- Количество слайдов: 50
Chapter 1 Questioning Development
What is Development? · A working out, a gradual unfolding · Growth plus change, evolution, well-gown state, stage of advancement · Upward movement of an entire social system · Per capita real income · Development area – one suffering from or liable to serve unemployment · Development is a means – as an instrumental process for overcoming persistent poverty and achieving human development · Development is ultimately about improving the life chances of people · “Economic development should be interpreted as a process of expansion of the positive freedom that people enjoy……. it is a process that expands the entitlements and capabilities of people to live in ways we have reason to value. ” - Amartya Sens, Nobel Laureate. · Many different ideas! Affects everyone from the individual to the global.
Some Histories of Development “Modern Era” Approach • U. S. President Truman in 1949 - Made reference to “Underdeveloped areas” (Duty to develop these areas) – Began to establish a new colonial or neocolonial role for the U. S. A. for these newly independent countries. · Guided by Modernism + Trusteeship • Modernism – Idea of transforming traditional countries into modern western states • Trusteeship – Holding another’s property with the belief that the trustee is able to look after it better than the owner of the property, until a certain time in the future.
Enlightenment Approach • Rise of Rationalism in 18 th century (age of reason – “I think, therefore I am”) plus rise of Humanism in 19 th century (return to the study of antiquities of classical Greece) • Rationalism + Humanism gave rise to Enlightenment through the 18 th century • Enlightenment – Based on scientific and rational thinking. Rise of a secular intelligencia. Orderly progress and new freedoms.
Enlightenment Approach • Led to Development = European/Western values and ideology • Above gave rise to: • Progress - Pure capitalist industrialization (1800 s) • Development – Representative of Christian order, modernization and responsibility (1920 s)
Authoritative Intervention • Used Enlightenment and 19 th century Humanism as reasoning • Strategy was Authoritative Intervention – Via Advise and Aid Programs • Led to U. S. Dominated Neo Colonial Mission
Critiques of Development “ Eurocentricity and Development” • Eurocentrism has distorted development and its patterns and processes through their pseudoscientific rational and reasoning. • All major strategies are Eurocentric in origin and in bias. So, everything from modernism through neo-Marxism to the neo -liberal counter culture. All of these ideas originated in Europe. • Captalist Driven and seen as a meta – narrative or universal in their assumptions.
Critiques of Development A”Alternative and Populist Approaches” – Began in 1970 s • Locally oriented, idea of “development from below” strategies. Used in rural peasant based societies. People oriented and heavily community based. • Shelter, education, and health care. NGOs play a big part in community development and empowering the poor. • Criticisms of the NGOS is that they are moving away from the communities and becoming more of a bridge to the state. The NGO is also disempowering the community members by bypassing the more outspoken members of the community.
Critiques of Development “Antidevelopment!” • Based on the failures of modernism • Argued that West developed discourse around development leads to an uneven power relationship • Western “development” helped to create poverty, underdevelopment, backwardness, landlessness and so on • Western society then rushed to solves these problems via programs that fail to recognize/respect local culture and customs
Critiques of Development • Antidevelopment places emphasis on new/indigenous social movements based on democracy and egalitarian politics based on local knowledge (ex. Zapatistas Movement in Southern Mexico) • Criticisms to antidevelopment – Does not recognize 4 Asian Tigers and Japan • “Development” has brought about better health care and education for a majority of the developing world. • Seen as an elitist argument that is guilty of its own reductionism and dependency theories (borrowing from the Eurocentric tradition)
Critiques of Development • The Postmodern Stance • Moves away from large scale theory to specific issues @ local level that relate to improving people’s basic needs (women’s craft cooperatives and self-help shelter development • Some argue a liberation of thought, embracing local “otherness”, and support for small scale development
Critiques of Development – Post Modern Stance • Mc. Gee argues that this collection of empirical studies @ the local level and are invaluable to the development process • Others argue it is the cultural logic of late capitalism
