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Ch 21: World War I Ch 21: World War I

Sec 1: Road to War Sec 1: Road to War

Causes 1. 2. 3. 4. Imperialism Militarism Nationalism Alliances Causes 1. 2. 3. 4. Imperialism Militarism Nationalism Alliances

Imperialism • Eur countries competed for colonies & trade in Africa, Asia, & Pacific Imperialism • Eur countries competed for colonies & trade in Africa, Asia, & Pacific

Militarism • • • Glorification of the military Defend country Show power of nation Militarism • • • Glorification of the military Defend country Show power of nation Glory Influenced gov’t of some countries Examples – Germany: train schedule built around military – Aus-Hun: military exercises in public

Nationalism • Pride in one’s nation or ethnic group • Germany nationalized 1871 (def. Nationalism • Pride in one’s nation or ethnic group • Germany nationalized 1871 (def. Fr in Franco-Prussian War) • Italy nationalized 1861 • Ottoman Empire falling apart—Eastern ? – What was going to happen to that territory? • Austria-Hungary unified 1867 – Ethnic grps wanted ind (encouraged by Rus) – Balkans—powder keg

Alliances • Agreement between countries to help each other, especially in war • Dual Alliances • Agreement between countries to help each other, especially in war • Dual Alliance: formed 1879 btwn Ger & AH • Became Triple Alliance in 1881 when Italy joined • Triple Entente: formed about 1906 btwn GB, Fr (worried about Ger), & Rus (rival w/ AH) • Threatened balance of power in Eur— meant war involving one nation would bring in other nations as well

Major Powers Central Powers • Germany: Kaiser Wilhelm II • Austria-Hungary: Emperor Franz Josef Major Powers Central Powers • Germany: Kaiser Wilhelm II • Austria-Hungary: Emperor Franz Josef • Ottoman Empire • Bulgaria Allied Powers • Russia: Tsar (Czar) Nicholas II • France • Great Britain • Italy • Japan • USA: Pr. Wilson

The Spark • June 28, 1914: AH Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated by Gavrilo The Spark • June 28, 1914: AH Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated by Gavrilo Princip (Serbian) while visiting Sarajevo • Sarajevo was capital of Bosnia, a province of AH, that contained many ethnic Serbs • AH blamed Serbian gov’t for assassination • AH asks Ger for support • Ger issues “blank check”—will support any action taken by AH

 • July 21: AH sends Serbia ultimatum (list of demands Serbia must meet • July 21: AH sends Serbia ultimatum (list of demands Serbia must meet to avoid war) • July 23: Serbia accepts all but 2 demands • July 28: AH declares war on Serbia (an ally of Rus)—START OF WORLD WAR I • July 29 -30: Nicky—Willy Telegrams sent. Meanwhile, Rus mobilizes • July 31: Rus decl war on AH • Aug 1: Ger decl war on Rus & Fr (Schlieffen Plan—Ger plan for a war fought on 2 fronts) • Aug 3: Ger attacks neutral Bel • Aug 4: In response, GB decl war on Ger • W/in 1 week, maj pwrs in Eur @ war

Stalemate on the W Front • • Both sides looking for quick victory Sept: Stalemate on the W Front • • Both sides looking for quick victory Sept: Battle of the Marne Fr & Br trps halt Ger advance Began stalemate (deadlock) that would last 4 yrs • Neither side could win clear victory

Trench Warfare • Contributed to stalemate on W Front • Soldiers fired @ ea Trench Warfare • Contributed to stalemate on W Front • Soldiers fired @ ea other from opposing lines of dugout trenches • “no-man’s land” in middle • Problems: disease spread easily, mud slides, rain, lice, if left trenches—easy target

New Technology • Airplanes: used for scouting & support of ground forces • Armored New Technology • Airplanes: used for scouting & support of ground forces • Armored tanks • Rapid-fire machine guns • Poison gas: caused choking, blinding, severe blisters, led to lung probs after war

American Neutrality • Wilson tried to keep US out of war • Americans still American Neutrality • Wilson tried to keep US out of war • Americans still took sides • Ethnic loyalties: Ger & Irish supported Central Powers • Common ties w/ Br • Propaganda: anything used to gain support for cause • Used by GB to gain American support

Trade • Americans free to trade w/ both sides • Most traded w/ Allies Trade • Americans free to trade w/ both sides • Most traded w/ Allies (favored Br & GB blockade of Ger prevented ships from getting to Ger) • Wilson objected to blockade but allowed Br to buy more from US to make up for loss of trade w/ Ger • Banks made loans to Allies

