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Challenges of Digital Media Preservation Karen Cariani, Director Media Library and Archives Dave Mac. Challenges of Digital Media Preservation Karen Cariani, Director Media Library and Archives Dave Mac. Carn, Chief Technologist

Who we are: WGBH Media Library and Archives 2 Who we are: WGBH Media Library and Archives 2

Challenges § Transitions (Analog to Digital) § What Born Digital Brings — New Workflows Challenges § Transitions (Analog to Digital) § What Born Digital Brings — New Workflows — New Capture Formats — Access vs. Preservation — New Systems New Storage 3

Transitions (Analog to Digital) Transitions (Analog to Digital)

Transition challenges (Analog to Digital) § Preservation needs are more complicated — — — Transition challenges (Analog to Digital) § Preservation needs are more complicated — — — New and changing content formats Network connections Software Storage media Hardware § Access expectations challenging — Faster access — Anywhere, anytime 5

Common Physical Formats (and some not so common) § § § § 16 mm Common Physical Formats (and some not so common) § § § § 16 mm film (some 35 mm) 2” videotape 1” videotape 3/4” videotape Betacam Betamax MII § § § Digital Betacam D 1, D 2, D 3, D 4, D 5 DVCam DVCPro & DVCPro. HD Mini DV & HDV Keep in mind: The Machine was the Format. 6

Thought Migration § TAPE - Condition - Machinery - Priorities 8 § BORN DIGITAL Thought Migration § TAPE - Condition - Machinery - Priorities 8 § BORN DIGITAL - Codecs/wrappers - Nested data - Playback - Storage

Thought Migration § Before we had 1 shoot, 10 physical tapes, many shots per Thought Migration § Before we had 1 shoot, 10 physical tapes, many shots per tape § Now each time the camera is in record, a new file is created § Now 1 shoot can generate many files across multiple digital storage containers (Optical Disk, Hard Drive, Solid State Memory) 9

Digital Formats Digital Formats

New Workflows New Workflows

For Access: Data Organizational Issues § Technical Metadata — Characterize files § Descriptive metadata For Access: Data Organizational Issues § Technical Metadata — Characterize files § Descriptive metadata — Need description for video to be useful, findable — How to capture that — How to make sure it is linked to video files 12

Original Footage 13 Original Footage 13

That was easy, wasn’t it? § Plug-ins to view files § Depending on the That was easy, wasn’t it? § Plug-ins to view files § Depending on the file type we may have to re-wrap to a Quick. Time wrapper, or fully transcode the source file § Redundant storage of raw and unwrapped materials § Quality of data 14

Metadata Entry in the Field: § In-camera - encourage tagging files with data. § Metadata Entry in the Field: § In-camera - encourage tagging files with data. § User-generated clip naming --- (Health 001, Health 002) § Card Labeling § Content Labeling through folder structures 15

Folder Structure 16 § Create folders by card — Assign unique number — Continue Folder Structure 16 § Create folders by card — Assign unique number — Continue numbers — Add description — Place ENTIRE card contents into this folder!!

Video, Where for art thou video? 17 Video, Where for art thou video? 17

Finding both audio & video 18 Finding both audio & video 18

Storage and Retrieval How do we: § § § Capture the audio and video Storage and Retrieval How do we: § § § Capture the audio and video generated by myriad cameras Store the project information to allow potential re-edit Store files with rich, meaningful metadata Store born-digital materials Display and retrieve born-digital materials 19

Original Footage © 2011 WGBH 20 Original Footage © 2011 WGBH 20

Proposed tapeless workflow § Create a mapping document between Filemaker & DAM § Used Proposed tapeless workflow § Create a mapping document between Filemaker & DAM § Used to generate an xml style sheet § Video is ingested simultaneously with the metadata from Filemaker using the xml style sheet § Technical metadata is ingested simultaneously with the video and production data using the xml generated by the source digital files 21

Access vs. Preservation Access vs. Preservation

Access 23 § File size – need proxies — Speed of access § Formats Access 23 § File size – need proxies — Speed of access § Formats — Want consistency for playback § Reuse — Retrieval of original files/preservation files § Search/findable — Metadata — Organize files

Preservation Needs § § § Multiple Copies Save original files Validity – check sum Preservation Needs § § § Multiple Copies Save original files Validity – check sum Regular storage migration Persistence File format issues — Migration ease — Future playback § Fixity check big files § Big files — Speed of access of preservation files for reuse — Processing speed 24

What makes video different? § Preservation files are large — Uncompressed — Slow to What makes video different? § Preservation files are large — Uncompressed — Slow to move around § Need proxy files for viewing — Smaller size for quick transport over network § Complicated formats — Not just one file type — Codecs, wrappers, frame speed, etc. 25

New systems New storage New systems New storage

Software / Network 27 § File management — Where are the files? § Needed Software / Network 27 § File management — Where are the files? § Needed for access to files — Large preservation files — Smaller access, proxy files § Network speed — Larger files, need faster network to meet speed expectations

Issues with current mgmt. systems/software § Preservation not a priority § Interface issues — Issues with current mgmt. systems/software § Preservation not a priority § Interface issues — Access vs. Preservation § IT relationship — Tech support — Vendor reliance issues — Need library based system for Archivist needs rather than traditional IT company needs § Expense — License cost — Development — Customizations 28

Access repository as preservation § § § Fedora repository only stores proxy files Great Access repository as preservation § § § Fedora repository only stores proxy files Great interface Great search and indexing Faceted searches No preservation files or migration process 29

Technology Mix: 30 Technology Mix: 30

New Tools § § Combine preservation system with access system Better interface Flexible design New Tools § § Combine preservation system with access system Better interface Flexible design Easy to evolve 31

Hydra project § § Blacklight Hydra heads Hydra mgmt. layer Fedora repository HSM storage Hydra project § § Blacklight Hydra heads Hydra mgmt. layer Fedora repository HSM storage system 32

Hydra Fundamental Assumption #1 & 2 § No single system can provide the full Hydra Fundamental Assumption #1 & 2 § No single system can provide the full range of repository-based solutions for a given institution’s needs >. . . yet sustainable solutions require a common repository infrastructure. § No single institution can resource the development of a full range of solutions on its own, > …yet each needs the flexibility to tailor solutions to local demands and workflows 33

New Storage Types and Costs § Need hierarchical storage (HSM) — Video files are New Storage Types and Costs § Need hierarchical storage (HSM) — Video files are large — Spinning disks are expensive — Tape can help save cost — Tape copies/migration can be automated 34

Hardware/Storage media: HSM § Access — Online > XX bytes Spinning disk — Offline Hardware/Storage media: HSM § Access — Online > XX bytes Spinning disk — Offline — Nearline § Preservation (offline) — Robotic tape library system — LT 04 data tapes — 2 copies — One stored off site § Migration needs 3 -5 years — Both tape migration to newer formats — Technology migration 35

New Storage Types and Costs § Proprietary § HSM has licensing issues — Some New Storage Types and Costs § Proprietary § HSM has licensing issues — Some systems license by gigabyte managed, others by tapes managed § Need Open Source alternative 36

Q&A § Karen: karen_carinani@wgbh. org § Dave: dave_maccarn@wgbh. org 37 Q&A § Karen: [email protected] org § Dave: [email protected] org 37