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Ch. 4: Demographics and Social Stratification Demographics describe a population in terms of its size, distribution, and structure. • Size: • Distribution: • Structure:
Social Standing/Class One’s position relative to others on one or more dimensions valued by society. Socioeconomic factors Social Standing Unique Behaviors Occupation Education Ownership Income Heritage Upper class Middle class Working class Lower class Preferences Purchases Consumption Communication 1) Bounded, 2) ordered, 3) mutually exclusive, 4) exhaustive, and 5) influential.
Not All Behaviors within a Social Class Are Unique Behaviors shared with other social classes Behaviors associated with a particular social class Unique behaviors Shared behaviors Excluded behaviors Behaviors not engaged in
Percent Distribution of Five-Category Social-Class Measure SOCIAL CLASSES Upper-middle Middle Working Lower Total percentage PERCENTAGE 4. 3 13. 8 32. 3 16. 8 100. 0
Social Class Groups Social Class UPPER AMERICANS (UPPER-UPPER, LOWER-UPPER, UPPER-MIDDLE) (14 % of population) General Consumer Behavior
Social Class Groups (cont. ) Social Class MIDDLE CLASS (32 % of population) General Consumer Behavior
Social Class Groups (cont. ) Social Class WORKING CLASS (38 % of population) General Consumer Behavior
Social Class Groups (cont. ) Social Class LOWER AMERICANS (16 % of population) General Consumer Behavior
Measuring Social Status • Single-Item Indexes – Education – Occupation (Socioeconomic Index: SEI) – Income • Relative Occupational Class Income • Subjective Discretionary Income • Multi-Item Indexes – Hollingshead Index of Social Position – Warner’s Index of Status Characteristics – Census Bureau’s Index of Socioeconomic Status
Hollingshead Index of Social Position (ISP) Occupation Scale (Weight of 7) Description Higher executives of large concerns, proprietors, and major professionals Business managers, proprietors of medium-sized businesses, and lesser professionals Administrative personnel, owners of small businesses, and minor professionals Clerical and sales workers, technicians, and owners of little businesses Skilled manual employees Machine operators and semiskilled employees Unskilled employees Score 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Hollingshead Index of Social Position (ISP) Education Scale (Weight of 4) Description Professional (MA, MS, ME, MD, Ph. D, LLD, and the like) Four-year college graduate (BA, BS, BM) One to three years college (also business schools) High school graduate Ten to 11 years of school (part high school) Seven to nine years of school Less than seven years of school Score 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Hollingshead Index of Social Position (ISP) ISP score = (Occupation score X 7) + (Education score X 4) Classification System Description Range of Scores Upper-middle Middle Lower-middle Lower 11 -17 18 -31 32 -47 48 -63 64 -77
Warner’s Index of Status Characteristics (ISC) Score Occupation Characteristics Source of House Income Type Dwelling Area 1 Professionals and proprietors of large businesses Inherited wealth Excellent houses Very high: Gold Coast, North Shore, etc. 2 Semiprofessionals & officials of large businesses Earned wealth Very good High: better suburbs & apartment house areas 3 Clerks and kindred workers Profits & fees Good houses Above average: areas all residential, space around houses, apartments in good condition 4 Skilled workers Salary Average: residential neighborhoods, houses no deterioration 5 Proprietors of small businesses Wages Fair houses Below average: area beginning to deteriorate, business entering 6 Semiskilled workers Private relief Poor houses Low: considerably deteriorated, run down and semi-slum 7 Unskilled workers Public relief & nonrespectable income Very poor houses Very low: slum
Warner’s Index of Status Characteristics (ISC) ISC score = (Occupation X 4) + (Income source X 3) + (House type X 3) + (Dwelling area X 2) Classification System Social Strata Upper-upper Lower-upper Upper-middle Lower-middle Upper-lower Lower-lower Range of Scores 12 -17 18 -24 25 -37 38 -50 51 -62 63 -84 Population Breakdown 1. 4% 1. 6 10. 2 28. 8 33. 0 25. 5
Census Bureau Index of Socioeconomic Status (SES) Income Category* Score Education Category Score Under $3, 000 Some grade school 10 Laborers 20 15 Occupation Category Score $3, 000 -$4, 999 31 Grade school graduate 23 Students 33 $5, 000 -$7, 999 62 Some high school 42 Service workers 34 $7, 500 -$9, 999 84 High school graduate 67 Operators 58 $10, 000 -$14, 999 94 Some college 86 Craftsmen 58 $15, 000 -$19, 999 97 College graduate 93 Clerical sales 71 $20, 000 -$29, 999 99 Graduate school 98 Managers 81 Professionals 90 $30, 000 and over 100 *Note: Income levels should be adjusted by consumer price index before using. Source: U. S. Bureau of the Census, Methodology and Scores of the Socioeconomic Status, Working Paper No. 15 (Washington, D. C. : U. S. Government Printing Office, 1963).
Census Bureau Index of Socioeconomic Status (SES) SES score = (Income) + (Education) + (Occupation) 3 Classification System Social Strata Range of Scores Upper-middle Middle Lower-middle 90 -99 80 -89 45 -69 0 -44 Population Breakdown 15. 1% 34. 5 34. 1 16. 3 *Note: Income levels should be adjusted by consumer price index before using. Source: U. S. Bureau of the Census, Methodology and Scores of the Socioeconomic Status, Working Paper No. 15 (Washington, D. C. : U. S. Government Printing Office, 1963).
Problem with the multi-item indexes • A person with under seven years of school who started a small manufacturing firm which later grew into a medium sized firm of which he is now president. • A person with an MA in English owns and operates a very small bookstore located near the university specializing in classical literature.
“Upward Pull” Strategy Targeted at Middle Class Middle class Aspirations Prefer Positioning To belong to upper-middle class Products consumed by upper-middle class Upper-middle class symbolism for middle-class products
Positioning Within Social Class Working-class aristocrats Disdain Prefer Positioning Upper-middle class Working-class products and brands Working-class symbolism for working-class products