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CHAPTER 1: Computer Systems The Architecture of Computer Hardware and Systems Software: An Information CHAPTER 1: Computer Systems The Architecture of Computer Hardware and Systems Software: An Information Technology Approach 3 rd Edition, Irv Englander John Wiley and Sons 2003 Wilson Wong, Bentley College Linda Senne, Bentley College

Typical Computer Ad § Is the computer fast enough to run necessary programs? § Typical Computer Ad § Is the computer fast enough to run necessary programs? § Is the computer cost-effective? § Will it be obsolete in 6 months? Chapter 1 Computer Systems 2

Why Study Computer Architecture? § User § Understand system capabilities and limitations § Make Why Study Computer Architecture? § User § Understand system capabilities and limitations § Make informed decisions § Improve communications with information technology professionals § Systems Analyst § Conduct surveys, determine feasibility and define and document user requirements § Specify computer systems to meet application requirements § Programmer § Create efficient application software for specific processing needs Chapter 1 Computer Systems 3

Why Study Computer Architecture? § System Administrator / Manager § Install, configure, maintain, and Why Study Computer Architecture? § System Administrator / Manager § Install, configure, maintain, and upgrade computer systems § Maximize system availability § Optimize system performance § Ensure system security § Web Designer § § Optimize customer accessibility to Web services System administration of Web servers Select appropriate data formats Design efficient Web pages Chapter 1 Computer Systems 4

Input-Process-Output Model (IPO) • Input: keyboard, mouse, scanner, punch cards • Processing: CPU executes Input-Process-Output Model (IPO) • Input: keyboard, mouse, scanner, punch cards • Processing: CPU executes the computer program • Output: monitor, printer, fax machine • Storage: hard drive, optical media, diskettes, magnetic tape Chapter 1 Computer Systems 5

Architecture Components § Hardware § Processes data by executing instructions § Provides input and Architecture Components § Hardware § Processes data by executing instructions § Provides input and output § Software § Instructions executed by the system § Data § Fundamental representation of facts and observations § Communications § Sharing data and processing among different systems Chapter 1 Computer Systems 6

Hardware Component § Input/Output devices § Storage Devices § CPU § ALU: arithmetic/logic unit Hardware Component § Input/Output devices § Storage Devices § CPU § ALU: arithmetic/logic unit § CU: control unit § Interface unit § Memory § Short-term storage for CPU calculations Chapter 1 Computer Systems 7

Typical Personal Computer System Chapter 1 Computer Systems 8 Typical Personal Computer System Chapter 1 Computer Systems 8

The Motherboard Audio/ MIDI Four ISA card slots Four PCI card slots Four SIMM The Motherboard Audio/ MIDI Four ISA card slots Four PCI card slots Four SIMM slots Parallel/ serial Processor Two IDE connectors

CPU: Central Processing Unit § ALU: arithmetic/logic unit § Performs arithmetic and Boolean logical CPU: Central Processing Unit § ALU: arithmetic/logic unit § Performs arithmetic and Boolean logical calculations § CU: control unit § Controls processing of instructions § Controls movement of data within the CPU § Interface unit § Moves instructions and data between the CPU and other hardware components § Bus: bundle of wires that carry signals and power between different components Chapter 1 Computer Systems 10

Memory § Also known as primary storage, working storage, and RAM (random access memory) Memory § Also known as primary storage, working storage, and RAM (random access memory) § Consists of bits, each of which hold a value of either 0 or 1 (8 bits = 1 byte) § Holds both instructions and data of a computer program (stored program concept) Chapter 1 Computer Systems 11

Software Component § Applications § Operating System § API: application program interface § File Software Component § Applications § Operating System § API: application program interface § File management § I/O § Kernel p p Memory management Resource scheduling Program communication Security § Network Module Chapter 1 Computer Systems 12

Communications Component § Hardware § Communication channels p p Physical connections between computer systems Communications Component § Hardware § Communication channels p p Physical connections between computer systems Examples: wire cable, phone lines, fiber optic cable, infrared light, radio waves § Interface hardware p p Handles communication between the computer and the communication channel Modem or network interface card (NIC) § Software § Network protocols: HTTP, TCP/IP, ATAPI Chapter 1 Computer Systems 13

Computer Systems All computer systems, no matter how complex, consists of the following: § Computer Systems All computer systems, no matter how complex, consists of the following: § At least one CPU § Memory to hold programs and data § I/O devices § Long-term storage Chapter 1 Computer Systems 14

An Overview End User Application Programs Utilities Operating System Computer Hardware Programmer O/S Designer An Overview End User Application Programs Utilities Operating System Computer Hardware Programmer O/S Designer

Classes of Computers Micro. Computers n Workstations n Minicomputers n Main Frames n Super Classes of Computers Micro. Computers n Workstations n Minicomputers n Main Frames n Super computers n All work in the same way!!