Spatializing Development 1930 s-1950 s - The Idea of a “Third World” Emerging • · It was seen as a Third Way or a Third Force to the Communist-Fascist extremes in the 1930 s in Europe. • · Revived again at the beginning of the Cold War by the French Left. • · Conference held in Bandung, Indonesia in 1955 for newly independent states, (e. g. India, Yugoslavia, Egypt) who saw themselves in a position of non-alignment (neither Western nor Communist) and also anti-Colonial. John Friedmann claims that one outcome of the conference was the decision of these states to call themselves the “Third World. ” • · The Bloc did pursue a “middle way” in international relations in the 1950 s – 1960 s
Spatializing Development- The Third World • Problems – Excluded the communist countries and Latin American countries did not attend the conference in Bandung. Additionally, there was no economic capital to sustain their remaining colonial economies. • • Common Political Origins United in The Third World Anti. Colonial +Non. Alignment POVERTY
• 1960 s – Failure of Modernization Strategies • Did not bring predicted growth to the Third World • Rising political concern that this persistent and widespread poverty would lead to more Communist Coups. (e. g. Castro’s revolution in Cuba) • This gave rise to a quantitative revolution in development, both from a planning and economic perspective. Began using Gross National Product (GNP) to rank countries. • There was still incredible unevenness within countries. • By the mid 1960 s, the world had a West, a Communist Bloc, and the Third World
The 1970 s – Growing Political and Economic Fragmentation of Third World. ·OPEC raise oil prices substantially in 1973 -74 and then again in 1979 following the fundamentalist revolution in Iran. – -OPEC wanted to punish the West – for supporting Israel. – -Hurt non-oil producing developing countries more than the West – -Many of these developing countries were following oil led industrialization and transport development programs. – *This resulted in a widened income
• ·The New International Division of Labour (NIDL) emerged at this time. • ·MNC in West wanted to invest in various developing countries that could meet certain criteria. – -Substantial investments in 4 Asia Tigers and Mexico and Brazil. The GNP rose rapidly for these countries during this time. • *Considerable debates about naming of the third world after the fall of communism and underdeveloped regions within the first world (fourth world) • *After 30 years of debate, the World Bank still uses GDP as its key development indicator 1970 s
1980 s – The Lost Decade · Rise of the New Right with Ronald Regan being elected in the U. S. A. and Margaret Thatcher in Great Britain. · The report, “North-South: A Program for Survival” written by the Brandt Commission was released in 1980. -Seen as visionary -Argued a much more balanced equitable system between the North -Put Greater responsibilities on TNCs to create greater equity within countries that they operated in. Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, 1969 -1974
1980 s – The Lost Decade · Problem – North-South division was not explained. The model was also competing against the core – periphery model – semi periphery model developed by Wallerstein
1980 s – The Lost Decade • Those that met at Cancun, Mexico in 1981 refuted the Brandt Report and instead settled for financial packages from the World Bank. The World Bank responded with Structural Adjustment Programs. Seen as very tough loan programs that “Blasted open third world economies, ” Bellos ‘ 94
1980 s – The Lost Decade • Even using notions of sustainability “One world or no world, ” to offer paired down SAPs to the developing world.
The 1990 s and Beyond • Rise of Regional Economic Blocs. NAFTA and APEC • Outspoken scholars, Sachs, Corbridge, and Friedmann continue to call an end to the “Third World”, – Friedmann noted that policy shall be built around the disempowered, where ever they are – Third World is it becoming more diverse. · However, Norwine and Gonzalez compare the Third World to a Brazilian Rainforest such that it is very diverse as well, but it is still a recognizable entity. · The one thing that still unites all of these countries is the grinding poverty with seemingly no escape.
Still the Third World? • Some argue the Third World is SIC, an an outcome of Slavery, Imperialism, and Colonialism. • Not simply a semantic or geographic device – More a process of exploitation, which contrasts at the local, region, national and global levels are growing wider • More of a focus on human beings and their welfare rather than a politically correct label. • What do you think?
