Скачать презентацию CHAPTER 1 E-Commerce Foundations Infrastructure Objectives Скачать презентацию CHAPTER 1 E-Commerce Foundations Infrastructure Objectives

e4cd287a66453b506aff151296278a3f.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 48

CHAPTER 1 E-Commerce Foundations & Infrastructure CHAPTER 1 E-Commerce Foundations & Infrastructure

Objectives § E-Commerce – Introduction to The e-Business Model § E-commerce: definition, benefits, and Objectives § E-Commerce – Introduction to The e-Business Model § E-commerce: definition, benefits, and limitations. § Describe and discuss the content and framework of EC. § E-commerce classification and models. § E-Commerce Infrastructure & Topology. 2

Electronic Commerce: Definitions and Concepts Electronic Commerce: Definitions and Concepts

A Definition § Electronic Commerce (EC) is where business transactions take place via telecommunications A Definition § Electronic Commerce (EC) is where business transactions take place via telecommunications networks, especially the Internet. § Electronic commerce describes the buying and selling of products, services, and information via computer networks including the Internet. § The infrastructure for EC is a networked computing environment in business, home, and government. • E-business 4 A broader definition of EC that includes not just the buying and selling of goods and services, but also servicing customers, collaborating with business partners, and conducting electronic transactions within an organization

the relationship between the concepts of ecommerce and e-business. E-commerce is generally understood to the relationship between the concepts of ecommerce and e-business. E-commerce is generally understood to be a sub-set of ebusiness. E-commerce refers to financial and non-financial transactions between organizations. These transactions are often considered in the context of a supplier organization distributing and selling its product to consumers. E-business includes transactions from a buy-side and sell-side ecommerce perspective and also the use of communications technology to improve internal process efficiencies .

the relationship between the concepts of ecommerce and e-business (cont). This can best be the relationship between the concepts of ecommerce and e-business (cont). This can best be explained by referring to different elements shown in Figures 1. 1 and 1. 2 that is, Øsell-side e-commerce: Sell-side e-commerce concerns transactions related to the sale and distribution of goods such as a supermarket selling direct to its customers Øbuy-side e-commerce: Buy-side e-commerce refers to electronic transactions concerned with the purchase and inbound logistics of goods such as a supermarket coordinating purchases from its suppliers Øinternal use of electronic communications to support business processes. E-business is generally understood to include all three elements. Ecommerce is commonly used to refer to either the first one or first two of these elements, but less commonly the third. E-business is broader in scope than e-commerce.

Figure 1. 1 The distinction between buy-side and sell-side e-commerce 7 Figure 1. 1 The distinction between buy-side and sell-side e-commerce 7

Figure 1. 2: Three definitions of the relationship between e-commerce and ebusiness 8 Figure 1. 2: Three definitions of the relationship between e-commerce and ebusiness 8

Examples of E-Commerce Sites Description Amazon. com Provides access to several million books electronically. Examples of E-Commerce Sites Description Amazon. com Provides access to several million books electronically. It also sells music CDs, electronics, software, toys, video games, prescription drugs, and much more. Refills and sells new drugs and vitamins and other health products online. Drugstore. com Apple Computer (apple. com). Peapod. com 9 sells computers online sells groceries over the Web

E-Commerce Framework Five support areas for EC applications ØPeople ØPublic policy ØMarketing and advertisement E-Commerce Framework Five support areas for EC applications ØPeople ØPublic policy ØMarketing and advertisement ØSupport services ØBusiness partnerships

E-Commerce Framework (cont. ) Figure 1. 3: E-Commerce Framework 11 E-Commerce Framework (cont. ) Figure 1. 3: E-Commerce Framework 11

OTHER ELECTRONIC COMMERCE CONCEPTS – Three dimensions • the product (service) sold [physical / OTHER ELECTRONIC COMMERCE CONCEPTS – Three dimensions • the product (service) sold [physical / digital] • the process [physical / digital] • the delivery agent (or intermediary) [physical / digital] – Traditional commerce • all dimensions are physical (Brick & Mortar) – Pure EC • all dimensions are digital (Virtual/online) – Partial EC • all other possibilities include a mix of digital and physical dimensions (click & Mortar) 12

Virtual product The Dimensions of Electronic Commerce Digital Product Virtual process Digital process Physical Virtual product The Dimensions of Electronic Commerce Digital Product Virtual process Digital process Physical Product Physical process Physical agent 13 Digital agent Figure 1. 4: The Dimensions of Electronic Commerce Virtual delivery agent

Virtual product The Dimensions of Electronic Commerce Electronic commerce areas Digital Product Virtual process Virtual product The Dimensions of Electronic Commerce Electronic commerce areas Digital Product Virtual process Digital process Physical Product 14 Traditional commerce The core of electronic commerce Physical agent Digital agent Virtual delivery agent Figure 1. 5: The Dimensions of Electronic Commerce (cont)

