- Количество слайдов: 20
Ch. 3/1 “The First Israelites” • Around 1000 BC, a people called the Israelites built a kingdom in Canaan which lies along the Mediterranean Sea in Southwest Asia. • Their population was small but the religion they practiced would one day impact most of the world. • Their religion was unique because they practiced Monotheism, the belief in one god.
Judaism • The Israelite religion is today called Judaism and its followers are called Jews. • It is important because it influenced the development of Christianity and Islam, and also helped to shape the beliefs and practices of societies in Europe and America.
Hebrew Bible • The Israelites spoke a language called Hebrew and they wrote down their history and stories about their beliefs in the Hebrew Bible. • Their values and religion later spread to Europe.
Abraham • They were herders and traders. • During the 1800’s BC, they left Mesopotamia and settled in Canaan. • They descended from a man named Abraham. • The Bible says that God told Abraham and his followers to leave Mesopotamia and go to Canaan where they were to worship this one god.
Abraham and Isaac
Twelve Tribes of Israel • In return, God promised that the land of Canaan would belong to him and his descendants. • Abraham’s grandson Jacob raised 12 sons in Canaan. • Jacob’s family was divided into tribes which later became known as the 12 Tribes of Israel. • They lived in Canaan for another 100 years until a drought drove them into Egypt.
Israelites In Egypt • At first the Israelites were given a place of honor by the Hyksos who ruled Egypt. • Once the Hyksos were driven out of Egypt the Israelites became slaves building temples and cities for the pharaohs. • As the Israelite population grew the pharaoh feared that they would soon outnumber Egyptians in the north. • To prevent a rebellion he ordered all baby boys born to the Israelites be thrown into the Nile River.
Mount Sinai • On their way back to Canaan, the Israelites had to travel through the Sinai desert. • The Bible says that Moses went to the top of Mt. Sinai where he received laws from God known as the Torah. • It described an agreement between God and man in which he promised to return them to Canaan if they followed his laws.
The Ten Commandments • The ten most important laws were written on two stone tablets and known as the Ten Commandments. • They explained how people should worship God and how they should interact with each other. • The Ten Commandments helped shape the basic moral laws of many nations (Do not murder, steal, or tell lies about others).
The Rule of Law • The Ten Commandments also helped develop a belief in the “rule of law. ” • This idea that laws should apply to everyone equally.
Joshua • Moses led the Israelites for 40 years through the desert but he died before they reached Canaan. • Joshua took over and brought them to Canaan, but when they arrived there were people called the Canaanites already living there. • Joshua led the Israelites in battle at the city of Jericho and overran the city.
The Walls of Jericho
Judges • After Joshua died, the Israelites looked to judges for leadership. • They were usually military leaders who commanded one or more of the tribes. • One was a woman named Deborah who advised and helped lead the Israelites in battle against a Canaanite king. • Over time, the Israelites won control of Canaan and built walled cities to protect themselves.
Deborah advised Barak to fight the Canaanite King Jabin
Phoenicians • One group of Canaanites called the Phoenicians heavily influenced the Israelites. • They were expert traders and sailors and they carried goods and ideas across the Mediterranean world. • One of their most important ideas was an alphabet, or group of letters that stood for sounds and it made writing simpler. • They brought the idea to the Israelites, Greeks, and later the Romans.