Lusitania • Ger: had large supply of submarines (Uboats) • Used against Br blockade Lusitania • Ger: had large supply of submarines (Uboats) • Used against Br blockade • May 1915: sank Lusitania (Br liner) off coast of Ireland • 1, 200 died, incl. 128 Amer • Am angered • Ger promised not to target passenger lines & neutral merchant ships

US Entry 1. Jan 1917: Ger resumed unrestricted submarine warfare (targeted any ship) • US Entry 1. Jan 1917: Ger resumed unrestricted submarine warfare (targeted any ship) • Wanted to cut Br off from Amer supplies 2. Feb. 1917: Zimmermann Telegram— Ger FM proposed Mex enter war on Ger side to reconquer “lost territory” 3. Russian Revolution—czar overthrown— idealism: “make world safe for democracy” (Wilson) US declared war Apr 2, 1917

Sec 2: Supporting the War Sec 2: Supporting the War

Selective Service • Many young men volunteered to fight in the war • Est Selective Service • Many young men volunteered to fight in the war • Est draft to expand army quickly • Selective Service Act: req all young men btwn 21 & 30 to register for the draft • Ppl from all diff backgrounds volunteered incl Nat Am, even though they weren’t citizens

Women in the Military • • • Not subject to the draft 30 K Women in the Military • • • Not subject to the draft 30 K volunteered 2/3 served in Army or Navy Nurse Corp Rest did clerical work Other women opposed war under all circumstances – Ex: Jane Addams, Jeanette Rankin

African Americans • 380 K served • Restricted by segregation & racism • W. African Americans • 380 K served • Restricted by segregation & racism • W. E. B. Du. Bois encouraged Afr Am to support war effort • Placed in all-black units • Only 10% sent to combat • Harlem Hell Fighters

Military as Educator • ¼ recruits were illiterate • Learned how to fight, read Military as Educator • ¼ recruits were illiterate • Learned how to fight, read • Taught nutrition, personal hygiene, patriotism

Food Supplies • Herbert Hoover headed Food Administration • Had to make sure there Food Supplies • Herbert Hoover headed Food Administration • Had to make sure there was enough food for troops & civilians • “Meatless Mondays”, “Wheatless Wednesdays” • Encouraged victory gardens—ppl planted own vegetables to canned goods could go to Europe

War Production • Gov’t ordered millions of weapons & supplies • Sep War Industries War Production • Gov’t ordered millions of weapons & supplies • Sep War Industries Board (WIB) • Headed by Bernard Baruch • Told industry what to produce, how much to charge, & how to use scarce resources – Ex: forbade us of tin for toys

Calling on Patriotism • Committee on Public Information informed citizens about the war effort Calling on Patriotism • Committee on Public Information informed citizens about the war effort • Recruited “ 4 -Minute Men” to deliver patriotic speeches @ cinemas & ballparks • Had artists make pro-war cartoons & posters • Sold Liberty Bonds to pay for the war

Suppressing Dissent • Espionage Act of 1917 & Sedition Act of 1918 closed newspapers Suppressing Dissent • Espionage Act of 1917 & Sedition Act of 1918 closed newspapers & jailed ppl who spoke out against US • Eugene Debs jailed for giving speech encouraging workers to not support the war

Anti-German Hysteria • Harassed, shunned, & assaulted German. Americans • Some tarred & feathered Anti-German Hysteria • Harassed, shunned, & assaulted German. Americans • Some tarred & feathered • Schools stopped teaching German • Renamed things associated w/ Germany: – German measles—liberty measles – Sauerkraut—liberty cabbage

Sec 3: Americans at War Sec 3: Americans at War

Protecting Allied Shipping • Convoy: lg grp of merchant vessels sailing together • Used Protecting Allied Shipping • Convoy: lg grp of merchant vessels sailing together • Used to maintain supplies for Allies • Escorted by Allied destroyers

American Expeditionary Force • Led by Gen John J Pershing • Insisted Amer fight American Expeditionary Force • Led by Gen John J Pershing • Insisted Amer fight in separate units • Wilson wanted US to make “victorious showing” in order to influence postwar settlement • 1 st trps rchd Eur in June 1917 • Not ready for combat but used to boost Fr morale

Russia Makes Peace • new Rus gov’t couldn’t keep up war effort • Nov Russia Makes Peace • new Rus gov’t couldn’t keep up war effort • Nov 1917: Bolshevik Rev led by Lenin • Est communism (econ & pol system based on idea that social classes & right to private property should be eliminated) • Pulled Rus out of war • Mar 1918 signed Treaty of Brest-Litovsk w/ Germany – 30% of land given to Ger – Showed Allies what Ger would do if won war • Allowed Ger to shift trps to W front