Amazon. com 15 Amazon. com 15

Benefits Benefits

17 Figure 1. 6 : major contribution to the Growth of EC 17 Figure 1. 6 : major contribution to the Growth of EC

The Benefits of E-Commerce Benefits to Organizations § Expands the marketplace to national and The Benefits of E-Commerce Benefits to Organizations § Expands the marketplace to national and international markets § Decreases the cost of creating, processing, distributing, storing and retrieving paper-based information § Allows reduced inventories and overhead by facilitating “pull” type supply chain management § The pull type processing allows for customization of products and services which provides competitive advantage to its implementers 18

Benefits to Organizations (cont. ) § Reduces the time between the outlay of capital Benefits to Organizations (cont. ) § Reduces the time between the outlay of capital and the receipt of products and services § Supports business processes reengineering (BPR) efforts § Lowers telecommunications cost - the Internet is much cheaper than value added networks (VANs) 19

Benefits to Customers § Enables customers to shop or do other transactions 24 hours Benefits to Customers § Enables customers to shop or do other transactions 24 hours a day, all year round from almost any location § Provides customers with more choices § Provides customers with less expensive products and services by allowing them to shop in many places and conduct quick comparisons § Allows quick delivery of products and services in some cases, especially with digitized products 20

Benefits to Customers (cont. ) § Customers can receive relevant and detailed information in Benefits to Customers (cont. ) § Customers can receive relevant and detailed information in seconds, rather than in days or weeks § Makes it possible to participate in virtual auctions § Allows customers to interact with other customers in electronic communities and exchange ideas as well as compare experiences § Electronic commerce facilitates competition, which results in substantial discounts. 21

Benefits to Society § Enables more individuals to work at home, and to do Benefits to Society § Enables more individuals to work at home, and to do less traveling for shopping, resulting in less traffic on the roads, and lower air pollution § Allows some merchandise to be sold at lower prices § Enables people in third world countries and rural areas to enjoy products and services which otherwise are not available to them § Facilitates delivery of public services at a reduced cost, increases effectiveness, and/or improves quality 22

Review Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Define EC and E-business? Distinguish between e-commerce Review Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Define EC and E-business? Distinguish between e-commerce and e-business? Distinguish between pure and partial EC? Define click-and-mortar and pure play organizations Describe some EC benefits to organizations, individuals, and society. 6. List the major components of the EC framework? 7. Explain what is meant by buy-side and sell-side ecommerce.

Transactional Types of ECommerce Transactional Types of ECommerce

Classification of EC by the Nature of the Transaction • Business-to-business (B 2 B) Classification of EC by the Nature of the Transaction • Business-to-business (B 2 B) : EC model in which all of the participants are businesses or other organizations • Business-to-consumer (B 2 C): EC model in which businesses sell to individual shoppers • Consumer-to-consumer (C 2 C) : consumers sell directly to other consumers 25

Classification of EC by the Nature of From the Transactions Business Consumer B HW: Classification of EC by the Nature of From the Transactions Business Consumer B HW: Visit all these sites and study them. Give a detailed report on these sites Consumer To C Business B C • Organization site • Auctions (Dell) (E-Bay) • Consumer marketplace • Consumer Reviews (shopsmart. com) (Bizrate. com) • Organization site (Dell) • Business Marketplace (Commerce. One) • Customer bids (Priceline. com) Models of Electronic Commerce: • Business-to-customer (B 2 C) • Business-to-business (B 2 B) • Others: B 2 G, G 2 C, G 2 B, C 2 C • Cyber-Services • Intra business transactions (Intranets and Extranets) 26

Summary and examples of transaction alternatives between businesses, consumers and governmental organizations 27 Summary and examples of transaction alternatives between businesses, consumers and governmental organizations 27

Classification of EC by the Nature of the Transaction (cont. ) • Intrabusiness (organizational) Classification of EC by the Nature of the Transaction (cont. ) • Intrabusiness (organizational) EC: EC category that includes all internal organizational activities that involve the exchange of goods, services, or information among various units and individuals in an organization 28

Classification of EC by the Nature of the Transaction (cont. ) • Business-to-employee (B Classification of EC by the Nature of the Transaction (cont. ) • Business-to-employee (B 2 E): EC model in which an organization delivers services, information, or products to its individual employees • Collaborative commerce (c-commerce): EC model in which individuals or groups communicate or collaborate online 29

Classification of EC by the Nature of the Transaction (cont. ) • E-government: Government-to-citizens Classification of EC by the Nature of the Transaction (cont. ) • E-government: Government-to-citizens (G 2 C): EC model in which a government entity buys or provides good, services, or information to businesses or individual citizens • E-Learning: educational institutions-tostudents/trainees: The online delivery of information for purposes of training or education 30

Classification of EC by the Nature of the Transaction (cont. ) • Exchange (electronic): Classification of EC by the Nature of the Transaction (cont. ) • Exchange (electronic): a public e-market with many buyers and sellers Used in B 2 B • Exchange-to-exchange (E 2 E): EC model in which electronic exchanges formally connect to one another for the purpose of exchanging information 31

