design • As the screen resolution changes, the content remains aligned to the left side of the page Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 19

Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design • Figure 1 -3 • Figure 1 -4 Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design • Figure 1 -3 • Figure 1 -4 • Figure 1 -5 Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 20

Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Flexible Resolution Design • As the screen resolution Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Flexible Resolution Design • As the screen resolution changes, the content expands to accommodate the varying screen width Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 21

 • Figure 1 -6 • Figure 1 -7 • Figure 1 -8 Principles • Figure 1 -6 • Figure 1 -7 • Figure 1 -8 Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 22

Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Bandwidth Concerns • It will still be awhile Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Bandwidth Concerns • It will still be awhile before most computer users have fast access to the Web • Less than 20% of American households have access to cable modems • Only 5 -10% of all households have access to Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 23

Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Figure 1 -9 Principles of Web Design 2 Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Figure 1 -9 Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 24

Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Bandwidth Concerns • If your pages download slowly, Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Bandwidth Concerns • If your pages download slowly, your users will probably click to go to another site before they see your content • Most users will simply not wait longer than 20 seconds for a page to load • The size and number of graphics on your Web pages influence the speed at which your pages display Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 25

Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Testing for Download Times • Test your site Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Testing for Download Times • Test your site at different connection speeds • Test your site as if you were a user visiting for the first time. This is when users experience the greatest download times. • Clear your cache of the files and images that the browser has stored Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 26

Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Working with the Cache • The cache is Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Working with the Cache • The cache is the temporary storage area for Web pages and images • The browser always tries to load images and files from the cache • Make use of the cache by reusing images as much as possible Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 27

Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Should You Use an HTML Editor? • You Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Should You Use an HTML Editor? • You can create or generate HTML code to build Web pages in many ways • Many sites on the Web are coded using simple text editing tools such as Notepad • Many different HTML editing programs are now available Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 28

Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Should You Use an HTML Editor? • As Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Should You Use an HTML Editor? • As with the browsers, authoring packages interpret tags based on their own built-in logic. Therefore, a page that you create in an editing package may look quite different in the editing interface than it does in a browser. • You’ll probably end up working with a combination of tools to create your finished pages Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 29

Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Summary • Decide which version of HTML you’ll Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Summary • Decide which version of HTML you’ll use to code your pages • Decide whether to use Cascading Style Sheets • Choose the suite of browsers you will use to test your site • Decide how browser-specific your site will be. Your goal is to create a site that is widely accessible to multiple browsers. Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 30

Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Summary • Choose the type of editing tool Chapter 1 Principles of Web Design Summary • Choose the type of editing tool you will use to create your HTML code • Resolve to continually test your work as you build your site • Test with multiple browsers, at different screen resolutions, and at different connection speeds • If you can, try to view your site on multiple platforms such as PC and Macintosh as well Principles of Web Design 2 nd Ed. Chapter 1 31