Germany Attacks • Beg in Mar, series of attacks to bring on peace quickly Germany Attacks • Beg in Mar, series of attacks to bring on peace quickly in Ger terms • Pershing put Am trps under Fr command • Raised Fr spirits • Ger pushed Allies back, but bulk of Amer forces finally arrived in Eur in time to reinforce Allies

Turning the Tide • Amer trps assigned to evict Ger trps from Bellau-Wood • Turning the Tide • Amer trps assigned to evict Ger trps from Bellau-Wood • Heavy casualties • Succeeded in driving Ger out • Ger cont offensive • 2 nd Battle of the Marne

Argonne Forest • Germany losing will to fight • Soldiers affected by lack of Argonne Forest • Germany losing will to fight • Soldiers affected by lack of supplies & influenza • German civilians suffering food shortages • In battle, pushed back by Allies • Ger defenses crumbled

Armistice • Armistice: halt in fighting that allows peace talks to begin • Ger Armistice • Armistice: halt in fighting that allows peace talks to begin • Ger ldrs realized couldn’t cont to fight • Knew Br & Fr wanted to punish Ger but Wilson had proposed a new peace plan • Ger asked for armistice based on Wilson’s terms

 • Terms: – Ger had to pull back trps on W Front – • Terms: – Ger had to pull back trps on W Front – Cancel Treaty of Brest-Litovsk – Hand over all U-boats • Other Central Powers also asked for peace in Oct • Wilson insisted Kaiser step down (11/8/18) • Germany became a republic 11/9/18 • Armistice went into effect 11 AM 11/11/1918

Cost • 10 military personnel died (more than those who died in all wars Cost • 10 military personnel died (more than those who died in all wars fought in Eur in previous 100 yrs combined) • Others badly injured • Civilians affected by disease, starvation • N Fr lay in ruins • Mil children orphaned or homeless

Sec 4: Shaping the Peace Sec 4: Shaping the Peace

Fourteen Points • Jan 1918: Wilson’s plan for peace • Pts 1 -5 dealt Fourteen Points • Jan 1918: Wilson’s plan for peace • Pts 1 -5 dealt w/ factors that caused war – – – Eliminate secret agreements Freedom of seas Free trade Decrease military forces Settle colonial issues • Pts 6 -13 dealt w/ specific territorial issues caused by WW I • self-determination: right of grp to decide its own form of gov’t • Pt 14: League of Nations: org to guarantee peace

Paris Peace Conference 1919 • Wilson attended • Big 4: Wilson (US), Clemenceau (Fr. Paris Peace Conference 1919 • Wilson attended • Big 4: Wilson (US), Clemenceau (Fr. ), Orlando (Italy), Lloyd-George (GB) • Other ldrs didn’t want “peace w/o victory” like Wilson • Det to punish Ger to make sure Ger woudn’t be a threat again

Treaty of Versailles • Dealt w/ Ger (ea. Central Pwr signed its own treaty) Treaty of Versailles • Dealt w/ Ger (ea. Central Pwr signed its own treaty) • Took away some Ger terr & all colonies • Pay reparations (payment for war damages) • Limited size & nature of military • Accept war guilt • Formed League of Nations • Signed by Ger June 1919

Battle Over the League • Wilson wanted Senate to ratify treaty • Opposed by Battle Over the League • Wilson wanted Senate to ratify treaty • Opposed by most Senators, led by Henry Cabot Lodge (Rep not invited to Versailles) • Believed League would restrict right of US to act in its own interests • Wanted changes (Lodge Reservations) but Wilson refused • Wilson tried to get Amer support by traveling around the country

 • Wilson suffered a stroke while traveling • Nov 1919 Senate rejected treaty • Wilson suffered a stroke while traveling • Nov 1919 Senate rejected treaty • US never joined League which greatly limited its effectiveness • Congress was afraid the League would take away its right to declare war

Postwar Troubles • Worldwide influenza epidemic killed more ppl than the war did • Postwar Troubles • Worldwide influenza epidemic killed more ppl than the war did • Labor unrest – Soldiers needed jobs – Prices went up – Unions wanted higher wages – 1919 4 million workers went on strike

Red Scare • Feared Communists (“Reds”) were behind labor unrest • Att Gen A. Red Scare • Feared Communists (“Reds”) were behind labor unrest • Att Gen A. Mitchell Palmer ordered immigrants w/ radical views to be rounded up & deported (returned to home countries) • Known as Palmer Raids