Classes of Computers § Supercomputers § Scientific and military use § Parallel processing § Classes of Computers § Supercomputers § Scientific and military use § Parallel processing § 4 - 10 Xs faster than the mainframe § Mainframes § Centralized data processing § Large and complex applications § 50 M - 4 G primary storage

Classes of Computers § Minicomputers § Designed for specific tasks § Distributed DP § Classes of Computers § Minicomputers § Designed for specific tasks § Distributed DP § Workstations § High speed performance § Engineering tasks § RISC

Classes of Computers § PCs § 32 -128 M RAM § Desktops, Laptops, Notebooks, Classes of Computers § PCs § 32 -128 M RAM § Desktops, Laptops, Notebooks, Palm tops § Network Computers and Terminals

Computer Manufacturers Computer Manufacturers

Electronic Digital Generations Year 1951 1965 1975 1999 Technology Vacuum tube Transistor Integrated circuits Electronic Digital Generations Year 1951 1965 1975 1999 Technology Vacuum tube Transistor Integrated circuits VLSI Relative performance/ unit cost 1 35 900 2, 400, 000 7, 000

Where does the Chip fit in a Computer? Chapter 1 Computer Systems 22 Where does the Chip fit in a Computer? Chapter 1 Computer Systems 22

Transistors Chapter 1 Computer Systems 23 Transistors Chapter 1 Computer Systems 23

Transistor § An On/Off switch controlled by electricity § The IC combines up to Transistor § An On/Off switch controlled by electricity § The IC combines up to hundreds or thousands of transistors in a single chip § VLSI is used for chips with millions of transistors

Starting with Silicon A semi-conductor treated with a special chemical process to transform it Starting with Silicon A semi-conductor treated with a special chemical process to transform it into: § Excellent conductors of electricity § Excellent insulators from electricity § Areas that can conduct or insulate controlled by a switch (transistor)

Therefore: A VLSI circuit is millions of combinations of conductors, insulators, and switches manufactured Therefore: A VLSI circuit is millions of combinations of conductors, insulators, and switches manufactured in a small package.

Protocols § Common ground rules of communication between computers, I/O devices, and many software Protocols § Common ground rules of communication between computers, I/O devices, and many software programs § Examples § HTTP: between Web servers and Web browsers § TCP/IP: between computers on the Internet and local area networks § ATAPI: between a CPU and CD-ROMs Chapter 1 Computer Systems 27

Standards § Created to ensure universal compatibility of data formats and protocols § May Standards § Created to ensure universal compatibility of data formats and protocols § May be created by committee or may become a de facto standard through popular use § Examples: § § Computer languages: Java, SQL, C, Java. Script Display standards: Postscript, MPEG-2, JPEG, GIF Character set standards: ASCII, Unicode, EBCDIC Video standards: VGA, XGA, RGB Chapter 1 Computer Systems 28

Early History § 1642: Blaise Pascal invents a calculating machine § 1801: Joseph Marie Early History § 1642: Blaise Pascal invents a calculating machine § 1801: Joseph Marie Jacquard invents a loom that uses punch cards § 1800’s: § Charles Babbage attempts to build an analytical engine (mechanical computer) § Augusta Ada Byron develops many of the fundamental concepts of programming § George Boole invents Boolean logic. Chapter 1 Computer Systems 29

Modern Computer Development § 1937: Mark I is built (Aiken, Harvard University, IBM). § Modern Computer Development § 1937: Mark I is built (Aiken, Harvard University, IBM). § First electronic computer using relays. § 1939: ABC is built § First fully electronic digital computer. Used vacuum tubes. § 1943 -46: ENIAC (Mauchly, Eckert, University of Pennsylvania). § First general purpose digital computer. § 1945: Von Neumann architecture proposed. § Still the standard for present day computers. § 1947: Creation of transistor § (Bardeen, Shockley, Brattain, Bell Labs). § 1951: UNIVAC. § First commercially available computer. Chapter 1 Computer Systems 30

Early Computers Babbage’s Analytical Engine Chapter 1 Computer Systems ENIAC 31 Early Computers Babbage’s Analytical Engine Chapter 1 Computer Systems ENIAC 31

Textbook Overview § Web site: http: //www. wiley. com/college/englander § Part 1 (Chapter 1) Textbook Overview § Web site: http: //www. wiley. com/college/englander § Part 1 (Chapter 1) § Computer system overview § Part 2 (Chapters 2 -5) § Number systems and data formats § Part 3 (Chapters 6 -12) § Computer architecture and hardware operation § Part 4 (Chapters 13 -18) § Software – operating systems, applications, development environments § Part 5 (Supplementary Chapters 1 -3) § Digital logic, addressing modes, and communication channel technology Chapter 1 Computer Systems 32

Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without express permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the permissions Department, John Wiley & Songs, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein. ” Chapter 1 Computer Systems 33