Measuring Development from GNP to HDI • 1950 s – Development strategies used the idea of Growth Theory, which was intended to _____ and ______ within these newly independent countries. • · Based on the above, Gross National Product (GNP) became the quantitative measure for these countries beginning in the 1960 s. • · Problems – No indication of the true distribution of wealth within the nation. However, it did begin to reveal the growing unevenness between the developed world and the developing world by the 1980 s.
Measuring Development from GNP to HDI • 1970 s-1980 s - Began to see a rise in many different social indicators • · Related to health, education, nutrition and even gender inequality. • · Problem with these social indicators? They are not always consistent and can easily be manipulated. • · Thus, there was then a push to return to a single composit measure in the late 1980 s. • · Rise of the Human Development Index through the 1990 s.
The Human Development Index • Criticisms – Still a linear process and still measures how far these countries deviate from the Western Ideal. Esteva (1992)
Progress from the 1970 s to the 1990 s?
An Unequal World?
Millennium Declaration Goals (MDG) • · Millennium Declaration Goals – Adopted by the UN in 2000. Can be described as a list of quantifiable, specific, measurable goals for poverty eradication by 2015. • · Outcome based, contains 8 goals (Focused on Hunger/poverty, education; equality and women, child mortality, maternal health, addresses HIV/AIDs and Malaria, environmental sustainability, and a global partnership for development, – -Managed by 18 targets, and 48 indicators. • · MDGs should amount to realistic and reachable targets and goals
Some Reflections on the MDGs - However, even if targets are met by 2015, 900, 000 million people will still be living in poverty MDGs will be most helpful in achieving poverty reduction if they are chosen well in the sense of being: · -Familiar to the main actors and stakeholders · -Unambiguous · -Readily monitored · -SMART (Specific, Measurable Achievable, Relevant, and Time-bound), as commonly required of targets set in business and public administration. * Success of MDG=Need specific targets and outcomes, leadership, and $$$
Are the MDGs Working?
Problems with the MDGs and their Targets • · Political, not scientific • · Based on extrapolations of past achievements made by agency secretariats • · Not based on a country-by-country assessment of feasibility • · Most MDGs call for reduction in indicators of poverty by ½ percent. This could be met by good performance in countries like India, China, or Brazil, which have large populations. • Also, many national governments were working to respond to the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) process initiated in 1999 in connection for conditional debt write-off for Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC)
Grounds for Guarded Optimism • · Comprehensive Development Frameworks (CDFs) - 1999 World Bank launched the CDFs approach. • Intended to provide the overarching development framework for low and middle-income countries. -Based on an integrated, long-term, holistic approach, emphasis on “country ownership” and broad participatory process to poverty reduction through consensus and identifying priorities. - --Includes governments, donors, civil society, and the private sector.
Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers • Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) – Seen as the key tool for putting the principles of the CDF into practice. Essentially the strategic documents around which the World Bank and the IMF (and other donors) coordinate their assistance to low-income countries, as well as to be considered for debt relief. • · Seen as the “successor” to structural adjustment programmes • · Written by national governments and must include broad participatory processes (includes everything from school children to the World Bank).
• PRSP Process – • · Headed by different national ministries than MDGs. (Used “broad based - green and clean” goal development with donor organizations. ) – -By April 2004 53 countries were engaged in the PRSP process. 48 completed interim PRSPs and 37 countries have complete full PRSPs. • · Usually shorter-term than MDG (3 years) and incorporate existing sector objectives and strategies.
• • However, consistent with MDG for 3 reasons: 1. Historical roots and high profile of the MDGs. 2. Developing countries long-standing commitment to the MDGs. • 3. Growing involvement of donors towards the incremental reduction of poverty – Especially in education and health care. • • In fact, the 2003 Human Development Report proposed to develop the process into a new “Millennium Development Compact, ” which would formalize the above.
The Missing Middle • · Both MDG and PRSPs are only “spottily specific” about activities and processes whereby policy seeks to bring about outcomes. • · This leads to a missing middle of outputs and intermediate outcomes. • · For example, households’ circumstances more powerful that public service provisions regarding some targets.
