Скачать презентацию Chapter 1 Computer Internet Web and E-Mail Basics Скачать презентацию Chapter 1 Computer Internet Web and E-Mail Basics

8f3f53037c71be37bb766a8c5943ae53.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 26

Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics Section A: Computer Basics Computer Concepts Chapter 1 Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics Section A: Computer Basics Computer Concepts 7 th Edition Parsons/Oja

What is a computer? • Computer refers to a device that performs four functions: What is a computer? • Computer refers to a device that performs four functions: – accepts input – processes data – stores data – produces output Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics 2

What is a computer? 1. INPUT – Input means to feed information into a What is a computer? 1. INPUT – Input means to feed information into a computer – Input can be typed, submitted or transmitted to a computer system • Words and symbols in a document • Numbers for a calculation • Pictures – An input device gathers input and transforms it into a series of electronic signals for the computer to store and manipulate • Keyboard • Mouse Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics 3

Computer Basics What is a computer? 2. PROCESSING – Data refers to the symbols Computer Basics What is a computer? 2. PROCESSING – Data refers to the symbols that represent facts, ideas and objects – Processing is the way that a computer manipulates data • performing calculations • sorting lists and numbers • drawing graphs – A computer program is software that sets up a computer to do a specific task – A computer processes data in a device called the central processing unit (CPU) Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics 4

What is a computer? 3. STORAGE – A computer stores data so that it What is a computer? 3. STORAGE – A computer stores data so that it will be available for processing – Memory is an area of a computer that temporarily holds data that is waiting to be processed – Storage is the area where data can be left on a permanent basis – Storage devices include hard drives, CDROMs, floppy disks, etc. Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics 5

Computer Basics What is a computer? 4. OUTPUT – Computer output is the results Computer Basics What is a computer? 4. OUTPUT – Computer output is the results produced by the computer • • • Reports Documents Music Graphs Pictures – An output device displays, prints or transmits the results of processing • Printer • Monitor Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics 6

What is a computer? Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics 7 What is a computer? Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics 7

Computer Basics What is a computer? • Computers use stored programs – A series Computer Basics What is a computer? • Computers use stored programs – A series of instructions for completing a task, for example: • Calculating interest payments on a loan • Word processing – These instructions can be easily replaced by a different set of instructions when it’s time for a different task to be completed • For example, you can finish editing a report, then move onto sending an e-mail – This is the single most important characteristic that distinguishes a computer from other simpler devices, such as calculators Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics 8

Computer Basics Self Quiz Questions 1. A computer does four things: a) b) c) Computer Basics Self Quiz Questions 1. A computer does four things: a) b) c) d) 2. 3. 4. 5. _____________________ _____ is an area of a computer that temporarily holds data. A keyboard is an example of a(n) _____ device. A computer processes data in the _____ processing unit. The idea of a(n) ____ program means that a series of instructions for a computing task can be loaded into a computer’s memory. Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics 9

Computer Basics Self Quiz Answers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A computer does four Computer Basics Self Quiz Answers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A computer does four things: a) Accepts input b) Processes data c) Stores data d) Produces output Memory is an area of a computer that temporarily holds data. A keyboard is an example of a(n) input device. A computer processes data in the central processing unit. The idea of a(n) stored program means that a series of instructions for a computing task can be loaded into a computer’s memory. Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics 10

Computer Categories • Before: – Computers are categorized into three main categories from least Computer Categories • Before: – Computers are categorized into three main categories from least powerful to most powerful: • microcomputers • minicomputers • mainframe computers • Today: – A computer is categorized based on its technology, function, size, performance, and cost Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics 11

Computer Categories • Old Computer Categories – Mainframe computers were the first type of Computer Categories • Old Computer Categories – Mainframe computers were the first type of computer that were very large, and were usually housed in a closet-sized metal frame • This term also applies to a category of large, expensive computers that were sold to big corporations and government agencies – Minicomputers (1968) were smaller, less expensive, and less powerful than mainframes, and were used by small businesses – Microcomputers (1971) were a newer type of computer whose CPU had a single chip, called a microprocessor • Today, just about any computer, no matter how large or small, uses one or more microprocessors as its CPU – so these terms are no longer valid Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics 12

Computer Categories • Today’s Computer Categories – Personal computers – Handheld computers – Workstations Computer Categories • Today’s Computer Categories – Personal computers – Handheld computers – Workstations – Videogame Consoles – Mainframes – Supercomputers – Servers Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics 13

