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Chapter 1 Civil War
Differences Between North &South Sectionalism • North is an industrial economy (dependent on government built infrastructure & high tariffs) • South is an agricultural economy (dependent on slavery & low tariffs)
Debate over new Slave territories • Missouri Compromise of 1820 – Set a line dividing the north & south (north free & south slavery) – Missouri slave state & Maine free state • Compromise of 1850 – After Mexican-American War: US gain more territory – California admitted as Free State – Utah & New Mexico would be decide by popular sovereignty – Fugitive Slave Act- required people in Free states to help & return escaped slave
• Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854 o. Created territories opening new lands for settlement o. Repealed the Missouri compromise by applying the principle of popular sovereignty
Slavery Dominates Politics • Dred Scott Decision- a slave owner & his slave, Dred Scott, move to free territory. The slave owner dies & the Scott sues for freedom. The case reaches the Supreme Court & it ruled that Scott is not a citizen he is property & doesn’t even have the right to sue. • Bleeding Kansas- debate whether the territory of Kansas would be slave or free. The debate turned to violence in the territory & on the Senate floor • Harper’s Ferry- an abolitionist, John Brown, from the north thought that it would be an ideal time for the slaves to revolt, like in Haiti. He & other abolitionists attack the ferry for weapons thinking the slaves would join them. The slaves did not, it failed, & Brown was hung.
Lincoln jumps on Political Scene • Abraham Lincoln becomes well known after the Lincoln-Douglass Debates for Senator of Illinois. Lincoln lost but gain huge exposure & eventually wins the Republican nomination for President. • Republican Party grew out of the abolitionist movement in the north & the Whig Party • Lincoln’s Platform: – Strong federal government & National Bank – High tariffs – Moderate on slavery- was opposed to increase of slavery but did not believe blacks as equal.
"I will say then that I am not, nor ever have been in favor of bringing about in anyway the social and political equality of the white and black races - that I am not nor ever have been in favor of making voters or jurors of negroes, nor of qualifying them to hold office, nor to intermarry with white people; and I will say in addition to this that there is a physical difference between the white and black races which I believe will forever forbid the two races living together on terms of social and political equality. And inasmuch as they cannot so live, while they do remain togethere must be the position of superior and inferior and I as much as any other man am in favor of having the superior position assigned to the white race. I say upon this occasion I do not perceive that because the white man is to have the superior position the negro should be denied everything. " From the debate against Douglas 1858
Federal Government v State Rights • Debate were the federal government rights stopped has been ongoing since the creation of the Constitution until this very day – Nullification- a state’s refusal to recognize an act Congress deemed unconstitutional – Secession- former withdrawal of a state from the Union • In 1861 as Lincoln took the Presidency seven states seceded and formed The Confederate States of America.
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Shots Fired • The official start of the Civil War was the Battle of Fort Sumter at the harbor of Charleston, SC. • It is strategic fort & the Confederates demanded the Fort (as it’s in SC) the Union forces did not abandon • The Confederacy led by its President Jefferson Davis had new states join for a total of 11
Fort Sumter Today Jefferson Davis
War • Both sides foresaw a quick & victorious war • The south had the advantage of strong trade with cotton, excellent generals, & highly motivated soldiers. Its main strategy was a defensive one. • The north had the advantage of strong resources with factories, greater food production, & infrastructure. The north’s main strategy was to suffocate the south with a blockade of goods & to split the south in half by the Mississippi.
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Politics during the Civil War • North – Lincoln ruled extremely strict – Suspended habeas corpus – Arrested & shut down publication that degreed with the war – Used conscription or faced imprisonment – Emancipation Proclamation- an executive order freeing the slaves in the Confederacy NOT in the union. Used as a military tactic to incite slave rebellion & allowed blacks to join the army – Fought the big Wall Street banks for loans. So Lincoln introduced the National Bank Acts of 1863 -1864. It allowed the government to print its own money known as the Greenback.
Politics during the Civil War • South – The south had to deal with a weaker central government compare to the Union – Many state governors did not always follow President Davis plans – The south looked for help from Great Britain & France. Both were looking for a strong battle victory before they joined the Confederate cause. Little known fact that the Tsar of Russia had his ships sent to make sure neither would intervene.
Major Battles • Battle of Bull Run- first major battle as the north looked to overtake the Confederate capital Richmond, VA. Southern victory • Battle of Antietam- the bloodiest battle with over 26, 000 dead. The south goal to overtake DC failed • Battle of Chancellorsville- a southern victory in Virginia that gave the south an opportunity to take control of the war • Battle of Gettysburg- many see this as the turning point of the war as the South led by Robert E. Lee failed to take control of Gettysburg, PA. – Gettysburg Address- famous speech by Lincoln to honor the soldiers of the battle.
Major Battles • Battle of Vicksburg- battle in Mississippi that allowed the Union to control the Mississippi River & split the Confederacy • Sherman’s March to Sea- the Savannah Campaign in Georgia from Atlanta to the coastal city of Savannah. Then his troops turned north to finish the war. It is known as one of the most brutal campaigns in American history as Sherman had a scorched the earth policy.
End to War • At the Appomattox Court House in VA General Lee & General Grant meet to arrange the surrender of the Confederacy. • The Civil War lasted from 1861 until 1865. During this time, over 800, 000 soldiers representing both sides were killed. Many, many more were wounded with estimates of more than 1/10 th of all soldiers being wounded
Atlanta, GA Civil War Cannon
Legacy of the Civil War • Put an end to ideas to secession • Gave more powers to the federal government (to produce legal tender, control states, etc) • Huge government debt costing tax payers billons • The north expanded its economy greatly (mostly because fought in the South) • The South is left in ruins politically, morally, & economically (its labor, agriculture, livestock, and infrastructure destroyed) • The 13 th Amendment is ratified by 27 states to the US Constitution abolishing slavery