Classification of EC by the Nature of the Transaction (cont. ) • Mobile commerce Classification of EC by the Nature of the Transaction (cont. ) • Mobile commerce (M-commerce)—EC transactions and activities conducted in a wireless environment • Location-commerce—(L-commerce) m-commerce transactions targeted to individuals in specific locations, at specific times 32

Electronic Commerce Topologies Electronic Commerce Topologies

Electronic Commerce Topologies Types of Networks § A global networked environment is known as Electronic Commerce Topologies Types of Networks § A global networked environment is known as the Internet § A counterpart within organizations, is called an intranet § An extranet extends intranets so that they can be accessed by business partners. 34

Electronic Commerce Topologies 35 Electronic Commerce Topologies 35

Figure 1. 4 The relationship between intranets, extranets and the Internet 36 Figure 1. 4 The relationship between intranets, extranets and the Internet 36

Summary : Internet, Intranet, and Extranet Network Type Typical Users Internet Any ndividual with Summary : Internet, Intranet, and Extranet Network Type Typical Users Internet Any ndividual with dial-up access or LAN Authorized employees ONLY Authorized groups from collaborating companies Intranet Extranet 37 Type of Access Unlimited, public; no restrictions Private and restricted Private and outside authorized partners Information General, public and advertisement Specific, corporat and proprietary Shared in authorized collaborating group 37

Internet Computer Server Internet backbone 38 Organization Legend Internet Computer Server Internet backbone 38 Organization Legend

Intranet Firewall 39 Intranet Firewall 39

The Intranets An intranet is a corporate LAN and/or Wide Area Network (WAN) that The Intranets An intranet is a corporate LAN and/or Wide Area Network (WAN) that is secured behind company’s firewalls and it uses Internet technologies. 40 • Intranets are developed using the same TCP/IP protocol as the Internet • They operate as private networks with limited access. Only employees who are issued passwords and access codes are able to use them. • So, intranets are limited to information pertinent to the company and contain exclusive and often proprietary and sensitive information. • Firewalls protect intranets from unauthorized outside access. 40

Extranet Firewall 41 Extranet Firewall 41

The Extranet An extranet implies an “extended intranet”, which uses TCP/IP protocol networks (like The Extranet An extranet implies an “extended intranet”, which uses TCP/IP protocol networks (like the Internet) to link intranets in different locations. Extranet transmissions are conducted over the Internet to save money. Extranets provide secured connectivity between a corporation’s intranets and intranets of its business partners, material suppliers, financial services, and customers. 42 42

The Limitations of Electronic Commerce Non-Technical Limitations of Electronic Commerce – Cost and justification: The Limitations of Electronic Commerce Non-Technical Limitations of Electronic Commerce – Cost and justification: • The cost of developing an EC in house can be very high, and mistakes due to lack of experience, may result in delays. There are many opportunities for outsourcing, but where and how to do it is not a simple issue. Furthermore, to justify the system one needs to deal with some intangible benefits which are difficult to quantify. 43

Non-Technical Limitations (cont. ) – Security and Privacy: • These issues are especially important Non-Technical Limitations (cont. ) – Security and Privacy: • These issues are especially important in the B 2 C area, and security concerns are not truly so serious from a technical standpoint. Privacy measures are constantly improving too. Yet, the customers perceive these issues as very important and therefore the EC industry has a very long and difficult task of convincing customers that online transactions and privacy are, in fact, fairly secure. – Lack of trust and user resistance: • Customers do not trust an unknown faceless seller, paperless transactions, and electronic money. So switching from a physical to a virtual store may be difficult. 44

Non-Technical Limitations (cont. ) – Other non-technical limiting factors are: • • Lack of Non-Technical Limitations (cont. ) – Other non-technical limiting factors are: • • Lack of touch and feel online Many unresolved legal issues Rapidly evolving and changing EC Technology Insufficiently large enough number of sellers and buyers • Breakdown of human relationships • Expensive and/or inconvenient accessibility to the internet 45

The Limitations of Electronic Commerce Technical Limitations of Electronic Commerce § Lack of sufficient The Limitations of Electronic Commerce Technical Limitations of Electronic Commerce § Lack of sufficient system’s security, reliability, standards, and communication protocols § Insufficient telecommunication bandwidth § The software development tools are still evolving and changing rapidly § Difficulties in integrating the internet and electronic commerce software with some existing applications and databases 46

Technical Limitations of Electronic Commerce (cont. ) § The need for special Web servers Technical Limitations of Electronic Commerce (cont. ) § The need for special Web servers and other infrastructures, in addition to the network servers (additional cost) § Possible problems of interoperability, meaning that some EC software does not fit with some hardware, or is incompatible with some operating systems or other components 47

Review Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. List the major transactional types of EC? Review Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. List the major transactional types of EC? . List the major technical and nontechnical limitations of EC (three each)? List the major Topologies of EC ? Why is B 2 B e-commerce so essential? What are the main differences between business-to-business and business-to-consumer e-commerce?