What is a Personal Computer? • A personal computer is a type of microcomputer What is a Personal Computer? • A personal computer is a type of microcomputer designed to meet the computing needs of an individual – Desktop computers – Notebook (or “laptop”) computers – Cost starts at $500, but most spend $1000 to $1200 Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics 14

What is a handheld? • A handheld computer is one that is designed to What is a handheld? • A handheld computer is one that is designed to fit into a pocket, run on batteries, and be used while you are holding it • Also called a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) – Send and receive e-mail – Use maps and global positioning – Maintain expense account, contacts, to-do lists, memos, etc. – Make voice calls using cellular service • Designed to be a computing accessory, not your main computer Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics 15

What types of computers can be classified as workstations? • The term “workstation” has What types of computers can be classified as workstations? • The term “workstation” has two meanings – Powerful desktop models designed for specialized tasks, such as 3 D graphics – Ordinary personal computers connected to a local area network • A computer network is two or more computers or other devices that are connected for the purpose of sharing data and programs Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics 16

Is a Play. Station a computer? • A videogame system (i. e. Sony’s Playstation) Is a Play. Station a computer? • A videogame system (i. e. Sony’s Playstation) is a computer, but typically it has not been considered a computer category because of its history as a dedicated game device that connects to a TV set and provides only a pair of joysticks for input • Today’s videogame systems contain microprocessors that are equivalent to those found in a fast personal computer, as they are equipped to produce graphics that rival those on sophisticated workstations Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics 17

What is so special about a mainframe computer? • A mainframe computer is a What is so special about a mainframe computer? • A mainframe computer is a large and expensive computer that is capable of passing data simultaneously to many users – Can cost over $1 million • Used by governments and large corporations to provide centralized storage Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics 18

How powerful is a supercomputer? • A supercomputer is one of the fastest computers How powerful is a supercomputer? • A supercomputer is one of the fastest computers in the world, at the time of construction – Breaking codes – Modeling weather systems – Simulating nuclear explosions – Research simulations • A $100 million supercomputer scheduled for completion in 2005 is designed to use 1 million microprocessors, and will process over 1 quadrillion operations per second Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics 19

What makes a computer a server? • A server serves the computers on a What makes a computer a server? • A server serves the computers on a network by supplying them with data or resources (Internet, network files, printing, e-mail, etc. ) • A client receives data or uses resources from a server • Any computer can be a server or a client • High performance servers are needed when there is a need for lots of users and rapid response Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics 20

What’s a personal computer system? • A personal computer system consists of the following: What’s a personal computer system? • A personal computer system consists of the following: – System unit: case that holds the main circuit boards, microprocessor, power supply, and storage devices – Display device: Monitor or LCD screen – Keyboard: Primary input device – Mouse: Secondary input device – Floppy disk drive: Storage for small amounts of data – Hard disk drive: Storage for large amounts of data – CD and DVD drives: Storage or audio – Sound card and speakers: Plays audio – Modem: Connects to the Internet – Peripheral devices: Printers, scanners, etc. Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics 21

What is a personal computer system? Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics What is a personal computer system? Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics 22

Personal Computer Systems Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics 23 Personal Computer Systems Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics 23

What is a peripheral device? • A peripheral device designates equipment that might be What is a peripheral device? • A peripheral device designates equipment that might be added to a computer system to enhance its functionality – Printer – Digital camera – Scanner – Joystick – Graphics tablet Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics 24

Computer Basics Self Quiz Questions 1. The three old categories of computers were a) Computer Basics Self Quiz Questions 1. The three old categories of computers were a) b) c) 2. 3. 4. 5. __________________ Desktop computers and laptops are examples of _____ computers. Microsoft’s Xbox gaming system is considered to be a computer. True or false? A personal computer or workstation that requests data from a server is known as a(n) _____. The ______ is the case that holds the main circuit boards, microprocessor, power supply, and storage devices for a personal computer system. Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics 25

Computer Basics Self Quiz Answers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The three old categories Computer Basics Self Quiz Answers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The three old categories of computers were a) Mainframe b) Minicomputer c) Microcomputer Desktop computers and laptops are examples of personal computers. Microsoft’s XBox gaming system is considered to be a computer. True A personal computer or workstation that requests data from a server is known as a(n) client. The system unit is the case that holds the main circuit boards, microprocessor, power supply, and storage devices for a personal computer system. Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics 26