Results Oriented Budgeting – • · This means that spending ministries and agencies must specify the results they expect to achieve with the budgets they are bidding for, especially with reference to results that they have already achieved in previous years. This creates a framework of accountability. • · Singapore and Malaysia started doing this in the 1980 s. Chile and Bolivia in the early 1990 s. S. Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda started using this in the mid 1990 s.
PRSP Process – Grassroots Consultative Session with the Local Community Regarding Agriculture (Tanzania) -Various causes of income poverty, especially in the agricultural sector, were identified, namely: ¨ Poor working tools and technology (highlighted by over one-third of the groups involved in the workshops); ¨ Non-availability of farm inputs (approximately one third); ¨ Poor roads (nearly one third); ¨ Limited access to markets (one third); ¨ Non-availability of credits (almost one third); ¨ Collapse of cooperatives (one sixth); ¨ Adverse climatic conditions (one-sixth); and ¨ Absence of safety-nets to cope with (weather-related) short-term fluctuations in income (one-sixth).
PRSP Process in early 2000 s – Grassroots Consultative Session with the Local Community Regarding Education (Tanzania) • Education • Over one half of the groups participating in the Zonal Workshops cited education as a major • concern, and specifically noted the following problems: • ¨ Limited access to primary school education; • ¨ Poor quality; • ¨ Inhibiting role, especially in regard to access, of the cost-sharing mechanisms, including • the misuse, and lack of transparency in the deployment of funds contributed by parents; • ¨ High dropout rates; and • ¨ High rate of illiteracy.
Poverty Monitoring and Delivery • · Seen as the Achilles Heel of Program based budgeting • · Reason – Information, statistics, and academic research is slow to reach the desks of line ministries for policy purposes. • · Heading in a positive direction! User groups (such as parent teachers associations) are holding service providers accountable to their budgets. These groups are becoming aware of their entitlements and very vocal in their complaints about service inadequacies. Tanzania has set up a very effective system dedicated to poverty monitoring.
Donor Commitment – · Monterrey Consensus in 2002 • · EU, U. S. and other countries pledged additional assistance of over $12 billion in aid to developing countries involved in the PRSP. So a rise from $58 billon in 2002 dollars to $79 billion in 2006 dollars. • *Follow-up conference in Doha, Quatar in late 2008. Poorly attended by the G 8. Purpose was to get the vague objectives from the Monterrey Consensus into more concrete terms and deliverables. • · Problems – Arrives late in the day for the MDGs, but it does show signs of underwriting more accurate poverty reduction goals as compared to the past.
Chapter 2 - Colonialism • What is Colonialism? • What is Imperialism?
Colonialism is……. • · The establishment and maintenance for an extended time, of rule over an alien people that is separate and subordinate to the ruling power - King (1976) • · The policy or practice of acquiring political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically. – Oxford Dictionary (1999) • · The establishment of domination of a geographically extended political unit, most often inhabited by people of a different race and culture, where this domination is political and economic and the colony exists subordinated to and dependent on the mother country. - Blauer
Colonialism is…… • Colonialism is often defined as a system of government, which seeks to defend an unequal system of commodity exchange – Corbridge (1993). • · Said (1979) maintains that colonialism exited in order to impose the superiority of the European way of life on that of the Oriental, a colonization of minds and bodies as much as that of space and economies and ‘much harder to transcend or throw off’.
Imperialism is……. • Some Definitions of Imperialism: • ‘A policy of extending a country’s power and influence through colonization, use of military force, or other means’ (Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1999) • The above definition leads to discrepancies in the chronology of imperialism. For example, • Maxist (Leninist) analysts believe that this monopoly stage of capitalism only began around the start of the twentieth century (Bell 1980) • Another more broadly reaching definition is, • ‘both formal colonies and privileged positions in markets, protected sources of materials and extended opportunities for profitable employment of labour’ (Barratt-Brown, 1974: 22)